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3 1833 00097 8541 

Be 977.201 RS9(5 v. 1 
Gary 7 Abraham Lincoln 7 1868- 
Centennial. history of Rush 
County 7 Indiana 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 

Kisii cocN'r^' coiirr iiorsio 

C cRtcRRiQl H istom 


Rush Countv, Indiana 


Edited Dy 

A. L Gary and E. B. Thomas 

Rushville, Ind. 

In Two Volumes 


1:7 "^ / / 





*' Remember the days of old, 

Consider the years of many generatioyis." 


This Work is Respectfully Dedicated to 


Long Since Departed 




History is a systematic record of past events; 
especially the record of events in which man has taken 
part. "The perfect historian," says Macaulay, "is he in 
whose work the character and spirit of the age is exhib- 
ited in miniature." A glance at the Table of Contents 
of this "Centennial History of Rush County" will dis- 
close a design on the part of the publishers of this work 
to set out here a systematic record of the events which 
have led up to the present state of development of this 
favored region, beginning with the time when white men 
first set foot on this territory, and in carrying out this 
design the historians have sincerely sought to preserve 
something of "the character and spirit of the age." so 
that there shall here be preserved a faithful chronicle of 
the aspirations and the achievements of the pioneers, at 
the same time tracing and recording the social, religious, 
educational, political and industrial progress of the com- 
munity from its inception. The context will reveal the 
sincerity of purpose upon which the motive for the pres- 
ent publication is based; a purpose to preserve facts and 
personal memoirs that are deserving of perpetuation for 
the information of coming generations and which shall 
serve as links uniting the present to the past. To those 
who have so faithfully labored to this end, the publishers 
desire to extend their thanks. An expression of obliga- 
tion also is due to the people of ^Rush county for the uni- 
form kindness with which they have regarded this under- 
taking, and for their many services rendered in behalf of 
the historiographers. It is believed that it will be found 
that this unselfish collaboration has secured to Rush 


county a history that will stand as a standard in this field 
for the next generation and as an authentic guide to 
future generations. 

In passing, it is thought that it will not be regarded 
as out of plaee for the publishers conscientiously to claim 
that in placing this work before the people of Eush county 
they faithfully have carried out the plan as outlined in 
the prospectus upon which the work is based. Every 
biographical sketch in the work has been submitted to the 
party interested, for correction, and therefore any error 
of fact, if there be any, is due solely to the person for 
whom the sketch was prepared. Confident that our ef- 
fort to please w^ill meet the approbation of the public, 
we are, Respectfully, 

The Publishers. 



In This Opening Chapter There Is Set Out 
Something Regarding the Location and Boun- 
daries of Rush County — Geological Ages 
Through Which This Region Has Passed — 
Work of Countless Centuries — Economic Im- 
portance of the Drift Period — Gravel and Lime- 
stone Deposits — Fertile Surface Soil — Altitude 
and Types of Soil — Varieties of Clay Loam — 
Mechanical Analyses of Various Soils — Effect 
of Cultivation — Garden Spot of Rush County — 
Value of Fertilization. 



Review of the Days When This Region Was 
Occupied by the Delaware Indians, or Lenni- 
Lenappes — Village of Chief Mahoning, or ''Ben 
Davis," at Point Now Known as ''Arnold's 
Home"— Treaty of St. Marys in 1819— Rich 
Lands Made Available to Settlement by Whites 
Invaluable Glimpse of Indian Life — Description 
of Aboriginal Village — Ci'afty and Boastful 
Indian Warrior — Fitting Death of Old Chief 
Mahoning — Local Traces of the Mound Builders. 


A Chapter Designed "to Make the Past Intelli- 
gible to the Present, for the Guidance of the 
Future" — Beauty In Cold Facts — Narrative of 
the Doings of Those Courageous Men and 
Women Who Wrought Here That Wonder of 
Human Progress Which We Call Civilization — 
Reclamation of Primeval Forest to the Uses of 
Man — Lure of the Farther Horizon — Erection 


of Rush County — Communal Debt to Doctor 
Arnold — Concise View of Early Days — Creation 
of a Xew Home — Noble Memorial to Doctor 
Rush — Native Denizens of the Wild — Davs of 
the Wild Turkey— Colorful Snake Story—First 
Sale of Public Land— Roster of the "Fathers" 
of Rush County. 


Herein Is Set Out a Review of the Development 
of the Basic Source of Rush County's Great 
Prosperity — Far Cry from the First Settler's 
Clearing to the Modern Farm — First County 
Agricultui'al Society — Something About the Old 
County Fair Days — Story of That Equine 
Phenomenon, "Blue Bull" — Deleterious Effect 
on County Fair — Patrons of Husbandry, or 
Grangers — Market Prices of Another Day — 
Increase In Land Values — In the Days of 
"Marks and Brands" — Milroy Farmers' Festi- 
val — Rush County Farmers' Association — 
Farmers' Clubs and Institutes — Work of 
County Agricultural Agent — Record of Farm 
Production — Register of Fann Names. 


Development of Transportation Facilities from 
the Days of the "Blazed Trail" to the Present- 
Difficulties Attending the Marketing of the 
Eai'ly Crops — Gi'owing Demand for Better 
Roads — Beginning of Hack Lines — Extension of 
Good Roads — The AVhitewater Canal — Coming 
of the Railroads — Compliments to "Smooth- 
Tongued Scoundrels" — Coming of the Traction 
Linos — Automobiles and Airplanes — Good 
Word for Rush County's Fine System of High- 



First Court in Rush County Held at Cabin Home 
of Stephen Sims Across River from Present Site 


of Rushville — Review of Personnel of This 
Pioneer Court — First Cause a Divorce Case — 
Expenses of Court — First Naturalization 
Papers — County's First Murder Case — Court 
Document of Other Days — Composition of the 
Court — Life of the Traveling Attorney — Rem- 
iniscences of Oliver H. Smith — Some Cases in 
Point— The Megee Will Case— Officers of the. 
Court Since the Beginning — Notable Figures at 
the Bar — Roster of Rush Circuit Bar. 


Pen Picture of Pioneer Militia Company — 
Local Participation in Mexican War — Soldiers 
of the Revolution and of 1812— The Civil War 
— Description of Scene Following the Firing on 
Ft. Sumter — Record of Rush County in Civil 
War on Soldiers' Monument in East Hill Ceme- 
tery — Foul Hand of Treason Disclosed During 
War — Roster of Rush County Men Who Served 
in Union Army — Spanish American War — 
World War and a Review of Rush County's 
Activities During the Period of America's Par- 
ticipation Therein, Together With a Roster of 
Service Men From This County. 



Enabling Act of 1821 Providing for the Erection 
of Rush County Named Commissioners to Make 
the Act Effective and Provided for the First 
Meeting of These Commissioners in the House of 
Stephen Sims — Bounds of County As Specified 
in Act Surveyed and Laid Out by William B. 
Laughlin, at Whose Suggestion the County Was 
Given Its Name — Six Original Townships and 
Later Steps for Creation of Additional Town- 
ships — County's First Election — History of the 
Court House and a Roster of County Officers. 



In Alphabetical Order Herein Is Set Out a Brief 
History of the Several Townships of the County 
and of the Villages Situated Therein, Beginning 
With Anderson Township and Then Continuing 
With Like Reference to Center, Jackson, Noble, 
Orange, Posey, Richland, Ripley, Rushville, 
Union, Walker and Washington Townships and 
the Towns of Carthage, Milroy, Manilla, Arling- 
ton, Glenwood, New Salem, Richland, Homer, 
Moscow, Raleigh, Falmouth and Other Trade 
Centers in the County. 


SEAT 257 

Herein Is Presented a Review of the Steps 
Which Have Led Up From the Days of the 
Cleai'ing in the Woods at the Site of Laughlin's 
Mill to the Present Fair City, Capital of Rush 
County, Now Entering Upon the Second Cen- 
tury of Its Existence — ^iiscellaneous Informa- 
tion Regarding City — In the Days of the Begin- 
ning — Nucleus of the Town in the Woods — 
Gradual Development — City Government — 
Postoffice — East Hill Cemetery — Business 
Directory for 1921. 


Review of Conditions Which Faced the Pioneers 
With Respect t(» a Current Medium of Exchange 
— Hopeless Confusion of the Monetary System 
— Coonskins and Beeswax Preferable to '* Wild- 
cat" ]\roney as a Medium of Exchange — Organ- 
ization of the Bank of the St<ate of Indiana and 
of the Rushville Branch of the Same in 1857, 
Predecessor of the Present Rushville National 
Bank — Other Banks in the County and Some 
Interesting Notes on Banking Conditions in 
Otlier Davs. 





No More Interesting Phase of the Development 
of a Community Than That Relating to the 
Development and Progress of Its Newspapers-^ 
Quaint Story of the Beginnings of The Bog 
Fennel Gazette, First Paper Started in Rush 
County — Brief Resume of the Newspaper His- 
tory of the County, With Interesting References 
to Conditions Which Faced the Editors of an 
Earlier Day — Valuable Relic of Pioneer Days — 
Preservation of Newspaper Files — Newspapers 
of Rush County Today. 

SION ........;.. 337 

Herein Is Set Out Something Concerning the 
High Character and Lofty Standards of the 
Leaders of the Medical Profession Hereabout in 
Pioneer Days and of How That Character and 
Those Standards Have Been Maintained From 
the Very Beginning — Rush County Medical 
Society — A Review of the Days Gone By — Dr. 
William A. Pugh's Informative Reminiscences 
Relating to the Pioneer Physicians of the County 
— Some Sidelights on the Practice of Medicine. 



Though the First Formal School in the County 
Seems to Have Been That Opened by Doctor 
Laughlin in the Fall Following the Establish- 
ment of the County Seat, Evidence Points to the 
Fact of a Pioneer School Having Been Opened 
for the Children of the Squatters in What Is 
Now Noble Township Even Before Rush County 
Was Organized — Building of the Pioneer School 
House — Review of Conditions in Pioneer Days 
and the Gradual Evolution of the Modern School 
System — In the Days of the Academies — Will- 


iam S. Hall and the Centralized School — Coimtv 
Superintendents and Roster of Teachers of Rush 



Even Before the Formal Erection of Rush 
County as a Separate Civic Unit the Itinerant 
Preacher Was on the Ground and Churches Had 
Been Organized by the Pioneers Before They 
Set in Motion the Machinery of Their Local Gov- 
ernment — First of These Organizations Grew 
Out of a Meeting Held in the Trading Post of 
Conrad Sailor in the Spring of 1821, Though 
Other Evidence Points to Meetings for Worship 
a Year Earlier — Minute Book of First Church 
Organization Reviewed — Informative Remi- 
niscences of Other Days and a Review of Condi- 
tions Today. 


As Generally Has Been Found to Be the Case, 
the Freemasons Were the Pioneers in the Lodge 
Movement in Rush County, a Lodge of This 
Order Having Been Founded in Rushville Less 
Than Sixteen Years After the Founding of the 
Town — Comprehensive History of Local Free- 
masonry Compiled by Robert S. Cox Years Ago 
a Basis for Present History — Other Orders and 
Lodges in County, and an Interesting Review of 
Social Clubs and Societies That Have Con- 
tributed to the Cultural Advancement of the 


One of the Most l<]]igaging "Sidelights" on the 
Early Days in This (bounty Is That Reflected 
from the Record of the Rush County liibrary 
Association, Organized in 1823, Not Long After 



the Formal Organization of the County — Devel- 
opment of the Rushville Public Library — Rush 
County Chautauqua — ^First Marriage License 
Issued in the County and Some Other Interest- 
ing "Firsts," Together With Comments on Va- 
rious Phases of Earlier Activities, Closing With 
a Word on the Subject of Biography. 



— A— 

Abandoned Churches 453 

Academies of Rush County 363-378 

Additions to Rushville 261 

Agriculture 66-91 

Agricultural Agent 84 

Agricultural Society 67 

Airplane Express 505 

Altitudes 21 

American, The 316, 329 

American Legion, The 177, 223, 242 

American Red Cross, The 178 

Analysis of Soils 23, 25, 27, 28 

Anderson Township.. ..203. 205, 220, 386 

Animals of the Wild 47 

Area of Different Soils 21 

Arlington Bank, The 305 

Arlington, Town of 235 

Arnold, Dr. John 

29, 31. 38, 80, lis, 219. 231, 245, 247. 

265, 272, 313, 337, 341. 345, 351. 408 

"Arnold's Home" 29. 245 

Ashland 255 

Assassination of Patriot 146 

— B— 

"Banner" Hog County 90. 527 

Baptist Churches 451 

Bank Note Safeguard 297 

Banks and Banking 291-312 

Bank of Carthage, The 303 

Bench and Bar 110-140 

"Ben Davis" 31, 33, 42. 245 

Benson, Luther 493, 520 

Bigger, Samuel 134. 139. 266, 443 

Biography, the Study of 528 

Birds of the Wild 49 

Black Hawk War 142 

Blades, John 229. 401, 502 

Blount. Rev. J. B 

382, 395, 397, 403, 417. 418. 424. 425 

"Blue Bull" 71 

Boundaries of Rush County 17, 200 

"Bound" Boys and Girls 515 

Bounties for War Service 150 

Boy Scouts 189 

B. P. O. Elks 470 

Bridges 99 

Brookville Land Office 

37, 42. 60. 62. 292 

Brown, William J 266. 317. 319 

Building and Loan Associations 311 

Building Stone 18 

Business Interests of Rushville 287 

Butler College 367 

Cabin of the Pioneers 43 

Campbell, Alexander 404 

Carmel 256 

Carthage Citizen, The 330 

Carthage, Town of 240 

Cassady, Weir 42, 64, 245 

Catholic Church 452 

Census Statistics 254, 270 

Center Township 202, 205, 224, 386 

Centralized School, The First 376 

Chautauqua Society 500 

Christian Churches of County 412 

Churches' Aid in War 185 

Churches of Rush County 396-455 

Church Feuds 517, 519 

Church of God 453 

Circuit Riding Lawyers 122 

City Government (Rushville) 274 

Civil War. The 142, 323 

Clark, George C 

139. 266, 296. 298. 316, 320. 520 

Clerks of Court 133 

Commercial Club 282 

Corn Growing Contests 87 

Coroners of County 217 

County Agricultural Agent 84 

County Assessors 217 

County Auditors 216 

County Commissioners.. 198. 210, 215 

County Council of Defense 194 

County Fair. The 67-74 

County Government 198-218 

County Officers 132, 215 

County Recorders 216 

County Seat. The 110, 257-290 

County Superintendents 380 

County Surveyors 216 

County Treasurers 216 

Court" House History 210. 463 

Courts of County 110, 131 

Crop Statistics ., 77 

"Dark Corner of Rush County" 232 

Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion 141. 190. 473. 499 

Debating Societies 379 



Delaware Indians 29 

Dentists of Rush County 340 

"Deserted Villages" 255 

Dewey, Jacob 44 

District School, The Old 378 

Dog Fennel Gazette, The 313 

Dow, Lorenzo 237 

Drainage 24 

— E— 

Early Markets 61, 75 

Early Settlement of County 36 

East Hill Cemetery 144, 278 

Education 351-395 

Election, The First 207 

Electric Light Plant 269, 284 

Equine Phenomenon 71 

Erection of Rush County....37, 198, 260 

Glenwood State Bank, The 308 

Glenwood, Village of 247 

"Gold Star" Roster 169 

Good Roads Movement 94, 98 

Gowdy, John K 133, 163, 216 

Graham, David 

316, 374, 382, 389, 395, 444, 446 

Grain Production ...77 

Grand Armj' of the Republic 

144, 162, 223, 242 

Grand Jury, First 110 

"Grangers" 74 

Graphic, The 315 

Gravel Deposits .* 19 

Green, Rans Byrd 42, 64, 245 

Green Township 201 

Gristmills, The First 60 

— H— 

— F— 

Fairview Academy 368 

Falmouth Bank, The 308 

Falmouth, Village of 247 

Farmers' Association 81 

Farmers' Clubs 83 

Farmers' Festival at Milroy 80 

Farmers' Insurance Association 311 

Farmers' Station 239 

Farming 66-91 

Farmington Academy 367 

Farm Names, Register of 91 

Farm Production, Record of 87 

Fertilizer, Value of 26, 86 

Fire Loss at Rushville .....274, 276 

First County Election 207 

First Court 110 

First Court House 115 

First Gristmills 60 

First Marriage License 502 

First Murder Case 115 

First National Bank of Mays 307 

First National Bank of Milroy 306 

First Naturalization 113 

First Road Survey 94, 503 

First Settlers 37, 39, 60, 62 

First Tax Assessment 208 

Flood of 1913 511 

Flora of the Wild 58 

Forest Primeval, The 58 

Fowls of the Wild 49 

Frame, Dr. William 

266, 269. 317, 319, 337, 341, 346, 514 

Fraternal Organizations 190 

Freemasonry 456-465 

Friends Academy 363 

Friends, Society of 239, 426, 508 

Hackleman, Abram 63, 229, 401 

Hackleman, Elijah 

141, 219, 228, 362, 377, 400 

Hackleman, Pleasant A 

132, 133, 135, 139, 

143, 147, 150, 152, 176, 266, 268, 278, 

279, 315, 366, 390, 466, 497, 514, 520 

Hack Lines 96 

Hall, Frank J 136, 139, 252, 266 

Hall, William S 136, 252, 376 

Hanging of Swanson 118, 142 

Havens, Rev. James 

143, 235, 321, 405, 408, 433 

Helm, Dr. Jefferson 

247, 266, 273, 279, 337, 341, 346, 367 

Henderson, Village of 227 

Henley, Joseph 65, 239, 427 

Henley Memorial Library 242 

Highway Statistics 99 

Hill, Robert 65, 239, 241, 427 

History of Churches 396-455 

Hog Raising 78, 88, 527 

Holt, Drury 

235, 334, 383, 414, 418, 422, 484 

Homecoming Festival 506 

Homer, Town of 251 

Horsethieves In Old Days 232, 510 


Improved Order of Red Men 469 

Indentures 515 

Indiana State Centennial 487, 506 

Indian Mounds 34 

Indian Occupancy 29, 31, 245 

Insurance Association, Local 523 

— G— 

Genealogical Research 529 

Geology of Rush County 17 

Gings Station 247 


Jacksonian, The 315, 321 

Jackson Township. ...202, 205, 226, 386 

Jail, The County 209 

Jennings, Jonathan. ...30, 110, 199, 261 
Judges of Rush County 132 


Judicial Circuit (Third) 121 

Julian, John 62. 215, 222, 260 

Junior Red Cross 185 

— K— 

Kiwanis Club 282, 285, 476 

Knights of Pythias 468 

Land Office Sales 37. 42, 60, 62 

Land Values 77 

Laughlin, William B 

44, 60, 63, 199, 208, 216. 231, 244, 260, 

263, 318, 337, 345, 351, 363, 444, 494 

Lawyers of County 139 

Lenni-Lenappe Indians 29 

Liberty Bond Sales 196 

Library, Public 494 

Limestone 19 

Little Flack Rock Seminary 365 

Lodges and Clubs 456-493 

— M— 

Mahoning, Chief 31, 33, 245 

Making of a Town 262, 284 

Manilla Bank, The 304 

Manilla, Town of 249 

Marcellus 256 

Markets of Early Days 61, 75, 93 

"Marks and Brands" 79 

Masonic Order 456 

Mauzy (Griffin) Station 246 

Mayors of Rushville 276 

Mays, Village of 226 

McKee, Capt. John 

147, 154, 371, 381, 392, 449 

"Means vs. Anti-Means" 519 

Medical Profession. The 337-350 

Memorial Tribute 258 

Methodist Episcopal Churches 433 

Mexican War 141 

Military Annals 141-197 

Militia Drill Days 141 

Milroy Bank. The 306 

Milrov Farmers' Festival 80 

Milroy Press. The 332 

Milroy, Town of 222 

Monarch of the Forest 59 

Morgan, Amaziah 

64. 215, 245, 260, 264 

Morton, Oliver Perry 

132, 137, 145, 160 

Moscow, Village of 234 

Moses, John F 211, 213, 217. 

219. 314, 316. 324. 362. 370, 397, 400 — Q— 

Mound Builders, The 34 

Mt. Etna 256 Quaker Settlement 239, 427 

Murder Case, First 115 Quarries in County 18 


— N— 

Native Animals 47 

Natural Gas 269, 284 

Neighborliness, Spirit of 90, 257, 606 

News, The 316, 328 

New Salem State Bank, The 309 

New Salem, Village of 230 

Newspaper Files 280, 320 

Newspapers of County 313-336 

Nicknames of Schools 522 

Noble Township 200, 204, 228, 386 

— O— 

Odd Fellowship 466 

Officers of County 132, 215 

Orange Township 201, 206, 231, 387 

Order of Eastern Star 462 

— P— 

Patriot Assassinated 146 

Patrons of Husbandry 74 

Pedigree, Value of 530 

Peoples National Bank, The 301 

Peoples Loan & Trust Co 302 

Perkins, Jehu 

....61, 110, 112, 142, 200, 215, 229, 260 

Physicians of County 337-350 

Pioneer Banking 291, 309 

Pioneer Cabin 43 

Pioneer Court Document 119 

Pioneer Justice 33 

Pioneer Militia Company 141 

Pioneer Reminiscences 

38, 44, 116. 118, 124, 281, 313, 324, 

333, 340, 354, 362. 391. 396, 428, 508 

Pioneer Roads 92 

Pioneer Schools 354 

Politics, a Review of 213 

Population. Basic Elements of 36 

Population. Statistics on 264. 270 

Posey Township 203. 206. 234, 387 

Postoffice at Rushville 276 

Poultry Culling 88 

Presbyterian Churches 442 

Press of Rush County, The 313-336 

Prison Limits 115 

Prosecuting Attorneys 132 

Public Librarj' 494 

Public Square. The 260 

Pugh. Dr. William A 340 

Puntenney. George H 

80, 135, 139, 154, 276, 315, 446 


— R— 

Railroads, Coming of 102 

Raleigh, Town of 253 

"Rebel House," The 524 

Records (City) Destroyed 274 

Reeve, Benjamin F 

228, 266, 364, 377, 414, 417, 418, 423 

Register of Farm Names 91 


38, 44, 116, 118, 124, 281, 

313, 316, 355, 362, 397, 428, 483, 508 

Republican, The 316, 326 

Retributive Justice 33 

Revolutionary War 141, 474 

Richland Academy 238, 370 

Richland Township....201, 205, 236, 387 

Richland. Village of 238 

Ripley Rangers, The 510 

Ripley Township 200, 204, 239, 387 

Roads in Early Days 92 

Roster of Bar 139 

Roster of Physicians 339 

Roster of Soldiers 152, 166-175 

Roster of Teachers 386 

Rotary Club 282, 285, 474 

Rural Mail Delivery 277 

Rush Circuit Court 110 

Rush County Chautauqua 500 

Rush County Historical Society 321 

Rush County in War 141-197 

Rush County Medical Society 337 

Rush County National Bank 299 

Rush County Seminary 366 

Rush, Dr. Benjamin 

44, 199, 208, 264, 345 

Rushville Business Directory 285 

Rushville City Schools 388 

Rushville Female Institute 369 

Rushville National Bank, The 298 

Rushville Social Club 479 

Rushville, The County Seat 

208, 257-290 

Rushville Township.. ..202, 203, 243, 387 
Russell, Enoch 37, 228 

Sailor, Conrad 

....64, 208, 217, 228, 260, 263, 400, 401 

Sanitary Commission, The 158 

Sanitation, Regulation of 350 

Savannah 255 

Scalp Tree, The 32 

School Bonds 391 

School Nicknames 522 

Schools Aid in War 191 

Schools of Rush County, The.. ..351-395 

Schools Twenty Years Ago 384 

Seat of Justice, The 208, 261 

Seed Testing Plant 86 

Service Men in World War 169 

Settlement of County 36, 199 


Sexton, Dr. Horatio G 

127, 244, 267, 268, 

337, 341, 345, 369, 442, 461, 491, 495 
Sexton, Leonidas 

135, 139, 300, 369, 460, 464 

Sexton, Village of 227 

Shakespeare Club 480 

Shauck, John L 351, 376, 382 

Sheriffs of Rush County 133 

"Sidelights" on County History 494 

Sims, Stephen 60, 110, 199, 266, 381 

Slaves Enter Land 525 

Sleeth, George B 135, 139, 156, 485 

Smith, Oliver H...113, 115, 124, 318, 410 

Snakes of the Old Days 63 

Social Clubs 477 

Soil Analysis 23, 25, 27, 28 

Soil Fertility 20 

Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans* Home.. 

135, 159, 225 

Soldiers' Monument 144 

Soldiers' Roster 152 

Spanish-American War 164 

Spelling Matches 378 

Stage Lines 93 

Statistics, Miscellaneous 526 

Statistics on Crops 77 

Statistics on Population 254, 270 

State Highway Commission 100 

State Representatives 218 

Street Fairs 488 

State Senators 218 

"Sultana" Disaster, The 157 

Superintendents of Schools 380 

Swanson, Edward I 

Ill, 118, 142, 246, 522 

Swine Breeding 78, 88, 527 

— T— 

Taxes in Pioneer Days 208 

Teachers of Rush County 386 

Telephone 270 

Thompson, John P 

229, 402, 403, 406, 412, 425 

Toll Roads 95 

Topography of Rush County 17, 21 

Townships 200, 219, 386 

Townships and Villages 219-256 

Township Trustees 255, 386 

Traction Lines 107 

Tragedy in Orange 521 

Transportation 92-109 

Treason in the '60's 145 

Treaty of St. Marys 29, 30, 37 

Trustees, Township 255, 386 

Turkeys, Wild 49 

Types of Soil 21 

— U— 

Underdrainage 24 

Underground Railroad 509 



Union Township 200, 206, 245, 387 Washington Township 

United Presbyterian Churches 445 200. 204, 251, 387 

Waterworks at Rushville 269, 284 

Watson, James E 136 

Wheat, Cost of 89 

Value of Farm Lands 77 yf,5?^,^'^"'f '^'"^^^••■i inn ■i?a 

Vandals Destroy Records 274 ^^V^^'^;?,*.?' ^^°^/ ■.^r]?^' loo 

Veeder, Charles H Wick, William W 110. 115, 132 

Ill, 139, 216. 267. 278. 495 ^i ? Animals 47 

Villages "Deserted" 255 Williams, Isaac 38, 228 

\ mages, ueseriea ^bi> ^olfe, Joel 143.147.150. 152, 

163, 176, 279, 321, 369, 412, 466, 514 

— W — Woman's Council, The 471 

Woman's Relief Corps 163 

Walker Township. ...202, 204. 248. 387 Women in War Work 180 

War Fund Campaigns 181 World War, The 166-197 

War Record of County 141-197 Wreck of the "Sultana" 157 



Geology and Topography 

Rush county (Indiana) lies west of Fayette and 
Franklin, north of Decatur, east of Shelby and Hancock, 
and south of Henry and Hancock counties. A study of 
the outcropping rocks of the county shows that this re- 
gion has passed through three geological ages, the Upper 
Silurian, the Devonian, and the Quarternary or Drift 
period. To the first of these groups belong the Laurel 
limestone and the Waldron clay which outcrop in the Big 
Flatrock creek near Moscow and in the Little Flatrock 
creek near Milro}^ Going upstream from Moscow, the 
Laurel limestone passes below drainage and the Devonian 
limestone appears in the bed of the creek. The drift, 
which belongs to the third and last age, covers the entire 
county to an average depth of 100 feet, and belongs to 
the earlier and later invasions of the Wisconsin ice sheet. 
The drift is so deep in Rush county that only in a few 
eases is it noted that the streams have cut their way down 
into the rock of the first two ages. 


The Niagara limestone is found in thicknesses of 
forty feet or more, never less, and its major chemical con- 
tent is carbonate of calcium and magnesium. The occa- 
sional reddish color which it xjresents to the eye is due to 
the oxidization of the iron which is present in small quan- 
tities. But little of this limestone can be used for the 
best construction ]3urposes, although it is a hard and dur- 
able rock which may be used effectively in many ways, 

2 17 


such as making stone fences, posts and the like, as well as 
for the foundation of gravel roads. This Niagara lime- 
stone was formed in the bottom of the sea, free from sedi- 
ment countless centuries ago, and through an upheaval 
in the earth's crust became i)art of the land. The Wald- 
ron limestone, or shale, belongs also to the Niagara group 
but is found to he much less extensive. It seems to differ 
from all other shales, even those found in other parts of 
Indiana, and in this county is f(tund to outcro]) in stream 
beds in the i-egion of Moscow and Milroy. It makes its 
aiipearance in comparatively small areas, breaks down 
quickly when exposed to the weather, and is of little or no 
econ(»mic value. It is frequently called soapstone, but 
the name Waldron shale is preferable, because the out- 
crop in Shelby county c(mtains a great number of excep- 
tionally fine fossils that have given that locality distinc- 
tion among geologists. 

In general, the sub-surface i-ock of the western half 
of the county belongs to the second, or Devonian age. 
This rock is a buff colored limestone, with a high magne- 
sium content, and ranges in thickness from two to three 
feet. It is a coarse rock which can readily be bui'ued to 
lime, but in its oi'iginal condition gives the ai)])ear;mce of 
being composed ]»rincij)ally of silicon com])ounds or sand 
rock. It is of value as rough building stone, but is used 
]u-incij)ally for building the foundation of macadamized 
roads. There are several quarries throughout the county, 
which make the easy construct ion of good i-oads possible. 


'^riie drift, wliicli beloiiLis to the last geological age, is 
])erhaj)s of llie most ecoiioi>iic im))ortance to the ])eople 
of Rush county, for it is coiiiiKised of a generous amount 
of vei-y good graxcl, h;!\"ing about the right size, dui'abil- 
ity and cementing j'rojK'i-ties to make good roads, llie 
northerii tier of townshi])s. Ri])lev, Center and AVash- 
ingtoii. with the excei.>ti(»n of the southeast corner, the 


northeast boundary and a few square miles in the central 
part, is very well supplied with gravel for road purposes. 
The principal deposits are located in the flood plains, 
terraces and bluffs of the larger streams, and in some 
glacial kames in the northern part of Center township. 
Particularly are there to be found some good gravel 
deposits in the bluffs and terraces of Six Mile creek in 
Sections 10, 11 and 15, and in the bars formed by deposits 
along the Little Blue river. In Union township, the 
largest deposits of gravel occur in the flood plains, ter- 
races and bluffs of Little Blue and Big Flatrock rivers, 
and in a glacial ridge in the central part of the township. 
Workable deposits also occur along Mud and Beaver 
Meadow creeks. In a morainic ridge, which runs a little 
northeast and southwest from the south central part of 
Section 14 to the central part of the northwest quarter of 
Section 26, Posey township, several hundred thousand 
cubic yards of a good quality of gravel are probably avail- 
able. Frequent gradations of the gravel into fine sand 
and hardpan are very noticeable. Several thousand cubic 
yards of gravel are annually deposited by the floods in 
the northeast quarter of Section 28. In Walker township 
there are no deposits of much importance aside from 
those in some morainic ridges in the east central part of 
the township. In the southern tier of townships, Rich- 
land, Anderson and Orange, the main gravel deposits are 
found in the terraces and flood plains of Big Flatrock 
river, although there are some smaller deposits along 
Little Flatrock creek. In the east central part of Sec- 
tion 25 in Richland, a little gravel may be scraped from 
the bed of Clifty creek, but it is too thin to warrant the 
erection of a lifting machine to take it out. This is the 
only gravel of any practicable importance in the town- 
ship. The average gravel of the county is composed of 
about seventy per cent, of limestone, and as the Niagara 
limestone is good for the building of roads, it will be seen 
that Rush county has foundation rock and top dressing 


in profusiou for the coustruction of roads. It may be 
interesting here to note the results of tests of the United 
States road testing lal)oratory on a sample of Niagara 
limestone from Rush county. 

Specific gravitv 2.60 

Weight per cu". ft. (lbs.) 1(52.20 

Water absorbed per cu. ft. (lbs.) . . 2.;^>2 

Per cent, of wear 12.70 

French co-efficient of wear 3.10 

Hardness 4.00 

Toughness 5.00 

Cementing value — dry 18.00 

wet 24.00 


For those regions in the county which have neither 
limestone nor gravel, the transportation facilities are ex- 
cellent, and crushed limestone and gravel can be shipped 
within a few miles of where it will be used. 

The fertile sui'face soil of th(^ county, which responds 
so favorably to the efforts of the farmer, is formed from 
the drift deposits which lun'e been acted u])on l)y the de- 
caying phint and animal life. The major ]iortion of the 
surface soil in the county is black loam, the central and 
western parts being quit(> generally covered with it. 
Tliis ]mrt of the county Avas formerly wet and swamy)y, 
and the ]n'ofuse vegetation which annually came and went 
into decay befoiv tlie arrival of the white settlers who 
tilled the soil, gave to it the dark color. The lighter col- 
ored soil in the other ])arts of the county is ni^t so 
markedly different from the su))Soil, which is a yellow 
tenacious clay, but having been exposed to the fertilizing 
agents, i-ain, air and vegetation, has become extremely 
fertile. A beneficent influence is ex(M-ted by tiling and 
undei'draiiiage i?i this locality, because the subsoil is of 
such tenacious clay that the valuable salts of ])otash and 
soda cannot othei'wise ))e liberated. 


Valuable mineral and metal deposits are not found 
in this region. The wealth of the community is based 
rather on the value of the surface soil for crop produc- 
tion, and so well have four generations of agriculturists 
applied themselves to their calling, that Rush county need 
acknowledge the superiority of no other locality in the 
country in crop and stock raising. 


Taken as a whole the surface of Rush county is a 
gently undulating plain, broken by the valley of the Big 
Blue river in the northwestern corner, the rather shallow 
valley of Big Flatrock traversing the county from the 
northeastern corner to the southwestern, and a few glacial 
kames and ridges in the vicinity of Mays, Hamilton Sta- 
tion, Homer and the southeastern corner. The altitude, 
which is 1,100 feet in the northeastern part of the county, 
gradually becomes less in a southwesterly direction until 
it falls IdcIow 900 feet in the southwestern part. The 
glacial topography yet remains very evident throughout 
the county, but especially in places where the natural sur- 
face drainage did not reach large areas, which were 
swamps a few decades ago. These, today, are occupied 
by black land that leads all others for raising corn. 

Soils. Six tj-pes of soil occur in Rush county. Of 
these, the four of the Miami series are found in the up- 
land, while the Huntington and Wabash loams are bot- 
tom-land soils. The following table shows the extent of 
each of the six types. 

Area of Different Soils 

Soil Square Miles Per Cent. 

Miami clay loam 279.0 68.6 

Miami silt"^ loam '40.0 9.8 

Miami black clay loam 40.0 9.8 

Miami loam 7.0 1.8 


Himting1;on loam 35.0 8,6 

Wabash loam 5.0 1.3 

Oak Forest silt loam 0.3 

Total 406.3 99.9 


Miami Clay Loam. In Rush eoiuity are found all var- 
iations of the Miami clay loam, from the cold, clammy 
white beech soil to the loose, warm sugar tree variety, but 
the iutei'inediate phases are by far the more conunon. 
The white beech variety has its principal development in 
the northwestern half of Ripley township, where it is 
popularly termed "the beech." Here it occurs as a thin, 
ashy gray land, with a very little organic matter and is 
underlaid by a tough drab or brown clay. Often follow- 
ing the course of the larger streams or occupying por- 
tions of the glacial ridges is the medium brown sugar 
tree variety, with a sandy or gravelly clay subsoil. This 
ground is wami and has a fair amount of oi-ganic matter. 

It is earlier than the lighter colored and is especially 
well adapted for seed beds. As a rule the Miami clay 
loam seems to be more silty, as it appears farther south. 
It averages from seven to ten inches in depth, the white 
beech variety being the thinner soil. 

This type is used more for general farming ])urposes 
than any of the others. It is not as good for corn yields 
as the darker colored ground, but will excel in quality of 
grain, and for wheat and oats it is sujX'rior in both yield 
and quality. To obtain the best residts from this soil, 
great care must be exercised, and the better class of farm- 
ers have learned this. Through tiling, urecu mamir- 
ing, rotation of crops, careful cultivation ;ni(l using com- 
mercial fertilizer, they claim to have doubled their 
production of corn and to have greatly increased the 
wheat and oats yields. This class of farmers will average 


from fifty-five to sixty bushels of corn to the acre, twenty 
bushels of wheat and forty of oats, while their neighbors, 
with the same kind of land, average about thirty-five of 
corn, fourteen of wheat and thirty of oats. Taken as a 
whole, the Miami clay loam is far from being in a high 
state of productiveness. 

The stock raising industry varies greatly over this 
type. Where the land is best improved and is most pro- 
ductive, hogs seems to be the leading market product, 
while on some of the poorer land a good many sheep are 
raised. It is quite obvious that the best farmers sell 
scarcely any grain, but feed it to stock, and thus, through 
the droppings, get considerable of the plant food back 
into the ground. The less successful farmers are selling 
their grain and are sorely neglecting the replenishment 
of the soil. 

The following table shows the results of the mechani- 
cal analyses of this type. 


S 02 „ S •" 
O 0. 5 ^^ ^ 

o Locality Description .3 § ^^ .3 S ^ iS 

^ Ph O S Ph >- &i' O 

14 3 miles SW. of Gowdy. .Soil, 0-10 inches 1.1 2.2 4.1 8.7 10.3 57.1 16.2 
4 1 mile N. of Arlington. .Soil, 0-11 inches 1.7 1.7 2.2 2.6 3.0 67.7 21.1 

15 21/2 miles NE. of Moscow. Soil, 0-12 inches .8 1.4 2.9 6.7 7.9 61.4 18.3 
75 21/2 miles NW. of Carthage . Soil, 8 inches .3 .9 3.2 11.4 13.4 60.2 11.7 
78 Subsoil of number 75. Subsoil, 0-36 inches .6 1.2 2.5 6.3 7.0 64.2 19.0 
60 4 miles S. of Glenwood.Soil, 0-10 inches 2.6 .9 1.0 1.9 3.8 76.0 18.3 

Miami Black Clay Loam. Probably no square mile 
in Rush county is without some areas of black clay loam. 
These may not cover more than a quarter of an acre, yet 
they occupy the sags, have the black color and contain 
the proper ingredients to produce some of the banner 
corn crops of the state. As these dark areas will not aver- 
age over five acres in extent, and seldom exceed thirty 


acres, more or less wash from the Miami clay l(»am, with 
which they are inclosed, finds its way over the surfaces. 
This is a great help to the Miami black clay loam, fiirnish- 
inc;- it with essential food ingredients, giving it more body 
and enabling it to produce a better class of grain. 

A common section of the Miami black clay loam cov- 
ered by the Miami clay loam wash shows four to six inches 
of medium to dark brown clay loam of a loose, warm na- 
ture at the surface, underlaid l)y six to ten inches of a 
black clay loam, rumiing very high in organic matter. 
Beneath this is a dark brown to black clay or clay loam, 
grading into a drab clay, which at a depth of two feet is 
streaked more or less with yellow. At three feet the yel- 
low clay predominates, and below this is a sandy yellow 
clay. In other cases, such as in the outwash plain in the 
vicinity of Raleigh, the surface soil may vary from a clay 
loam to a loam, and this at one foot is underlaid by a 
sandy clay that becomes moi'c and more sandy and grav- 
elly until it grades into a bed of gravel, which is found 
from four to six feet beneath the surface. A less frequent 
occurrence is that of a pure ^liami 1)lack clay loam at the 
surface, becoming lighter as the depth increases, until at 
two feet it grades into a bluish drab or a yellow clay. It 
seems the drab with the bluish tint is found where the 
subsoil has recently been beneath the ground water level 
and the yellow color whei-e it has l)een above for some 
time, so that the ii-rm has had a chance to oxidize. 

KFFIXT OF CAi;!-.! TI. ( T F/iMVA'PK tX 

More attention has ])ecii given to the Miami bhick 
clay loam in the way of underdraiuage tlian any other 
soil. This fact, togetliei- with careful cultivation for 
some yeai's, has ])ut a large aci-e.-ige of this land into a 
S])lendid condition for farming. The water being di'ained 
out, the tendency to })uddle and stick to the ])low is not 
so prevalent as in the new soil. Taking an average of a 
number of estimates from leading fai-mers of th(^ county 



as to the size of the crops raised on this soil when the 
ground is well improved and cared for, it was learned 
that one could expect sixty-five bushels of corn, fifteen 
of wheat, thirty-five of oats, one and a half to two tons of 
clover and one and a half of timothy. With exception 
of the wheat, most of the grain raised on this type never 
leaves the farms, but is fed mostly to hogs. Where farms 
are composed entirely of Miami black clay loam from 
seventy-five to one hundred hogs to each 100 acres are 
turned off annually. 

Some farmers experience much difficulty in growing 
wheat and clover on account of the soil heaving, which 
exposes the roots and kills the plants. A good under- 
drainage will remedy the trouble. 

The following table shows the results of the mechan- 
ical analyses of this type. 


KJ ^_^ 



fH U 



8a 1% miles E. of Gowdy. . .Soil, 0-12 inches .9 1.2 2.2 9.9 5.8 65.5 20.0 
8b First subsoil to 8a. .Subsoil, 12-24 inches 1.3 1.5 3.0 7.0 8.2 58.6 20.7 
8c Second subsoil to 8a.. Subsoil, 24-36 inches .4 1.4 4.8 16.0 18.8 49.2 10.0 

Miami Loam. A large area composed partly of 
Miami loam and partly of Miami black clay loam is found 
in the northeastern quarter of the county, with Middle 
Fork as its eastern boundary, Shankitank as its western, 
a well marked moraine as its northern, and Big Flatrock, 
where it runs almost east and west in the northern part 
of Union township as its southern. Almost the entire 
area has a natural underdrainage, being underlaid with 
sand and gravel in from three to seven feet of the surface. 

The soil of the Miami loam is a medium to a dark 
brown loam, averaging from nine to fourteen inches in 


depth. It contains more ori^anic matter than a sugar tree 
variety of the Miami clay loam and less than a ^liami 
black clay loam, but this decreases with depth, and the 
color becomes corresp()ndini4iy lighter. Its close associa- 
tion with the Miami black clay loam necessitates consid- 
erable variation in texture. 

The subsoil is most commonly a light ])rown sandy 
clay in the upper portion. With increase in de])th the 
ground becomes lighter, grading into a light medium yel- 
low at about two and one-half feet. At this de])th the 
material is a sandy or gravelly clay, with a dark brown 
mottling of iron stain or concretions and highly decom- 
posed limestone pebbles, which appear like little pockets 
of very fine sand. As one goes farther down in the sec- 
tion he finds a rapid increase in sand and gravel. 


Like in Wayne county, this type seems to occur as 
outwash jjjains, the source of supply being from the 
morainic ridges bordering it on the north and west. The 
surface is very level, but there is a gentle slope upward 
toward the ridges, especially the one to the north. 

This area is spoken of as the garden spot of Rush 
county. The gravelly subsoil and light character of the 
Miami loam, together with its high content of organic 
matte]-, makes it a very early and ])i(»ductive land. Only 
})()i'ti()7is (»f it have to be tiled, and then the tile draws the 
watci" nieely for fifteen i-ods, while fho Miami clay loam 
bordering it will not di'aw for more than six rods, (^)rn 
averages on this type fifty bushels to the aei-e and wheat 

Where commercial fertilizer, green mamn-e or barn- 
yard manure is used on the land the results cannot be 
noted foi- more than two or three years. The effect of 
these on the adjacent Miami clay loam is very evident for 
ten years or more. Notwithstanding this difference, the 


farmers of the Miami loam sa}^ that it pays them to re- 
plenish their soil. 

A few very small areas of Miami loam are found cov- 
ering glacial kames in the vicinity of Homer and Hamil- 
ton Station. 

The following table gives the results of the mechani- 
cal analyses of this type. 


6 Locality D(_'3criptiou .3 § ^2 -3 S .^ ^ 

11 5 miles SE. of Rushville . . . Soil, 0-13 inches 2.5 2.9 4.0 8.2 9.7 59.7 13.7 

Miami Silt Loam. This type which occurs in the 
southeastern corner of the county, is similar in texture, 
color and general characteristics to that found in north- 
ern Union county. The boundary between this tyi^e and 
the Miami clay loam is only an approximate one, based 
on the mechanical analysis and the silty nature, as noted 
in the field. The crops and selling price of this land are 
about the same as for the Miami clay loam of Rush 

The following table shows the results of the mechani- 
cal analyses of this type. 


Locality Description 

J-' '-H 

18 3 miles SE. of Richlaml SoQ, 0-9 inches 1.2 1.4 1.9 5.0 5.7 71.0 13.6 

20 21/2 miles S. of Richland Soil, 010 inches 1.0 1.6 2.8 5.2 6.2 72.1 10.8 

Oak Forest Silt Loam. The small area of the Oak 
Forest silt loam in the southeastern corner of the county 
is an extension of the same tyjje in Franklin county. 


lhmtinytu)i Loam. The piiucipal areas of this type 
are seen in the terraces and flood plains of Big Flatrock, 
Little Flatrock and Biji' Bine rivers. For texture and 
crops the similarity between these and the Huntington 
loam is close. A slight difference occurs in that the 
Wabash loam patches appear very frequently, which 
necessitates the area of the Huntington loam to average 
somewhat darker in color and a little higher in organic 
matter than the ordinary run. The common occurrence 
is that of a medium to dark 1)i'own loam, jmderlaid by a 
fine sandy loam, which grades into a sandy loam and this 
in turn to a fine sand. 

The crops of the Huntington loam a])i)roacli those 
of the ^liami loam and the Miami black clay loam, forty- 
five to fifty bushels being common for corn and thirteen 
or fourteen for wheat. 

The following table gives the results of the mechan- 
ical analyses of this type. 



f^ c ^ ^ 

Locality O ^ = x f^ 

=-• ^ — = r'- t-i 

j^ l%mik> S. of Moscow ' E O ^ ^ > x D 

in the terrace of 

25 Big Flatrock Kiver Soil, O-irj inches 2.5 4.0 C.3 S.7 10.5 54.2 14.0 

Wab(t>sli Lodiii. The bottoms in which njipears the 
Wabash loam contain a predominance of the black loam, 
but also have areas of silt loam and clay loam. The Hunt- 
ington loam occuis fre(iuMitly, too, but comprises only a 
minor i)ortion of the land. 


Indian Tribes and Indian Occupancy 

Prior to the advent of the white settler to this region, 
the territory of which Rush county is now a part was the 
home of the Delaware Indians. Living in the main at 
peace with each other, the various tribes were contented 
enough in their aboriginal state, but when the flood of 
Europeans began to encroach on the preserves of the red 
men, they banded together in powerful alliances to fight 
the conmion enemy, the white man. However, there were 
at times serious dissensions in the ranks of the Indians, 
and early in the eighteenth century the Six Nations, a 
strong confederacy of Eastern tribes, had warred against 
the Delawares, who were considered by many to be the 
most advanced of any of the tribes in their civilization. 
The Delawares were defeated, and when the Six Nations 
sold the lands of the tribe to white settlers, the Delawares 
were compelled to move west of the Alleghan}" moun- 
tains. Falling back gradually before the white immigra- 
tion, they finally came to occupy the western part of Ohio 
and the eastern portion of Indiana, having taken a par- 
ticular fancy to the fertile valley of the Whitewater. 
Although called Delawares by the whites, who had so 
named the tribe because of its original home along the 
Delaware river, named after Lord de la Ware, the In- 
dian name of this tribe was Lenni-Lenappes. Their prin- 
cipal village in this vicinity was near what later became 
knoVkOi as "Arnold's Home," the farm homestead of Dr. 
John Arnold, on the banks of Ben Davis creek in Union 
township. But again the tribe had to move farther to 
the west when, by the terms of a treaty signed at St. 
Marys, Ohio, January 15, 1819, they agreed to take up 
their home west of the Mississippi river. 




Following- are the articles of tlie treaty with the Del- 
awares at St. Marys in the state of Ohio, between Jona- 
tlian Jennings, Lewis Cass and Benjamin Parke, eom- 
missioners of the United States, and tlie Dehiw^^re 

Art. 1. The Delaware Nation of Indians cede to the 
United States all their claims to land in the state of 

Art. 2. In consideration of the aforesaid cession, 
the United States agree to provide for the Delawares a 
country to reside in upon the w^est side of the iMississi])pi, 
and to guarantee to them the peaceable possession of the 

Art. 3. The United States also agree to pay to the 
Delawares the full value of their improvements in the 
country hereby ceded, which valuation shall be made by 
persons to be appointed for that ])urpose by the Presi- 
dent of the United States, and to furnish tlie Delawares 
with 120 horses not to exceed in value $40 each, and a 
sufficient of pirogues to aid in tiansporting them to the 
west side of the Mississi})])i, and a quai^.tity of ])rovisions 
propoi'tioned to their numbers and the extent of their 

Ai't. 4. Th(> Delawares shall be allowed the use and 
occujiation of theii- improvements foi- the term of three 
years fi-om the date of this treaty if they so long 
require it. 

Art. "). The United States agree to })ay to the Dela- 
ware s a perpetual annuity of $4,000, which, together with 
all annuities which the United States by foi-mer treaty 
agreed to ])ay them, shall be paid in silvcM- at any ])lace to 
which the Delawares may remove. 

Art. (i. The United States agree to })rovide and sup- 
port a blacksmith for th(^ Delawai'es. after their removal 
to the west side of the .M ississij)])^ 


Art. 8. A sum not exceeding $13,312.25, shall be 
paid by the United States, to satisfy certain claims 
against the Delaware Nation. * * * 

Art. 9. This treaty after it shall be ratified by the 
President and Senate, shall be binding on the contracting 

As a result of this treaty a vast tract of virgin lands 
were made available to settlement by the whites, the 
Indiana territory was freed of the shiftless, though pic- 
turesque, bands of Indians, and another step in the for- 
mation of the great commonwealth of Indiana was 


Dr. John Arnold, in his "Reminiscences of an Old 
Settler," which were published in the Rushville Re/mh- 
lican, has left us an invaluable glimpse of Indian life in 
its phases directly applying to Rush county. Ben Davis, 
the fierce old Indian chief, lived with his followers mth- 
in what are the present confines of the county, and it is 
fortunate so intimate a review of his violent life and 
violent death has been preserved. 

''At the time they came to this country, Ben Davis, 
with a considerable band of followers, located himself on 
the pleasant banks of the creek which now bears his name, 
but which the Indians, in tender remembrance of their 
former home, always called the ]\Iahoning. And I must 
here say that I think it a pity that the euphonious Mahon- 
ing has been thrown away, and the harsh and unpoetic 
'Ben Davis' used instead. Here, within 200 yards of 
where I write, stood their wigwams, and here were en- 
acted the various phases of savage life. Here, the braves, 
to barbaric music, performed their war-dance, chanting 
their deeds of daring on the battlefield ; or, smoking their 
pipes, recounted their successful hunts of the swift- 
footed deer, the sturdy bear or the fierce panther. Here 
the patient squaw nursed her papoose and dreamed 


pleasant dreams of tlic ])()ssilj]e future of her offspring. 
Here the gallant youth wooed and won his dusky bride, 
and enjoyed the perfect bliss, the satisfying rapture of 
knowing that the heart of her who is dearer to him than 
life is all his own. Here, the boys threw the tomahawk, 
^\Testled, ran, and engaged in various athletie sjxn-ts, to 
fit them for their future career in life. Hundreds of 
beech trees near the encampment bear the numerous scars 
inflicted by the stroke of the tomahawk. On many trees 
are outlined the figures of men or animals; but the most 
characteristic memento was the scalp tree. It was a 
large, tall tree on whose smooth bark was recorded the 
number of scalps taken. The number was over thirty; 
the marks were one above another, beginning about two 
feet from the ground and running up twenty or twenty- 
five feet. The enil)lem for a man was a rou.nd skullcap; 
that for a woman, the cap surmounted l)y a I'oll (to rep- 
resent twisted hair) ; that for a diihl wjis a broad, horizon- 
tal line. This tree was a great curiosity to strangers, and 
was calculated to excite great interest, as it was not only 
the memorial of the hard fought battle, but also of the 
lonely cabin, surprised at the dead hour of night, and all 
its inmates ruthlessly butchered. The tree is no longer 
to be seen; it was prostrated by a violent wind many 
years since, uuich to my regret. 


"Personally, Ben Davis was a large and ])oweiful 
Tjidian wan'i(tr, a deadly" foe to the whites; and he had 
frequently led his braves on raids into the dark and 
bloody ground — the (Icliatabic name for Kentucky. In 
most of the battles foi' the })ossession of the pi-esent states 
of (^hio and Indiana, he had taken i)art. He was true to 
his friends, im])lacable to his foes, fond of fire watei", and 
when under its influence, regardless of his surroundings, 
would boast of his prowess, and the munl)er of scal])S he 
had taken. In short, he was a representative man of his 


race, a fair type of the brave, crafty and boastful Indian 

"After the defeat of the Indians at Tippecanoe, they 
were compelled to sell their lands and again move west- 
ward. But old Ben Davis, although well aware that he 
was looked upon with dislike and suspicion by the white 
settlers, still occasionally revisited his former hunting 
grounds. In the year .1820, he had encamped on Blue 
creek, some three miles from Brookville. He had been 
there, perhaps, a week, daily visiting the town and 
drinking too much whisky. One day, in the Widow 
Adair's tavern, he was boasting of his bloody deeds, 
unmindful of the angry glances of the crowTl around him, 
and, among other things, related how he. _with his band, 
surprised a lonely settler in Kentucky, killing him with 
all his family except one boy, who happened to be a short 
distance from the cabin when attacked, and who, 
although hotly pursued, eluded his enemies and escaped. 
Now, in that crowded bar-room there was one intensely 
interested listener, a stern man, who heard from the lips 
of the old chieftain the particulars of the story of his fam- 
ily's massacre; for he was that flying boy who had saved 
his life by fleetness of foot when all his kindred fell. 
Without a word he left the room. The next day Ben 
Davis did not make his appearance in Brookville; but it 
excited but little remark, for he was erratic in his move- 
ments. The second day, some one passing his camp, 
found the old chief cold in death, with a bullet-hole in his 
forehead and his pipe fallen by his side, for he had been 
sitting by his fire, smoking, when he received his sudden 
message to visit the happy hunting-grounds of the In- 
dian's paradise. It was a fitting death for so fierce a 
spirit, for though he had escaped the whistling shot and 
trenchant steel in many a battle, he finally fell a victim 
to private vengeance. Public opinion, while unanimous 
as to the author of the deed, recognized the terrible provo- 
cation and justified the act, the more readily as manv had 



lost friends by the hands of the red man. No judicial 
investigation was ever had, and Mr. Young still lield a 
respectable standing in society." 


While not numerically so evident in Rush county as 
in some other sections of Indiana there are distinct evi- 
dences of the presence here in that dim prehistoric per- 
iod, the date of which archaeologists have not definitely 
fixed, of the jMound Builders, a mysterious race which 
13receded the Indian occupancy of this country. Several 
burial "mounds" formerly were visible in Rush county, 
particularly in the southern part of the county, but with 
the clearing of the forests and the cultivation of the soil 
most of these have been leveled and in some instances are 
known merely as neighborhood ti'aditions. Years ago 
there was still quite evident a coiisidcrahle mound in the 
northeast quarter of Section 21, Townshi]) 14, Range 9. in 
Posey township, that in the time (»f the early settlement 
of the county is said to have been 10(i feet in diametei- and 
fifteen feet in height and cttnnected by a sort of a ditch 
with a smaller mound to the northeast. Many years ago 
the mound was covered with a hea^'y gr(>wth of beech tim- 
ber, but with the felling of the timber and the yearly 
plowing of the grouiul tin- iiKnniiiieiit of a ])rehistoric 
people has gradually assumed almost ;i level with the sur- 
rounding land. Back in the 'SOs Louis J. Offutt, then 
owner of the land, dug i]il<i the lai-ger mound, near the 
centei-, and found parts of sevei-al skeletons, copper bands 
encircling the bones of the arms, wrists and ankles, bone 
beads and two cui-iously ])erf'orated ])ieees of jawbone 
witli a tusk-like tooth. 'I'lie pciror.-itions wei'c cut 
through the bone into the hollow of the tusk and gave it 
somewhat the apix'arance of n whistle, bnt its purpose 
was not ((iiite evident to those who examined it. Sevei'al 
other such mounds have ))een ex])loi'ed in this county with 
somewhat similar results in the wav of unearthing relics 


of that ancient period. Forty years ago there was such 
a mound explored on the old Gary farm, also in 
Posey township, and in that were disclosed nimierous bits 
of pottery, a considerable quantity of beads of a varie- 
gated sort and the skeleton of a gigantic man. 



Early Settlement 

"History has a great office: to make the past iiitel- 
ligi})le to the present, for tlie guidance of the future." 
There is a certain l3eauty in cold facts. Whih^ tlie full 
story of the wondei-ful romance which must be insepar- 
ably connected with the remarkable development that has 
marked the })rogress of man in the favored region com- 
posed of Rush county never adequately can be told, there 
may be presented in these pages certain details of fact 
and circumstance that will ])reserve for the future some 
narrative of the doings of those hardy and courageous 
men and women who a century and more ago left })ehind 
them the comparative comforts of the established com- 
munities of the east and came out here to ei-ect Tiew homes 
amid conditions that would have ap])all('d all save the 
stoutest hearts. And it is to such a narrative that Ihis 
chapter shall l)e devoted. 

From an almost imi)enetrable forest, ap])ar(Mit]y in- 
hospitable to all save the savage aboriginals who roamed 
the fastness(*s of those densely wooded stretches, the 
region comprised within the boi'ders of the county has 
been converted into one of the choicest garden spots of 
all the great Midwest country; and all pi'actically witliin 
the century of ])r()gress which this volume commemorates. 
No more wcmderful romance ever has been written than 
that which has been wrought into actuality here within 
these few generations, and to that noble pioueer stock 
that made ])()ssible the full measure of social nnd civic 
development now accepted as mei-e commonplace here- 
a])out, nil honoi' Is due; all honoi- is })aid. 

'"the lure of TirE FARTHER HORIZON "" 

The basic elements of the population of Rush county 
have had representation here since the days of the begin- 



ning of an organic government in this section. The 
grandfathers and the great-grandfathers of the men and 
women who are now accounted leaders in the social and 
civic life of this community were the men who brought 
the community into being; the men who leveled the for- 
ests, who founded the towns and villages and wrought 
here that wonder of human progress which we call civili- 
zation, wresting from an arrested and non-progressive 
race one of the fairest and most productive spots on the 
globe. The men who settled this region were men of wide 
vision, men possessed of the true pioneering spirit, men 
to whom the lure of the farther horizon was irresistible, 
and the work that they did here was well done. The 
foundations they laid were broad and deep and it is 
gratifying to note that their descendants in the main 
have seen fit here to remain, erecting on those founda- 
tions a superstructure of such proportions as to carry far 
the name and the fame of Rush county. 


By the treaty at St. Marys, October 2 to 6, 1818, the 
land which now comprises Rush county was ceded to the 
United States by the Delaware Indians. Immediately the 
government surveyors began their work, and by April 29, 
1820, it w^as completed, and the land was opened to buyers 
October 1, 1820, at the Brookville land office. But even 
prior to this time squatters had gone into the new coun- 
try. Probably the first of these was Enoch Russell. 
This man lived in Franklin county, where the town of 
Sommerset (now the town of Laurel) was laid out in 
1818. In the fall of that year, a few days after the treaty 
with the Indians was effected, or as soon, at least, as the 
news reached him, Russell and a man named Zach Col- 
lins went out into the new purchase and put up a cabin 
in order that they might hunt through the winter. It 
had been usual for citizens along Whitewater river to 
go out to hunt in the Indian land, in what is now Rush 


county, prior to the signiug of the treaty, but this cabiu 
was probably the fii'st permauent structure erected in 
the county. It was built about one and one-half miles 
north of the present to^vn of Xew Salem, and during the 
first winter was used only as a hunting cabin. In the 
spring of the year, however, Russell moved his family in. 
and (^)]lins built himself another cabin not far distant. 
In the fall of the same year, 1819, Isaac AVilliams built 
a cabin near hy, as did Isaac Phipps and one Merryman. 
All this region was then known as "Congress land," and 
those who moved into it before the land sales did so for 
hunting ])Ui'poses. When the Brookville office opened 
in the fall of 1820, John Smith entered the land on which 
the Russell cabin stood, and when Smith died, his heirs 
sold the ])ro])erty to (leneral Robinson. 

co:Nr:kirNAL dkut to doctok arnot.d 

Tlie peo]jl(' of Rush county ai-e indebted in large 
measure for the information which is available concern- 
ing the early settlement of the county to the writings of 
Dr. John Arnold. In a sciies of twenty-six i^apers en- 
titled "Reminiscences of An Old Settler," which were 
addressed in 1875 and 1876 to V. T. Drebert, editor of 
TJie Bepuhlican, he sketched with a vivid pen the life, 
lia])its and cnstoms of the rugged pioneers, and gave in- 
valuable glimi)ses into the social conditions of the day. 
His descri|)tions of the vegetation, wild animals, rei)tiles, 
and general a])])earan('e of the region in its neai-ly native 
state are invaluable, as they mnk(^ us of this generation 
pause to consider the innneiisc debt of gratitude which is 
owing 1o oiir fot'cfathei'S for Inyiiig the foundations of 
the substantial social fabric which constitutes our "j)res- 
ent communal life. The India]iai)olis SenliucJ bestowed 
the following com])liment upon Doctor Arnold after i-e- 
viewing a few of his contributions in 1875. 

"Many of the news]»a])ers of the state have availed 
themselves of the personal knowledge of men now liviiig 


to publish interesting reminiscences of the olden times 
during the past year. Among these, a series just begun 
in the Rushville Repiihlican and written by J. Arnold, 
promises unusual interest. In his first paper Mr. Arnold 
expresses a tender and true patriotism and home love, 
which in these migratory days of unrest are refreshing 
to find. * * * Such sentiments do honor to the man, 
and such men carry a pure element into the stream of 
social life. His well written account of the retributive 
death of the great Indian chief, Ben Davis, constitutes 
one of those passages in genuine history wherein the 
tiuth surpasses fiction." 

Doctor Arnold came to the family home on Ben Davis 
creek before the state government had authorized the 
erection of the count}^ of Rush, and of him it was said in 
The Bepuhlicmi * * * ''He is an old resident of the 
county and possesses a rich fund of information relat- 
ing to its early history. The scholarly culture and liter-' 
aiy taste displayed in his productions render them both 
instructive and entertaining." 


There are some parts of Doctor Arnold's reminis- 
cences that, while they provide a few moments of jileas- 
urable reading, do not pertain definitely to the subject 
in hand, and for this reason, extracts are made to present 
to the reader a concise view of the early settlement of this 

"One important factor in the early development of 
the material resources and the consequent prosperity of 
Rush count3% was that the land was not bought up by 
thousands of acres by non-resident speculators, who 
quietly waited, in their comfortable homes, for their 
lands to be made valuable by the labor of the actual set- 
tlers, who always must suffer loss and inconvenience by 
these tracts interfering in the establishing of schools, 
making of roads, and in various other ways. The settlers 


were generally men of small or moderate means, who had 
the courage to invade the grand primeval forest, for the 
purpose of hewing out a home for themselves and their 
children. Most of them were young, energetic, indus- 
trious, self-reliant, the very best representatives of their 
several states ; for while the timid and the weak remained 
in the old settlements, these bravely dared the hardships 
of the western wilds. These men, while showing the gen- 
eral characteristics of their native states, also possessed 
marked individuality. The consciousness of power en- 
abled each to think, to act and to work, according to the 
dictates of his own conscience and judgment. The cool 
and calculating Yankee was found side by side with the 
impulsive and generous Kentuckian ; the proud Virginian 
beside the i)]odding Pennsylvania Dutchman; the quiet 
and peaceable Quaker from the Carolinas by side of the 
wild and reckless Tennesseean, and there an Englishman 
or an Irishman. From the gradual amalgamation of all 
these different and strong elements has resulted the ])res- 
ent moral, intelligent and prosperous conununity. Allow 
me, just hei-e, to express my firm conviction and opinion, 
arrived at from considei-able travel and obsei-vation but 
nio]-e from I'cading. It is this: That although there are 
undoubtedly some localities possessed of a richer soil, 
some of a moi-e salubrious atmosjihci'e, some of a climate 
far better and in every respect ])referable to ours, some 
that have more and stronger springs, some that have a 
higher standard of educati(»n. but when we come to sum 
up the several advantages of each, we find that Rush 
county, with her soil, her timlier. her water, her nearness 
to market, and above all in her high status in religious 
and iiitellectual mattei'S, is excelled by no ])nrt of the 
United States or peihai)s the wide worhl. * * ^'' * 
Having jjrocured board at (Maypooi's tavern [Conners- 
ville] the next thing was to get a backwoodsman to act 
as guide in the new ])U]-chase. Having found an old 
hujitei- well skilled in woodei'aft and understanding how 

^oiftbr CoLu-T-S.VV.^vt^lawcV 



to run the section lines, my father, Uncle Richard and 
John Ploughton turned their faces westward and soon 
crossed the old boundary line, which was just this side of 
William's creek on the east side of what is now the Was- 
ham farm. Beyond this was the wilderness unbroken 
save by the squatter and hunter's cabin. j\ly father, 
though eminently domestic and social in his feeling, yet 
had an exalted love and admiration for the wild beauties 
of nature, and his heart was filled with pleasurable emo- 
tions as he traversed the mazes of the virgin forest. None 
but those who saw the country in those early days can 
form an adequate conception of the wild luxuriance of 
vegetation, covering every foot of the teeming soil, and 
showing its fertility. In addition to the heavy growth of 
lofty forest trees, the dense and almost impassable under- 
growth of spice brush, pawpaw and other shrubs, was 
seen a profusion of weeds and flowers, of a hundred va- 
rieties, which have now disappeared, trod out by the foot 
of civilization. These sights produced a still more pow- 
erful impression from the fact of his just having come 
from an old country, where the rich exuberance of na- 
ture's products had been toued down b}' the hand of taste 
and subdued by cultivation. They spent several days 
traveling through the pathless woods, though with no 
uncertain steps, for their guide knew his business well. 
Generally, at night, they found a hunter's hospitable door 
oiDen to receive them ; when they did not, they built their 
fire, cooked their supper of game, spread their blankets 
and slept the sound sleep of wearied men, undisturbed by 
the hooting of the owls, the shrill scream of the wild cat, 
the long dismal howl of the solitary wolf or any of the 
other voices of the nocturnal forest. Passing the head- 
waters of Ben Davis creek they crossed Flatrock, Little 
Blue and Big Blue rivers, then turning south twenty or 
more miles, recrossed these streams and struck Little 
Flatrock, which they followed until somewhere near the 
present Flatrock church, when they went north to Ben 


Davis creek, where they found two squatters, Sainue] 
(h'nell and AYeir Cassad}'. They put up at Gruell's and 
spent a day (»]• two in hjcikini; around in that vicinity, 
^ly father was delighted with the a^jpearance of the hind ; 
it was rich, well tindx'ved, well watered by good springs 
and sufficiently rolling for surplus water to run off 
readily. Xear Gruell's cabin, were the numerous though 
now dilapidated wigwams of an Indian village, once the 
headquarters of that fierce old Delaware chief, Ben 
Davis. Xear this village were half a dozen springs of the 
purest water ; indeed in selecting a site for their villages, 
good water seems to l)e the most im])ortant consideration 
in their location. 


"My father decided this should be the future home 
of his family in the new world; he took the numbers of 
the land so as to enter it, as soon as the sales were opened 
at Brookville. The lands of the old purchase had been 
sold at Cincinnati. He also agreed to pay Gruell for his 
cabin and clearing, about half an acre, enclosed Mith a 
bi'ush fence, engaging boai-ding with him, whenever it 
suited him to be out here j^revious to the sales. John 
Houghton selected a <inartei', half a mile south of my 
father's, eighty acres of which is now owned by G. AY, 
Loojiey and eighty by Josiali Alger. I may here state 
that all these arrangements were carricnl out, and that 
(Jruell eiitered land west of Flatrock which lie after- 
wards traded to Jc^hn Parsons for a farm on . olan's 
Fork, in Whitewater, where he resided many years, then 
sold out aiid went to the \Va))ash, where he died. Matthew 
Pai'sons now owns the farm of his father, John Parsons. 
AVeir Cassady was on l!ie land entered by Rans Byrd 
Green, about half a mile fi'oni (irueH's, (^assady entered 
land southwest of Rushville, whei-e his widow still resides 
with her son, Simon. * * * ''l^lip t;j^]p ^f lands did not 
open until the first ]>a)-t of October [1S20] an.d it was 


now the latter part of August, so that my father had to 
wait some time. * * * That fall my father had a 
story and a half, hewed log" house built with two rooms 
below and one above; the plank for the partition, the 
floors, doors, etc., were bought on Williams creek and 
were hauled out by James Alexander. This was the first 
jjlank brought on to Ben Davis creek. The common cabin 
was built without plank and without nails, and the chim- 
ney without brick or lime. The cabin was constructed of 
round logs, notched down at the corners, so as to leave 
but little space between, and this was partially closed by 
chunks firmly driven in, and then every crevice was filled 
and plastered over with the daubing of tough clay; this 
when dry effectually excluded the air and cold. At one 
end the logs were cut out so as to make the fireplace. This 
opening was shut up by building three sides of a rectangle 
of split timbers, the fourth l^eing the opening into the 
room ; next a solid wall of tempered clay was built inside 
of and against the timbers; this was carried up four or 
five feet, constituting the fireplace; above this was the 
stick chimne}^ constructed of sticks split square, from 
one to one and a half inches in diameter and gradually 
and often gracefully contracting until it reached the 
proper height. As fast as the sticks were laid in position 
it was carefully plastered inside and out ; this prevented 
the sticks from being ignited by the roaring, rushing 
column of flame, usually ascending from the burning logs 
in the vast fireplace. The roof was made of clapboards, 
usually four or five feet long ; the ends of these rested on 
logs about three feet apart, gradualh^ ascending like 
steps. The joints or opening between these boards being 
covered with other boards, and being kept in place by 
weight poles, formed a roof that would keep all dry 
beneath it for man}^ a day. The floors were formed of 
timbers split and then hewed smooth, and being from 
three to four inches thick, these puncheons rested on 
logs, hewed on the upper side. A very strong though not 


a very tight floor. Tlie doors were made of the same 
kind of material but thinner, and held in ]jlace by cross 
pieces fastened on with wooden pins. The hinges and the 
latch were also of wood, so that there was no iron, jjlank 
or brick found in one of these primitive residences. The 
window was an aperture of about eighteen inches square, 
sr>metimes closed by a piece of an old sheet or some otliev 
substitute for glass. Xow look inside and see the bed- 
steads, table and stools, manuractui-ed by the pioneer 
himself, by the aid of ax, saw, augur and drawing knife, 
and then look at the active, energetic woman, surrounded 
by half a dozen or more healthy, noisy children, engaged 
in her multiform domestic labors, and you have a rough 
picture that may help you to more just conceptions of 
the actual life of those early settlers in the wilderness, 
who have hewed out homes for themselves and subdued 
the forest to the purposes of agriculture. 


''Rusliville was laid out by W. B. Laughlin and 
others, in ]822, and the county was organized in 1822, 
l)oth being named in honor of the celebrated ])hysician 
and teacher, Dr. Ijenjamin Rush, of Philadelphia, 
through the recommendation of his admiring pupil and 
devoted friend. Dr. William B. Laughlin. Of the latter 
gentleman I have many pleasant recollections, for to him 
I owe my fiist inti'oductiou to the cultivation of the rich, 
though arid fields of classic literature, and I hope in some 
futui'c jjajier to jot down these reminiscences of my 
eai'ly friend and teacher." 

A brief sketch of one of these })ioneers is giveii by 
Doctor Arnold in his seventeenth pa]>er, and is here incor- 
jjorated to show what manner of men tlu' fii-st settlers 

'Macob Dewey, a squatter on the fi-action north of 
the burial ground on .J(»siah Alger's ])lace, was a rich 
study. He was as poor a man as could be, but always 


happy, always cheerful, always patient under the sharp 
and often well merited reproaches of his better half, who 
would expatiate on his indolence, improvidence and reck- 
lessness in language more forcible than polite. He came 
from Fayette county, but what spot claimed the honor of 
his birth I know not, but presume he was a Yankee, from 
the consummate skill displayed in the woi'king of a 
bovine team. A pair of bulls was his most valuable and 
indeed almost his only worldly property. With these he 
rolled the logs in the clearings, or with a rude sled hauled 
the rails for the fences of his neighbors and thus eked out 
a livelihood mainly obtained by his dog and gun, for he 
was a skilled hunter. He was a wild looking fellow, 
scarcely ever wearing anything on his head, except 
nature's covering of long, tangled, tawny locks; generally 
barefooted, with his buckskin breeches rolled up to his 
knees and his shirt sleeves rolled up above his elbows. 
The furniture of his cabin was scanty and of the rudest 
description. The walls were ornamented with the skins 
of wild animals shot or trapped by him, but the crowning 
ornament was the skin of a tremendous yellow rattle- 
snake with eighteen or twenty rattles, so well stuffed 
that it represented the living reptile with startling effect. 
By the side of it hung the claws and head of a bald eagle. 
But, whatever might be the poverty of his surroundings, 
his table was always bountifully supplied with the best 
of venison, wild turkey, etc. He did considerable work 
for my father; fenced and cleared one field eighteen 
inches and under. Perhaps I had better explain the 
technical term "eighteen inches and under," for fear the 
young of this generation may not clearly comprehend 
what it implies. In this kind of clearing the brush is 
grubbed, all the trees eighteen inches or less in circum- 
ference two feet from the ground are cut down, the logs 
chopped and the whole piled and burned, putting it in a 
good state for a woods pasture when seeded with blue- 
grass. Sometimes, however, in addition to the above 


work the trees left standinii; would be deadened, and at 
tlie end of two years the iiroiind would be i)lanted in corn, 
pumpkins, squashes, beans, potatoes, etc. Of course the 
p]o^^in^• aniono- the roots would })e difficult and ini])er- 
fect, and the hoe was the main dependence for its cultiva- 
tion, but so powerful were the productive energies of the 
virgin soil that an abundant crop was i^enerally secured. 
I well remeniljer one spring Dewev was hauling and roll- 
ing logs in the creek bottom : he had run a handspike 
under a large log and then passing his arm under it to 
draw the chain through ; he immediately exclaimed that 
there was ice under the log. and as soon as it was rolled, 
lo, there lay thi'ee large moccasin snakes, whose cold 
bodies he had mistaken for ice. Fortunately for him, 
there had not been sufficient heat to arouse them from 
their winter torpor, and it was this that enabled him to 
pass his naked arm with im]mnity on these vicious rep- 
tiles. Under his rough, un])olished and sometimes reck- 
less manners was concealed a generous and manly heart. 
He was ever ready to assist any one in distress from 
sickness or other cause. He possessed a lai'ge share of 
that friendly, fi-aternal feeling so common among the 
early settlers, and the loss of which we often hear be- 
wailed by the hoary-headed patriarchs who enjoyed its 
])leasant warmth in their youth, and now co7itrnst it with 
the cold selfishness of the ])i-esen.t connnunity. When 
John TToi'lock came to his sad end by the fall of a tre(\ 
Jacob Dewey was among the first and most earnest to 
offer his services to do anything that was in his power 
for the distressed family. Mr. Horlock liad a large num- 
ber of hogs, which, like all others running in the woods, 
had become almost as wild and savage as the natural den- 
izens of the f(»i('st. These Dewey spent several days in 
huntiiig u]» ;ind driving home prior to the sale, and it was 
about as disagi'eeable a job as could be imagined, and 
when jiskeil his ehnrge felt and ex]>ressed indignation 
that any one should think him Jiiemi enough to take pay 


from a poor widow for a few days' work. In the bosom 
of this uncultivated backwoodsman, glowed as true a 
spirit of chivalry as ever animated the lofty paladins of 
the court of Charlemagne. Dewey lived in this neighbor- 
hood some three or four years, when it became too 
crowded to suit his taste, and he pushed farther west, 
where the clearings were not so numerous and the game 
more abundant. He seemed to have no desire to own land 
and make himself a permanent home, and I have no doubt 
that he lived and died a very poor but very happy man. 


''In the early settlement of this country there were 
plenty of gray foxes but no red ones ; they, like the Nor- 
way rats, follow in the footsteps of improvement and 
civilization. The fierce wildcat was occasionally treed 
by the dogs and then shot by the hunter; if after being 
wounded it fell into their clutches, it fought, as long as 
life remained, with the savage fury characteristic of the 
feline race. 

"Of the fur-bearing animals found here, at that 
date, we may mention the beaver, the otter, the mink, the 
muskrat, the weasel and the raccoon. These were gener- 
all}^ trapped in the winter when their fur is valuable. 
The remains of beaver dams I have seen in several places 
in Rush and Hancock counties. A spot on a swampy 
creek, two or three miles west of Burlington, still retains 
the name of Beaver meadow, because a colony of these 
animals once occupied it. The otters remained long after 
the beavers were exterminated ; indeed they are occasion- 
ally found along Flatrock to the present day. The coun- 
try had been settled eight or ten years before I ever saw 
or heard of a polecat or skunk, but of late years they 
have multiplied rapidly ; and one traveling over the coun- 
try at night, frequently has his nostrils saluted by the 
peculiar and horribly disgusting odor emanating from 
this foul animal, when irritated or attacked. It is its 


only effective weapon of offense and defense, and well 
does it understand its power and the unwillingness of all 
animated nature to encounter its overpowering mephetic 
stench. Often at night I have seen one coolly trotting 
along in the road before me, utterly ignoring my i)res- 
ence, and refusing to turn out, seeming to understand 
that I would not dare provoke a salute from its terribh- 
battery. In these cases I have justified its expectation, 
and if it would not, I have turned to one side, fully believ- 
ing that discretion was the better part of valor when you 
encounter a skunk. Fortunately their fur is valuable 
and fashionable luider another name and color. The 
skins are sent to France, and after being deodorized, 
dressed, colored and made up into muffs, boas, collars, 
etc., are sent back to this country, to be ])]'oudly worn by 
the fair dames whose noses would instinctively turn up at 
but there is a great deal in a name, and the observer will 
the very name of skunk. 3.1en may say what they please, 
see this fact verified almost every day. I will here men- 
tion a singular fact in natural history, which T do not 
]-ecollect to have seen in any work oji the subject. It is 
that the skunk fraternizes with the ground hog, both be- 
ing found occupying the same den or burrow, excavated 
by the industi'v of the latter, but now jointly and sociably 
used by both. A tra]) set at the opening will in a few 
nights often catch both skunks and ground hogs. Whether 
the ground hog has voluntai'ily extended the hos])italities 
of his hoTue to the skunk, or whether the latt(M' pi-esiuiiiug 
(m the impunity of power has taken possession and holds 
it, in an armed neutrality, which the unfortuTiate giound 
hog dares not })reak, I am not ])re])ared to say. 

"The mink and weasel still infest our country in 
gi-eater numbeis j)robably than when it was new, for the 
abundance of domestic fowls su])])ly a material on which 
to gratify their insatiable thirst for blood, greater than 
could be found in the wilderness. 

"The nuiskrats are still plentiful along our creeks 
and are trajjped in great numbers every winter. 


''The raccoon still roams through our woods, forages 
in our corn fields, and occasionally makes a raid on the 
hen roost and is particularly destructive to the broods of 
young turkeys and peafowls. Coon hunting in early 
times was a favorite amusement with the bo^^s, but is not 
now so attractive, from the fact that the timber has be- 
come too valuable to be cut to capture them, and conse- 
quently they are not so successful. The young coon is a 
very amusing ]3et, full of drollery, cunning and quaint 
antics, and generally very mischievous, a great favorite 
with the boys, but a continual annoyance to the cai'eful 

"Thus we see that while the larger wild animals have 
entirely disappeared, the smaller ones still remain in un- 
diminished if not in augmented numbers, from the 
greater abundance of food in a settled country. 


"In this paper I shall speak of the birds found in our 
woods by the pioneers. In this list, we must give the pre- 
cedence to the wild turke}^, for its numbers, richly flav- 
ored flesh, graceful carriage and beautiful form, justly 
entitle it to this post of honor. They roamed through the 
forests or entered the diminutive cornfields, in vast 
flocks, and were frequenth^ sought by the hunter, when 
his larder needed replenishing, for their delicious juicy 
meat, so far excelling that of the tame turkey, as all game 
animals excel the domestic, formed a repast that would 
satisfy the most fastidious epicure. And those who have 
only participated in the Hurkey dinners' of these later 
days, capital though they unquestionably are, can liave 
no realizing sense of the exquisite and higher excellejices 
of this most noble bird, when properly brought out by 
the skillful cook. In the autumn and early winter, when 
the young birds were grown and were fat from the abund- 
ance of mast and berries, many who had neither time nor 
inclination to seek them with the dog and gun, secured 



them by a trap, simple but effective. Haviug selected a 
suitable place, a ditch was dug fifteen to eighteen feet 
long, five ov six feet wide and was twenty to twenty-four 
inches deep, then it gradually sloped to the surface at the 
other end with, say, eighteen inches; over the deeper end 
was built a ])en of rails or poles some three feet high, cov- 
ered with the same material, and inside across the ditcii 
close to the side were laid a couple of clapboards or some 
])ark. Some corn was scattered around the pen, and a 
considerable quantity was strewn in the trench extending 
to the end within the enclosure. Any flock of turkeys 
j)assing by, attracted by the scattered corn would gather 
]-ound the pen, and seeing plenty in the trench run in pell- 
mell, those behind crowding those ahead of them, until 
half a dozen or more have entered the trap, when they 
immediately begin running round their pi-ison, trying to 
get through the o})enings, not having sense enough to 
leave the sides and re-enter the trench, near the middle of 
the pen. In hunting with the gun, the dog is of great 
service, making tliem take to tlie trees and while their at- 
tentio]] is attracted l)y the dog, tlie lunitei- has ;• fine 
o|f]»o]'tunity to select and bring down his game. Another 
metiiod, though only ]>ractieable on nioon.lii;ht nights, in 
the season when the ti'ees are leafh'ss. is when a i"(»ost is 
discovered, to go out and when the m(K)n is sufficiently 
high to bi'ing the tui'key in the i»roper range between, the 
hunter and the moon, a good shot is ol)tained, and lie will 
seldom fail to secure his l)ird. The turkey is not only 
powerful of wing and ca])able of extended fliglits. but 
also has swiftness of foot, which lenders it difficult to 
secure, even aftei- a wing is !))-okeii. 

"The ruffled grouse, ])heasaut or ]»artridge, as it is 
variouslv termed in diffei'cnt sections of our country, 
wei'c vei-y luunei'ous. hai'bo]-iug in tlie densest thickets 
and swamps, when early in the morning or in the evening 
their ])eculi:;r drumming couhl ofteii be heard. Tliey 
were vei"\' easilv shot, which caused tlicir number to de- 


crease rapidly; their flesh was delicious. The quail was 
also common^ though not very numerous. In the spring 
and fall many varieties of wild duck visited our waters, 
and occasionally a pair remained through the summer, 
rearing their young. I recollect a pair of beautiful crested 
ducks made their nests in the hollow of a gigantic syca- 
more, for two succeeding seasons, and I frequently saw 
them flying in or out. I once saw the old ones bring their 
unfledged offspring from the nest, in their bills, care- 
fully placing them in a pool in the creek ; there were some 
six or eight of them. Cranes were numerous and were 
daily to be seen flying along the creek, standing at the 
riffles quietly watching for their finny prey, or wading 
in the ponds ever and anon, impaling with their javelin- 
like bills an unfortunate frog. The headquarters of the 
cranes was an extensive swamp, from which originated 
the main branch of Ben Davis creek; it was in Fayette 
county, about a mile from the Rush county line ; the land 
now belongs to Richard Nash, AT atthew Hastings and oth- 
ers. Here eight or ten pairs usuall_y made their nests, 
consisting of a large pile of sticks slightly hollowed along 
for the eggs, and built in the tops of the lofty burr oaks 
or water elms, the usual growth of such a locality. From 
this, their home, they foraged the country far and wide^ 
on tireless though leisurely wing, seeking food for their 
noisy offspring, 

"The bald eagle was often seen by the settlers, and 
was always a tempting mark for their rifles. 

''The raven was often seen perched on the topmost 
branch of some dead tree, near a stream, and its hoarse 
gutteral cry was heard echoing through the forest. ?dr. 
Horlock once presented me with one whose wing was 
broken. * * * The raven is no longer found in this 
country. I do not think I have seen or heard of one be- 
ing here for the last thirty-five years. 

''Crows gave serious offense to the farmers by pull- 
ing up their young corn. 


"Tlio hirgc hen hawk, two or three varieties of the 
bhie and the sparrow hawk were all native to this country. 

"The large and powerful horned owl, the common 
cirienfioiis or gi'ay, and the diminutive screech owls all 
found happy homes in the hollow trees and often made 
night vocal with their peculiar, and to those not cognizant 
of the mysteries of owl language, melancholy cries. These 
cries no doubt really express the tender pleadings of love, 
the bold defiance or the joyful triumph. 

"In early times a large variety of the woodpecker 
was very common, which lias long since become extinct in 
this part of the country. It was as large as a small 
pigeon, Avith a powerful bill three inches long, a red 
crested head, its general color black, with a white ring 
around its neck, some white bars across its wings and 
some marking of the same across its tail. It would fre- 
quently, in the winter, dig through one or two inches of 
solid green wood to reach a colony of large ants or other 
insects, hid away securely against everything, except the 
uneri'ing instinct of this ])rince of the woodpecker fanuly. 
All the other varieties that we now have were then found 
in much greatei" numbers, such as the common but beau- 
tiful red headed and white and black dressed depredator 
of the cherry orchard, the yellow-hanuner or golden 
winged, the Virginia and the various sap suckers and 

"Thrushes, robins, jays, ))la('k birds, cardinals, 
orioles, doves, flax birds, king-fishcis. several varieties 
of swallows, tlu'.mai til!. Tor wliose hospitable entertain- 
ment boxes were ])hu'e(l on ])oles and over tavern signs, 
cat birds, wrens and the richly IuumI and d.'sliing 1mm- 
ming birds, with several othei- kinds of small birdS: 
which L do not now remcuilxT. Our list of bii-ds would 
not !)(' eoniplete if I did not mention the wild pigeon, 
which th(»ugh not native to this section, yet in those years 
when a bountiful yield of mast crowned our beech and 
oak, visited us in countless thousands. When large flocks 


suddenly rose from the ground the noise of their rushing 
pinions was like the sound of distant thunder and could 
be heard to a great distance. Of course ever3^one, men 
or boys, enjoyed rare sport at these seasons, for every- 
thing that could carry shot was in requisition. With an 
old long-barreled ducking gun given me by my Uncle 
Isaac, I have killed as many as thirteen at one shot. The 
most favorable chance for a successful shot was when tlie 
ground was for acres and acres covered, to get ahead of 
them, hide behind a tree or log and wait until the living 
and fluttering wave was sufficiently near and then just 
as they rose, to fire into the almost solid mass of birds. 
When here they select some wild hilly spot as remote as 
may be from settlements, where they congregate nightly, 
occupying hundreds of acres of timber to its utmost 
capacity. At the break of day they begin their flight to 
their feeding grounds, fifty, seventy-five or one hundred 
miles away, but with their swift and powerful wings they 
soon travel the distance. Like an invading army, when 
they have exhausted the supplies of one district they move 
to another. At their roosting places they are destroyed 
by wagon loads, many of the sportsmen coming from a 
distance, and the heavy firing through the night would 
make a stranger suppose a fierce battle was in progress. 
I have often regretted the wanton destruction indulged in 
on these occasions, the hogs in the neighborhood becom- 
ing fat on their flesh. 


"Having spoken of the beasts and birds found by 
the pioneer in our forests, in this number I will speak of 
that most repulsive and dangerous class of animated be- 
ings, the reptiles, for I wish to give as clear an idea as 
possible of all the surroundings, for good as for evil, that 
gave coloring to the every-day life of the early settlers. 

"The rattlesnake, both the brilliantly hued and his 
more modestly colored brother, the black, were quite 


miiiiei'ous. Tlic coloiiiig- of the yellow is beautiful, espe- 
cially when he h.-is just cast his old skin, and his glossy 
hack of alternate uold and black squares casts a shimmer- 
ing light as he glides with gentle, undulating motion over 
the ground, or throws himself into the coil, with head 
erect and quickly vibrating tnil producing the rattle, giv- 
ing fair warning that he is prepared for the deadly spring. 
We must confess that this soimding of his battle note 
before beginning the work of death, is an honorable trait 
in his character, as it gives the intruder an opportunity 
to retreat ere the venomous fangs enter his flesh. The 
peculiar shar]), metalic rattle when once heard can never 
be forgotten, and even when heard, for the first time, by 
one ignorant of its origin, strikes a chill and an instinctive 
terror to the heart. Thus it is that kind nature, not only 
in this, but in very many other instances, iriiplants an 
intuitive recognition of danger in the bosom of her chil- 
dren. The rattle differs in size according to the age of 
the snake; the first year it has no rattle, but simply a 
horny protuberance at the extremity of its tail called a 
button. Every subsequent year gives it one section of 
the rattle, so that its age is always ap})arent. They are, 
wdien unmolested, long lived, frequently ])eing found with 
twelve, twenty and thirty or more sections. Theii- size 
is in proportion to their ag(\ tlu'v are large in proportion! 
to their length; five feet is a vei-y large one, ar.d its cir- 
cumference at its greatest gii-th would ))e alH)ut nine 
inches. In the uninhabited regions they have no natural 
enemies that ever seek their destruction, though occa- 
sionally the deer attack and destroy them. Tliey do this 
by running some distance at the toj) of their speed, spring- 
ing high in the air and alighting with all their feet to- 
gether 071 their victim, then (juick as the lightning's flash 
bounding away to return again and again, until the ser- 
])ent is cut all to pieces by their sharp hoofs. But in a 
level, fertile county like this, the sti'oke of the woods- 
man's ax is the death knell of the rattlesnake, not merely 


because he will receive no quarters at his hands, but be- 
cause he is accompanied by an animal, an insatiate de- 
stroyer of the race, and one peculiarly fitted for the task 
by possessing a complete immunity from all ill effects 
from the bite of the terrible reptile. I mean the hog. The 
bite of the rattlesnake, so fatal to all other animals, has 
no effect whatever on the hog. 

''The rattlesnake was not the only venomous snake 
to be feared; the copperhead was equally poisonous and 
really more dangerous, because it gave no warning, but 
the stroke of the terrible fangs was the first indication 
of its presence. Its color was a dirty brown, slight!}^ 
marked with spots of a darker color. It was smallei' than 
the rattlesnake, seldom being over thirty inches in length. 
It had the same peculiar flat head common to all the pois- 
onous reptiles. 

"The water snakes were very numerous, finding safe 
homes in the numerous drifts that obstructed our creeks. 
I have seen ten or fifteen big fellows in one pile, twisting 
and writhing around each other in a way anything but 
pleasant to look at, and enjoying the grateful warmth of 
the noonda3'^'s sun. 

"The agile and glossy blacksnake or racer, as they 
are sometimes termed, were frequentl}^ seen gracefully 
and rapidly gliding through the woods, their heads ele- 
vated from eight to ten inches and their bright eyes glanc- 
ing in every direction. They were frequently from four 
and one-half to six feet in length, though occasionally one 
was killed still larger. The}^ are not poisonous, but be- 
long to the constrictor family, destroying their enem.y by 
crushing it in their powerful folds. They will not attack 
a man unless terribly enraged by injuries. * * * They 
generally go in pairs and are apparently very strongly 
attached to each other. They climb trees readily and 
hunt for the nests of birds, eating the young and they also 
destroy the young squirrels. Sometimes fierce war is 
waged by the parent birds in the defence of their off- 


spi'iiiiT, l»nt tlie contest invariably ends in favoi' of the 


"There was one beautiful, jierfeetly harmless and 
really useful snake, which was quite uuuicidus, and in its 
eneructie effort to benefit man, at the same time that it 
secured its own dinner, it frequently made its appearance 
in a manner calculated to startle weak nerves. This was 
the house snake, the milk snake or the Avampum siiake. 
It was usually between four and five feet long, very slen- 
der; indeed the smallest in diameter in i)roportion to its 
length of any that I am acquainted with. Its marking 
was small alternated diamond-shaped s])(»ts of milk white 
and black shaded with brown. TIk^ glossy shining coat, 
with its bright colors and delicate si lading. I presume won 
for it one of its s>'non_Mns — that of wampum snake, from 
the richly ornamented wam])uni belts made by the In- 
dians from bright hued beads. ^'Chc jnoneers were all 
familiar with the a])ix'aran.ce of these and l)orrowed the 
term to characterize their humble friend, the house snake. 
This graceful rei)tile was the unrelenting enemy of rats 
and mice, and as these vermin soon accumulated about the 
homes of the settlers, they were vigorously Inuited by 
their persevering foes, who easily followed them through 
all the laltyi-inths of tlieir liiding ])laces, destr<»ying great 
numbers and crer.ting such a ])a]iic in the I'eriiainder that 
they would incontinently leave the ])remises, so that in a 
few days after the advent of a ]»air of these snakes, not a. 
rat or mouse could be foinid. The lunnane and consider- 
ate never killed these industrious and innocent creatiirts, 
recognizing their undis])uted right to erijoy the l)o(»]i <»f 
life, bestowed by the l)eneficent Creator of all, and that 
no man has a I'ight wantonly and uselessly to take this 
life, unless foi- the profit oi' jtroteetion of himself and 
family. l:>ut there are others who possess such an undis- 
criminating hatred of all this rentile race, that thev never 


fail to gratify their destructiveness though it be at the 
expense of these most beautiful and harmless of creatures. 

"The first homes of those olden times were simple 
and rude, making no pretensions to the conveniences and 
graces that adorn our modern mansions; the rough log 
cabin, with puncheon floor, clapboard roof, loose clap- 
boards on the joist overhead, and perhaps some of the 
same nailed over the chunk and daubing on the inside. 
These, of course, were very accessible to the house snake 
and afforded it grand hunting grounds. Sometimes a 
pair would in succession visit a dozen houses in a neigh- 
borhood, clearing out the rats, but causing some annoy- 
ance to the household. 

"The garter, was then as now, the most common as 
well as numerous variety of the snake family and might 
be seen of a summer day, rapidly pursuing the leaping 
frog through the waving grass, with indefatigable tenac- 
ity, until it captured its unfortunate prey, when it would 
begin the tremendous but always successful performance 
of swallowing alive, a creature greater in diameter than 
itself. Frequently I have witnessed the chase, the seizure 
and the commencement of the labored deglutition, but I 
must confess, that in these cases, my s^ympathies were 
with the unhappy batrachian, and that by the time the 
snake had swallowed the hind legs, the frog uttering piti- 
ful cries during the process, I have invariably come to 
the rescue and by a blow across the back forced the snake 
to disgorge its living victim, which would then hop away 
at its best speed toward some j)ool or creek, where it 
might cool its lacerated haunches and rest after the fa- 
tigue of its terrible adventure, for to be swallowed alive 
is a terrible fate for any living creature. 

"The snake has its especial enemy also. How often 
have I seen the hawk suddenly pause in its circling flight 
over the meadow, swoop down, and with its squirming 
prey in the grasp of its strong talons, soar to etherial 
heights, and then seek the dead top of some lofty tree, 
where it could discuss its meal at leisure ! 



"Having devoted sufficient space to the desci'i])tion 
of the animals found here by the early settlers, I pi'opose 
in this to give a brief sketch of the sylva or forest trees. 
In doing- this I shall speak of them by their common 
names and shall not load my pages with a scientific no- 
menclature and classificaticm. This country was v(My 
heavily tinil)ered; indeed I have no recollection of ever 
having seen in my travels, anywhere, so many large, tall 
trees standing on an acre as could here be found. Xot 
only the number and size of the t]ees, but also the kiiids 
of timber found here pi'oved the strength and riclmess 
of the virgin soil which they shaded. The growth and 
kinds of timber indicate with infallible certainty to tlie 
observant traveler, the quality of land over which he may 
be rushing at railroad speed. This is essentially a beecheu 
country, foi' this A'ariety largely ])r(Hlouiinates over any 
other, and where it grows, as it does here, large and h'fty. 
with but few horizontal branches and dividing iiito lai-ge 
wide spreading limbs to form llic top, it sliows a strong 
and fertile soil ; but where it grows small with roots widely 
spreading over the surface, and a nudtitude of side 
branches, the toy) running to a i)oin.t, and it perhaps dead, 
you may conclude that tho land is cold and wet and ])Oor, 
and by no means desirable for agricultural |)ur])oses. 

"On ou.i' u])lands the sugar maple, the black walmit. 
the blue and gray ash, the i-ed elm, the ]M»))lar, wild cherry 
and buckeye were very al)undant. the white and black 
oaks, the ])ig-7int hickory, liiu^cn, coffee nut. ho]iev 
locust aJid nmlberry wei-e also foinid in varying (]uanti- 
ties: in the bottom and low lands were abundance of bnrr- 
oak, butternut, white elm, sycamore, the shellbai-k and 
thick shell])ark hickories, swamp ash, soft maple, hack- 
berry and alder. 

"The wild gi-a])e was connnon ever^^vhere, climbiiig 
to the top of the loftiest trees; it was in tlie rich bottom 


land that it grew most luxuriously and abundantly, fre- 
quently canopying the top of isolated trees, thus forming 
a natural arbor, whose umbrageous covering was imper- 
vious to the noonday's sun, and which stood out a beau- 
tiful object in the sylvan landscape. 

"Rush county was particularly rich in black walnut 
timber, which for quality and quantity cannot be 
equaled by any other county in this or any other state. 
Perhaps it may not be generally known that Indiana wal- 
nut is superior to all others in beauty of color and sus- 
ceptibility of a fine finish, and it consequently is the most 
sought after and commands the highest price in the east- 
ern markets. Within the last few 3^ears [written in the 
'70 's] the trade in walnut timber has attained gigantic 
proportions and an amount almost incalculable has been 
shipped and still a very large amount remains. The fin- 
est groves of walnut were on the east side of the county, 
along the waters of Ben Davis and Little Flatrock. There 
were also in the same parts a great deal of superior pop- 
lar. Commencing at my house and going westward 
through the lands of George Gray, the farm, 
the Blacklidges, Alfred Wilson's, Doctor Helm's lands, 
and in fact, all the way to the valle;f of Flatrock, we find 
an abundance of the most magnificent yellow poijlar. 
The largest and the most admirable specimen of this 
noble tree that I ever saw grew on the land west of me, 
which was entered by old Mr. Virgil, sold by him to Jacob 
Blacklidge, Sr., and now is owned by George Gra}^ It 
stood on high ground and though surrounded by a heavy 
growth of timber, towered above them all, the monarch of 
the forest. Its circumference, three feet from the ground, 
was thirty-six feet, which would give a diametei' of twelve 
feet. Its straight trunk rose over sixty feet without a 
limb, when it divided into two immense symmetrical 
branches. It showed no sign of age or decay, but gave 
every evidence of vigor and luxuriant life." 



As has been previously stated, the first sale of piihlic 
lands in what is li(»w Rush eouiity could ]iot be made ])C- 
fore October, 1820, when the g(»vernnieiit laud office at 
Brookville was opened, but so choice was the land that 
before the close of the year 168 entries were made. These 
varied from forty to 640 acres, but eighty or 160 acres was 
the usual amount entered by the pioneer. During the 
ensuing year 278 entries were made, and as time went on 
the occupation of the land went on at a faster rate. In a 
day when every ])it of ])rogress and success depended 
upon the uniemitting toil of the individual, men found it 
advantageous to settle iiear each other, that they might 
assist and be assisted l>y their neigh bois in many of the 
arduous tasks that confr(»nt setth'rs in a new and virgin 
country. Thus sn.iall settlements made their a|)pearance 
at a very early date in the development of the county. 
The })laces wliich seemed to attract the earliest comers 
were what is now Xoble township. Union township, Rich- 
land township, Ripley township and Rusliville to\\msiup. 
All these settlements were commenced in either 1820 or 
1821. The fii'st men to locate in Rusliville townshi]) were 
Judge W. B. Laughlin, Stephen Sinuns, Christian Cly- 
mer, Houston Moiris, Elijah Lewark, Wesley Moffett, 
(Jeorge Mull, John Parson, Cuthbert AVebb. Andrew Cil- 
s(»n, Sanmel Jackson, John Male, Sam])sou Thomas, 
Simeon Cassady, James McManus, Presley .Mooic. John 
Phillips, Thomas ]\lcCarty, John Oliver and many others. 

As in the case in almost all new countries, the first 
industries of the county were gristmills. The first of 
these was erected by the lion. W. B. Laughlin in 1821. 
It was south of the ]»resent site of the city of Rushville. 
and the ])ower was obtained fi-om a dam aci'oss Platrock. 
This mill saved the pioneeis many a weary mile of (^.iffi- 
cult tiavel. for prioi* to this time the nearest mill was at 
Connersville, and to take the grain over the roads that 


existed at that time was an operation attended with se- 
vere tribulations. However, after the mill had been in 
use for some two years, the voung town of Riishville was 
almost wiped out by an extraordinary epidemic of ma- 
larial fever which left in its wa]s:e an unusually large 
percentage of dead. The citizens promptly desti'oyed 
the dam., thinking thus to rid themselves of the nuisance, 
but little realizing that it could have but slight influence 
on the prevalence of the disease. Hand in hand witli the 
gristmill came the distiller}^, usually the old-fashioned 
copper still, and as early as 1821 Jehu Perkins had 
erected one in addition to a horsepower mill with, which 
the corn was ground. The first steam mill was buih by 
William Robinson in Noble township, and at Moscow 
there were two distilleries and a gristmill. Every com- 
munity had its gristmills, distilleries, and there were also 
some few sawmills, although these last made their appear- 
ance slightly later than the first two. In fact, the entire 
county was well supplied mthin a short time vdth mills 
of all description, and the count}" became almost f ron> the 
start self-supporting in nearly every respect. 

The clearing of the land went forward steadilv, but 
inasmuch as it was practically all hand labor, it was 
naturally slow. In the beginning, commodities were ex- 
changed by the settlers either for a certain amount of 
labor or for some needed article possessed by a neighbor, 
but as time went on and the lands became more easy to 
cultivate, a surplus of crops and stock was produced, and 
then money came into more common use as the medium 
of exchange. The nearest market to Rush county was 
Cincinnati, and it was no mean task to haul grain or drive 
stock through what was to all purposes a wilderness. 
The prevailing prices a hundred years ago were indeed 
small when compared to those of today, and woidd hardly 
seem to have repaid the backwoods farmer for his labor. 
Wheat sold for from forty to fift}'' cents a bushel, corn 
for from ten to fifteen cents, and hogs for from $1.00 to 
$1.50 net weight, with a good drove averaging 125 pounds. 



The register of sales of iioveriiiiieiit \i\un in Rush 
county is an exceedingly interesting <»l(l Ixtok, the ical 
i-oster of the "fathei-s" of the comnnmity. Fi oni it have 
been culled the names of those whose land here was pur- 
chased fi-om the land agent at the land office at Brook- 
ville during the years 1820 and 1821, as follows: 

1)1 the Sontheru Tier of ToioisJti ps — John Innis. 
Thomas Bradley, Allison V. i^ockhart. Ivory H. Ii(\gate, 
James Shaw, William ]\IcCarter, Charles Fuller, Henry 
H. Evans, David ^loui-ning, John AVright, James Vr. 
Stuart, Hugh Stuart, David Overleese, Jacob Whitenian, 
John Trees, John Julian, .folni lleiser, Richai'd Shaw, 
John Ward, George Shepell, Israel Hewit, Richard Ilun- 
gerford, Matthew Allison, John A\'ood, David Query, 
George Julian, Reuben Farlow. Deonard Burton, David 
Hill, John Shellhorn, Siiiioii I-^iilow. George Foglesong, 
William Xelsou, William Arnett, .Jacob Harlan, George 
Searight, Andrew Searight, James Bell. John Simmons, 
Nathan Wright, ^^'illiam Smith, Elijah Thatcher. Joseph 
Owen, Alexander Van Pelt, Peter Hushaw, Savil Wil- 
son, 'icholas Hedrick, Thomas E. Hall, John Stewart, 
Abraham Beaver, Samuel AVorlv. J()se])h Washburn, Taue 
McUlwaine, James Fordice, John Ilaff. Lat Green, Jacob 
Hackleman, Paterson Heaton, Eli J. Elston. William 
Osl)oni, ^)wen Scott, Hugh Smith, Gabilel Springer, 
\\'illiam Bell. Nathaniel McClure, John Miller. John, 
Thomas and Josei)h Harvey. Matthias Beavei-. Kdward 
Louson, James Ilen.derson. Phineas Thomas. Thomas 
Craig. Benjamin Vonng. Alexander Young, \Vil!iani 
Holeman. James (iaiton, Jacob Fisher. -Jesse Morgan. 
Adam Trees. Geoige l->rown. Richaid Merrill. Jr.. Jacob 
Rydei-. Benjamin J. l\*icker. l^/.('l^i(■l kcwis. Janus Jones, 
John Ilatfiehl. l']])braim Boring, Josej)!! Millci-, Moses 
Mai'tin, Mark Oi'macost, Jacob Stadler, Smith Stone, 
Benjamin Craig, John Eviek, Jacob Hite, John Scott, 


Joseph Lee, Lewis Harrison, Benjamin Goodwin, Na- 
thaniel Patton, Nathaniel Anderson, John Sliolts, Stephen 
Sharp, William Phillips and John Sharp, Cyrus C. 
Tevis, Jesse D. Conde, John Riger, John Hatfield, Peter 
Miller, David Crews, Jr., George Craig, John Gwinnup, 
David Moimt, Eliphalet Barber, Henry Misner, John 
Barber, John Parker, Henry Hildreth, Thompson Sim- 
mons, John Murnan, Daniel Wright, Jr., James Gregg, 
George Miirnan, William Miirnan, Daniel Cox, J. Lock- 
wood,. C. Ridpath, Yfilliam I. Posey, Arnold Murray. 
John Cones, John Rile}^ James Linville, James Stephens, 
Jacob dinger, Nathaniel Smith and John Curry, Field- 
ing Ballard and Jonathan Paul. 

In the Central Tiers of Townships — David Mount, 
Thomas Cassady, Y^illiam Morris, William B. Laughlin, 
John Lower, David Looney, Jr., William S, Bus- 
sell, Jacob Reed, Joseph Looney, Moses Bussell, Daniel 
Kellogg, Jacob Mull, Frederick Mull, George Mull, Sr., 
George Rishling, John Thornburg, Anderson Wilkinson, 
Thomas Stuart, Garet Darland, James Samons, Joseph 
Devers, Jr., Peter H. Patterson, John Leffler, Isaac 
Asher, John Asher, Richard Thornburg, North Parker, 
James Greer, George Mull, Jr., Stephen O. Brown, James 
Stallard, William Kitchey, George Grace, David Temple- 
ton, John N. Calvert, Solomon Reel, Zachariah Hodges, 
Reuben Vanzandt, Stephen Jessup, Llezekiah Mount, 
John Campbell, Israel Brown, Lewis Smith, Henry My- 
ers, Peter Loone}^, Henry Nicholas, Thomas MeCarty, 
Nathaniel Hodges, William Junkin, James Anderson, 
Stephen Sims, Gamaliel Garrison, Samson Cassady, Wil- 
liam Cassady, Jesse Shortridge, William Currens, George 
Guff in, Andrew Guff in, Jesse Heizer, John Kippers, 
Andrew Brown, Abram Hackleman, Enoch McCarty, 
John P. Thompson, George Craig, John Hawkins, Tyra 
Gantt, John W. Morford, Thomas Salors, E. and J. Fra- 
zee, :-~ancy Driskill, Thomas F. Lewis, Jacob Goble, 
Brooks B. Talbott, Joshua Moore, William Low, John P. 


Minor, Frederick Miller, George Reno, Edward Stevens, 
Christian Clinier, Huston Morris, John Stephens, Stacy 
Stephens, John Perkins, Jacob Sah)rs, Amos Wriuht, 
John Hoisted, David VanCilder, John B. Talbott, John 
Gwinujh James E^obinson, Henry Lyons, Jonathan Jus- 
tice, Isaac AVilliams, Steidicn ^laple, AVilliam Arnold, 
i^ice ]'*hii)ps. \Villiani Simmons. Joseph 3tiarsh, Cornelius 
Cunmiings, Thomas Jones, Reuben Salors, Israel Brow^i, 
Hezel'viah Salors. Artemus .Moore, William P. Priest, 
Klias Poston, James Bro"«ai, John Harcourt, Jesse. Win- 
ship, William Osbourn, James Ford^^ce, Jr., Robert 
Thompson, Jesse Robinson, James Tyler, John Leforge, 
Jr., Robert Lyons, Gardiner Mooie, Benjamin Sailors, 
James Logan, Edward Pattison, ^^'illinm Norwood, 
James Cooper, Roljert Kelly, Lewis Sala, G. Klein. John 
and Reuben Wilson, John Newkirk, Daniel Hall, Peter 
Fear, Samuel Carr. Robert English, Samuel Do-uiiard, 
AVilliam A])])letou. Jolm Ki])ling-e]', Abraham Newkirk, 
James McCoi-mack. John McDnniel, Isaac Hittle. John 
McMillen, Ama>;iah Morgan, John Cox, Jr., Samuel Gre- 
well, ^^'illiam Gilson, Wear Cassidy, AVilliam Gibson, 
Vniliam Moffatt, Ste])hen Harrell, John Nash, Moses 
Hai-rell, George Zion, Samuel Newh(mse, Thomas Dun- 
can, Jeremiah Harrell, Jonathan Bisliop, ?Jichael Hittle, 
George Hittle, Christian Furi'v, Rausbird Gi-een. Samuel 
Danner, Thomas Sargent, Richard Blacklidge. Jacob Vir- 
gil, John .Mori-is, Frederick Smoyer, Jacob Rutherbaugh, 
John lilacklidge. Dyer Woodwoi'th, Reuben Rowland, 
(Jeoi-ge Ni))p, Thomas Moffatt. ^^'illiam Dill, Sha.drach 
Dill. Solomon \'c;ich, Ceorge \\-iughu. Thomas l">ra('ken, 
Natliaiiicl Mc('oinas, John lloughtci!. Jci-eminh Mavston, 
Klislia ('lai-k. Aiidicw Brown. \\'illia,n.i Sjiai'ks, John 
Tate. John Hornady. John Willdridge, Isaac Adair, W'l]- 
Ii;'iii Cuirius. Jesse Shortridge. Alexander Reed, Alexan- 
dei- i*ower, John (Jregg. John Heatoii. F])hraim Fi-azee, 
Robert liockridge. ( leorge Taylor, Jonathan Morris, John 
Davidson, Conrad Sailor, Samuel Gai-rison, Jacob Starr, 


James Cooper, Sr., Abraham Switzer, David McPearson, 
John Lefforge, Robert Lochridge, William McNabb, 
Daniel Jackson, George Taylor, John McKee, Michael 
Beaver, Timothy Allison, James Abbott, Noah Batman, 
Alexander Williams, Levi Bracken, William Newell, 
Gideon Minor, William Swift, William Simonds, Jesse 
Jinks, John Smith, Robert Groves, James McClellan, 
John Judy, Isaac Hittle, John Clifford, John Rybnrn, 
Hugh Reed, Hngh ^Jorrison, Isaac Arnold, John Har- 
lock, John Kent, Abraham Voris, Daniel McDonald, 
Enoch Limpus, James Justice, Jesse Julian, Levi Shoe- 
make, Robert Porter and Edward Vandal. 

In the Northern Tier of Townships — Benjamin 
Ilutchins, Samuel Cary, Henry Buckman, Phineas 
Clawson, John Dille, Jonathan Tullis, Ezekiel Johnson, 
Amos Higgins, John IMaxwell, Samuel Ross, Moses Clif- 
ford, George Hepner, Isaac Cooper, John Clarkson, 
Elisha Schofield, Joseph P. Plummer, David Louden- 
bach, Joseph Henley, Robert Hill, James Harrison, Peter 
Cassell, James A, Henry, John 2.1. Huddleson, William 
David, William Crum, Benjamin Hutchins, Joseph Cox, 
Benjamin Morgan, Stephen Jones, David Blackburn, 
Artemus and Timothy Day, George Gates, Edward Patti- 
son, Philemon Plummer, Dayton Holloway, John Hill, 
Pierson Lacy, Jonathan Hill, Thomas Hill, Jr., Charles 
J. Low, Benjamin Snyder, Samuel Pearce, Thomas Sim- 
ons, Onide Pettyjohn, Samuel Hill and Robert Holland. 
While the most of these original entrants bought their 
land for the purpose of erecting homes and becoming resi- 
dents, there are, of course, in the above lists the names of 
some who were mere speculators and wlio never became 
residents, thus accounting for some names that will sound 
strange in this generation. 

chaptp:r IV 


hi all inland counties where the soil is rich, agri- 
culture nnist be the paramount interest of the people. 
Unless nianufacturing is extensively carried on, the pro- 
duction of the soil is the basis upon which the prosperity 
of the community is built. What is drawn from the 
bosom of the earth is all that adds to the wealth of society. 
The mechanical, commercial and professional classes are 
all dependent upon the farmer, and while it is true that 
this dependence is in some degree mntu;il, a failure of the 
ci'o])s stagnates at once the business of the country. What- 
ever, therefore, has a tendency to advance ihv interests of 
this, the most mnucrous of tnw citizens, cannot fail 
to be more or less advantageous to all. 

Of Kush county it would be difficidt to speak in too 
strong terms of praise. It contains a body of laud of 
remarkable fertility, and almost every acre within its 
boundai'ies is pioductive. The faiining comnuniity is one 
of which naucli of a xcry favorable nature truthfully can 
be said. The people are, as a rule, good and careful farm- 
ers — industrious, thi'ifty, eiitei-prising, intelligent, and, 
having these qualities, ])i-os])erous, of course. Tliev are 
woi'keis. readers and tliinkei's. A ride ovci- the county 
reveals well inijuoved and well stocked fai-ms on every 
side; comf(»ital)le fr.rni homes, many of tlu ni elegant and 
substanlial: these, witli the well filled baiiis. the fields 
of grain, the fine hogs, cattle and hoises, and the thou- 
sand othei" things afford gi'ati tying evidences of 

I>ut this i)r()sperity is not the icsult of a few years 
of effort. It has its source in the frontier wilderness of 
a century ago, and is the fruit of generations of concerted 



toil. It is a far cry from the first settler's clearing to the 
modern farm — from the first Rush County Agricultural 
Society to the present Farmers' Association, and the 
story of this progressive development is the indicator of 
the spirit which has animated successive generations of 
the agricultural population. 


The first concrete effort at organization on the part 
of the farmers of the county came with the first agricul- 
tural society, which had for its primary object the hold- 
ing of a county fair. 

County fairs have been considered valuable agencies 
in promoting the prosperit}^ of agriculture by the influ- 
ence they exert in bringing together a large collection of 
the most intelligent farmers and stock raisers of the com- 
munity, giving them a better opportunity to compare 
notes, to impart to each other whatever valuable knowl- 
edge or experience they ma}^ have acquired, until the 
joint experience of the whole becomes the individual 
property of each member of the society. Emulation is 
also a great incentive to action. When a man attends a 
fair and sees how far his neighbor has surpassed him in 
raising stock or grain, his pride becomes aroused and he 
at once sets to work to remedy his own deficiencies, and 
these efforts, though individually of little moment, when 
aggregated cause a vast increase in the productions of 
the county and, of course, in its wealth. Hence it 
became the interest of the whole community to support a 
good county fair. 

Sensible to the advantages of an agricultural society, 
some of the more progressive among the farmers of Rush 
county formed an association in 1852 for the advance- 
ment of the interests of the rural population of the county. 
This first organization, however, was so imperfect in its 
mechanical plan, that it soon became apparent to its 
members that its existence could be but brief unless reor- 


ganized upon a firmer foiuidatioii. The directoi'S, woi-k- 
ing upon a plan jtroposed l)y the Riishville Eepublican, 
fostered a sn))scription of stock for the new society, and 
on ]May 23, 1857, these subscriptions i-eached a total that 
warranted the secretary of the original body (S. Donald- 
son) to call a meeting of the stockholders of the new 
society for the ])iirpose of effecting the organ i/atiim of a 
joint stock company. At this meeting the following con- 
stitution was adopted: 

"Wliereas, AVe, the undersigned citizens of Rush 
county and state of Indiana, are desirous of promoting the 
prosperity and encouragement of agricultural and 
mechanical pui'suits, including the cultivation of fruits, 
and ornamental gai'dening, improvi^ments in all bi'anches 
of mechanism and arts, the improvement of the races of 
all useful and domestic animals, and the general advance- 
ment of rural and household economy, and domestic 
manufactures, and the disseminaticm of useful informa- 
tion ui)on all the above named subjects; and believing 
that the present agricultural society of Rush county, as 
at present organized, is not adequate to carry out the 
above objects so fully as desired, therefore, 

"Be it Kncmii, That we, whose names are hereunto 
subscribed, propose and agree to foiin a joint-stock com- 
pany, under the name and style of the 'Rush County 
Agricultui'al Society', the cai)ital stock of said com})any 
not to be less than $1,200, and to be divided int<^ shares of 
$10 each, and to ])e divided as nearly (Mpially as ])raetic- 
able among the several to^^^lshi])S of said county, in a 
ratio to the ])o])ulation of the said several tov»']isln])s 
respectively. And said (•om])any ])i'o])os(' to organize in 
all respects in strict confoiiiiity witli all laws of the state 
of Indiana in foree, foi- the cncouragcnicnt of agi'iculture, 
and in entire subordinati(m to all rules and regulations of 
the Indiana State Board of Agriculture; and that said 
stof'k shall be used by said company in aid of all purposes 
properly connected wuth the state and county agricultural 


societies, and the objects above specified. It is not 
intended to conflict with the present Rush County Agri- 
cultural Society, but to aid the same, and become insti- 
tuted therefor. And to attain the above named objects, 
we adopt the following constitution : 

^'Art. 1. Said company shall be governed by the 
same number and kind of officers as required for the 
Rush County Agiicultural Society, and the present board 
of officers elected for the ensuing year^ of said society, 
shall be and are hereby adopted as the officers of the new 
society for the ensuing year, provided that said officers 
now elected consent to serve as such, and become stock- 
holders of said company. 

''Art. 2. Said new society agrees to take the grounds 
and all the appurtenances to the same belonging, now 
owned by the former Rush County Agricultural Society, 
and assume and pay all liabilities and debts of said old 
society of every nature. But said new society will require 
a good and sufficient deed for said ground when all said 
liabilities shall have been paid off. 

''Art. 3. Said new society shall hold an annual fair 
upon said grounds, and offer premiums for the various 
products and articles exhibited for each year not less than 
$600 for each fair. 

"Art. 4. The stockholders and their families shall 
enter the gates free of charge; and a stocldiolder's family 
shall consist of all who reside with him under twenty-one 
years of age, and all females who reside with him of any 
age whatever. 

"Art. 5. All tolls, rents and profits that may arise 
from said fairs and grounds, and property owned by said 
compan}^, shall be owned by and under the control of the 
stockholders; but they shall not divert the said grounds 
from the purposes above specified, except upon full pay- 
ment therefor to those who have contributed or may con- 
tribute for the payment of the purchase-money therefor. 

'Art. 6. That Isaac B. Loder, Hugh B. Cowan and 



Stephen Doiialdsoii are hereby selected as a committee 
to draft hy-hiws for the government of said society, and 
report the same at the next meeting of tlie board. 

"Art. 7. The annual members shall have a right to 
one vote each in the election of officers, provided thev 
become iiicuibers of the society prior to said election, and 
one stockholder shall have ten votes. 

"Art. 8. The stock of said society shall be ti'ansfer- 
able, but no jx'rson slinll hold more than one share, except 
by c(msent of two-thirds of the board of directors." 

Article 7 was subsequently changed so that the annual 
member had no vote, and the stockholder only one. 


Under the new association and coiistitutioii the fail' 
of 1857 was a great success. Much intei-est was mani- 
fested thi'ougliout the county, many enti'ies were made, 
and 2,000 ]>eople thionged tlie grounds on opening day — 
a larger crowd than on any i)revious first day. Prizes 
were necessarily small, but they were distributed in such 
a manner as to ci-eate enthusiasm along almost every line 
of farming and home economics. A summary of the 
prize list by (l('])artments shows that awards of ]n-izes 
ranging fi-om $1 to ^10 were allotted in the following 
dei)artme]its: Agricultui'c, fruits, lady's fancy needle- 
work, domestic manufactures, flowers, designs, miscella- 
neous, uiaimfactures, farming implements, saddlery, 
fowls, hogs, shee]), cattle, jacks, nmles, geldings, mares, 
diat'l horses, nil ])ui'pos<' lioi'scs, gaited horses, saddle 
hoi'ses and s\veej)stakes ou horses. This was the year in 
which it is noted that "Bourbon Chief was the largest 
horse in Ihe state. Mr, l)(maldson also was the owner of 
"Young ( 'haiu))iou," noted as a ])erfe('t model of "Cham- 
])iou," which took the fii'st premium at the state fair the 
yeai- bet'oi'e. 

During succeeding years the fail" became bigger and 
better, the gi-ounds wei'e much iui]>i'oved, and a premium 


list was offered that "would attract attention from the 
world." In 1869, Archibald Kennedy, the president of 
the Agricultural Society, purchased conditionally from 
James D. Pattison ten acres of land adjoining the fair 
grounds on the west for the use of the society. The price 
paid was $250 an acre, which was paid in five years with 
10 per cent, interest on deferred payments. The finances 
of the organization were in good condition, but there was 
room for improvement in the conduct of the affairs, and 
at the annual meeting in October, 1870, some changes in 
the societ}^ were made. 

Under the old regime, there were twelve directors, 
one from each township, and this led in some instances to 
the selection of men who took no interest in the fair; in 
fact, occasionally to the choosing of one who never made 
. his ajipearance, either at the fair grounds or at any of the 
meetings of the board. Under the new arrangement the 
officers were a president, vice-president, secretary, treas- 
urer, and seven directors, not restricted to townships but 
allowing the selection of the best men of the body. 


Rival fairs were now starting up on all sides of the 
county, and it was deemed advisable to encourage horse 
racing and to make more liberal and judicious premiums, 
as well as to add a mechanical department. The result 
was that the fast horse became one of the principal inter- 
ests of almost every man in the county — and the fame of 
Rush county harness horses and breeders spread to the 
farthest corners of the land. This was in the day of 
that equine phenomenon, "Blue Bull," still spoken of by 
Hoosiers as "the fountain head of trotting and pacing 
speed in Indiana," and of which George W. Campbell 
wrote that "this wonderful horse, individually and upon 
his own merits, stands as the greatest representative of 
his species," and further that "the phenomenal success 
of this great light-harness family of horses ('Blue 


Bull's' get) has had more infliieuce in making a world- 
wide reputation for Rush county than all other factors 
(H)mbined, and in tliis broad assertion we do not bar even 
our great men — lawyeis. doctors, writers nor statesmen." 
"Blue Bull" had neither lineage, notoriety nor off- 
spring when Jim Wilson, of this county, bought him 
from Uan Dorrell, of Lawrenceburg, Ind., in 1865, and 
yet Mr. Wilson, who is remembered as a man of remark- 
able "horse" sense, possessed of a judgment "so correct 
and unusual in the recognition of that which was great 
and sujicrior in horses tliat it almost amounted to genius," 
declared of him that "he is the gi-eatest h(»rse of all," and 
in spite of all his unfortunate envii'onments "Old Blue 
Bull" vindicated himself as no other great sire ever did, 
justifying fully his owner's judgment and predictions. 
It was as late as the fall of 1871 that the first descendant 
of this plebian wonder obtained a standard trotting 
record. "Purity," his daughter, dam "Susan Loder" b}' 
"Uaniel Boone," took a record of 2:30 flat at Cincinnati. 
It was then that "Wilson's Blue Bull" first became 
knowai to the hcuse world and from that time until the 
horse's death in July, 18S0. the Wilson stal)le was the 
Mecca of speed breedeis from all over the country. A 
contemixtrai-y news]»aper account says that "the history 
of 'Blue Bull' has been described as a romauce in turf 
literature; it is also a reality of the most interesting char- 
acter to every intelligent student of the science of breed- 
ing. His pedigree was obscure, and lie was for a time 
used as a 'teaser,' the humblest office of the bleeding 
farm. One cannot imagine a horse jihiced in such unfav- 
(►rabJe ciicnmstances, being bred lo mares of the connnon- 
est quality, and as a rule (•!' no known lu-eediug, to show 
ability to sire sjx-ed: and it all collie to liini in the latter 
part of his life. ^Vith such a coiiiliinal ion of sui-rouudings 
'Blue Buir con(|uered fate and while the sires of other 
states, with the aid of the most fashionably bred mares, 
wei-e slowly achieving fame the unknown hero of Indiana 


was producing a family of trotters which later placed 
him in the very front rank of equine fame. * * * ' Blue 
Bull' is the sire of sixty in 2:30 and his daughters have 
produced 173 in 2:30."' 

This horse has an imposing marble monument erected 
to his memory where he lies buried on the Wilson farm 
in this county, with an appropriate inscription recording 
his achievements and showing the establishment of a 
great trotting family. Before leaving this subject it is 
but proper to note that the fastest horse ever bred in 
Rush county was "Alhambra," 2:08^/4, which paced a 
quarter of a mile in 27 seconds. '^Alhambra" was sired 
by the famous pacer "Legal Tender," 2:27, bred by J. 
M. Amos, of Noble township, long one of the leaders of 
that notable group of horsemen which contributed so 
much to the fame of Rush county in the days when more 
attention was paid to horses than now. 


But this craze for fancy horses was a mixed 
blessing. The speed element had a deleterious effect on 
the fair. Purses that were too large were offered, and 
an extravagant expenditure of money followed in all 
departments. In 1879, a Floral hall was built at the 
grounds. Matters went from bad to worse, and in 1893 
there was a financial deficit of $749.97 aside from build- 
ings and a new barn which cost $1,063.63. In 1895, the 
indebtedness had increased to $4,500, and, of course, the 
interest of the members of the association flagged when 
nothing but ultimate ruin appeared before the organiza- 
tion. A committee of members recommended that the 
fair grounds be sold at a sheriff's sale to cover the debts. 
A new fair association was formed in December, 1895, 
with a new constitution and a capital stock of $5,000 in 
250 shares, and this took over the affairs of the old asso- 
ciation in January, 1896, when it bought the fair 
grounds at a sheriff's sale for $3,765.81, this being the 
only bid. 


This icM)ii;anizati()ii instilled new life into the county 
fair, and in 1S9() it was more successful than it had been 
in some years, but while it was held annually for several 
years thereafter, it failed to i^rove the success lioped for, 
and the last Rush county fair w<is held in 1915, 

THK ]'ATi;()XS OF H rsi;AXl)KY 

Another nioN'enient which had in \'iew the unification 
of the farmers, and at the same time aimed to better their 
condition socially and financially, was the oruanization of 
the Patrons of Husbandry. In June, 1873. Rush Grange 
No. 211, was granted its charter by the State Grange, 
and organized with many of the foremost people of the 
cou.nty as its members. Meetings were held twice a 
month, and nuich good was accomplished in the way of 
wholesale i3urchasing of machinery and other fai*m 
necessities. But the fact that it was a secret society 
brought down upon it many unwarranted accusations — 
chiefly that it was i)olitical in its iiiotixcs and was also 
warring against the professional and business men of the 
to^^'us, but in time these doubts as to its character were 
dispelled. The Grangers had a plan for obtaining correct 
crop reports by which evi-ry member of a grange was to 
report the crops in his neighborhood, a summary of 
these reports was to be sent to the county council, the 
county council was to report in tui-n to the State Grange, 
and the latter to the National (Jrange. The information 
thus obtained was to ])e condensed iiito a gen(M-al ivjiort 
which was to be foi'wa I'dcil to cxcry grange in the country. 
This system ])i'oved to be .! rather cumlu'i'soiue ])iece of 
niachinei-y. howexcr, and ha.s long since been abandoned. 

'IMiroii^li \ari(»iis oilier agencies such as the ])ress, 
the state agi'icultural de])ai1nieiit. and t'armei-s' institutes 
greatei' knowledge on agricultui'al snl»Jt'cts was dissemin- 
ate(l tlii'oiiLihout the I'ural conuiiunities. In 1861, the 
Rushville It'(/>n/ilic<ni became alarmed o\-er the appear- 
ance of the chess weed in many fields in the county, and 


sought a remedy for this economic evil. In the same 
year this newspaper propounded the question "do cut- 
worms turn into grasshoppeis'?", and stated that a veri- 
table scourge of these worms was upon the farmers — 
that in one instance a field was literally swarming with 
them, to the extent that the ground looked black with 
their crawling bodies and in many places the ground was 
denuded of vegetation. To prevent the ravages of the 
army worm, farmers weie advised to plow a trench 
around wheat and corn fields. In 1870, the Eepiiblican 
devoted a column in each issue to farmers and their busi- 
ness, and this plan was continued for some time. Leading 
farmers of the county submitted their opinions to the 
public in this way, and much information of a valuable 
nature was disseminated throughout the community. 

Farmers began to co-operate with each other more 
and more. In 1871, Messrs. Guffin and Daubenspeck 
or^ganized the Rush Count}^ Stock Sales Company for 
the purpose of holding auctions, and at these much fine 
stock was sold. In 1880, the Wool Growers' Association 
of Rush county was organized with George W. Reeve as 
its president. In the early '90s there was a creamery 
"boom," a half dozen or more creameries being started, 
but as this is not a dairy country most of them were short 
lived. In 1904, Rush county farmers had exhibits of 
fruit at the St. Louis exposition, and in multifarious ways, 
too numerous to mention, the horizon of the farmer has 
become broadened, and his activities more diversified, 
until agriculture, from being a haphazard occupation, has 
grown to be a business where only the progressive and 
efficient survive. 


Market quotations noted in newspaper files of the 
years indicated follow : 

Quotations 1855 1857 

Flour, per bbl $8.00 $4.50 


Flour, per cwt 4.0U 2.25 

Grain — Wheat, per bn 1.50 .60 

Corn, per bii 45 .20 

Oats, per bii 30 .20 

Bacon — Hams, per lb 9v/ lOi/oC .15 

Sides, per lb O6I/2 .10 

Shoulders, per lb 6'^7c 

Lard, per lb 081-3 .15 

Butter, per 11) 15 .15 

Eggs, per doz .15 ,08 

Potatoes, per bu 1.25 .20 

Sugar, per lb 08 11^'12V2C 

Wool, per lb 20^^25c 

Ten years later, in 1867, the Rushville markets 
showed a marked price increase, largely due to the condi- 
tions prevailing during and shortly after the war, as 
follows : 

Flour, per bbl $ 13.00 

Flour, i^er cwt 6.50 

Grain— Wheat 2.10^/2.20 

Corn .45 

Oats .50 

Bacon — Hams, per lb .221/^ 

Sides, per lb .18 

Shoulders, per lb .14 

T^ard, p(r lb .11 

Butter, per lb .30 

Eggs, per doz .20 

Potatoes, per bn 1.50 

Hay, per ton 15.00 

Sugar, pel- lb 16v/ .20 

Tlic r(»l lowing table will show the a})proximate aver- 
age ]tiic(s of wheat, corn, and hogs, every ten years, 
begiTUiiug with 1870 aud ending with 1920, and for 1921 
(February) : 


1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1921 

Wheat . . . $.90 $.95 $.91 $.65 $1.00 $3.00 $1.60@$1.72 

Corn $.75 $.55 $.44 $.25 $.55 $1.25 $ .70@$ .75 

Hogs $5@8.50 $3.50@4.60 $2.75@4 $5.50@9 $15@17.50 $8.75(5)10.25 

Owing to the repeated changes in the method of 
reporting the markets and also to the wide fluctuations 
in the early years caused by distance from market and 
poor transportation facilities, a more detailed review of 
the markets would entail such minute explanation as 
hardly to be desirable in this connection. 


The price of land has risen from near zero in the 
first year of the county and the days of the Brookville 
land office to the neighborhood of $300 an acre in 1920. 
In 1857, George and Andy Guffin purchased the old 
Hildreth farm in Noble township for $57 an acre. Fifteen 
years later, G. W. Brann sold his farm for $65 an acre, 
and then there was a slow climb until about 1900 when 
land sold for about $80 per acre. In 1904, the Ben 
Bravard farm in Posey township sold for $125 an acre, 
and until 1920 the price rose rather rapidly, at that time 
reaching a high-water mark of about $225, as an 
average — in instances as high as $300. Toward the latter 
part of that year a decline set in, caused by postwar 
depression and business stagnation, until in the early 
part of the following year it was again down to about 
$175 to $200 per acre. 

The number of farms in the county is gradually 
decreasing, there having been 2,267 in 1900, 2,143 in 1910, 
and 2,044 in 1920, Some interesting statistics are given 
in the Indiana Year Book for 1919 concerning this 
county. There were in that year 201,009 acres in farms of 
which amount 103,733 acres were farmed by the owners 
and 97,237 acres by renters; waste land amounted to 
2,631 acres ; acres of permanent pasture land 30,316 ; acres 
of timber land 11,136; and acres of land in orchards 
3,155. There were 41,201 acres of wheat harvested in 


1918 witli ail average yield of 20 bushels per acre, or a 
total of 824,020 bushels. Nearly 25 jier cent more acreage 
was sown to wheat in 1918 tliau had been luii'vested. Rye 
to the amount of 4,07(5 acre s was harvested hi 1918. Corn 
is tile u'l-eat staple crop of the county. (58,720 acres liaving 
been liai-vested with an jivera.ue yield of 44 bushels, a 
total of 3,023.(xS0 l)usliels, of wh'ich"2,484,588 bushels \vere 
fed on the farm. In average yield Rush country ranks 
second in the state (exceeded by Union with 48 bushels), 
secoud in total bushels (exceeded by Benton), and ranks 
first in point of Inishels fed on the farm. An average 
yield of 40 bushels of oats on 10,022 acres gave a total of 
4(J0,880 bushels. 

Rush is jjre-eminentiy a h(»g raising county, having 
led her sister counties in the state in this respect for the 
past five years. The number of hogs undei- six months 
old on December 31, 1918, was 45,9()(): ovei- six mqnths, 
23.451 ; and the t(»tal number sold during the year was 
119,954, It was the introduction of the Poland China 
strain hereabout along in the latter '80s that gave iin]>etus 
to hog production in Rush county. The excellent records 
made along tliat line may be said to date from a public 
sale of hogs made by John H, Bebout near Hnshville on 
Oetolx'r 3), 1889, and which was refericd to in coiitempoi-- 
ary newsjiaiier accounts as "the first exclusively Poland 
riiina hog sale of which there is any recoi'd." The Rush- 
ville /t'('jt((l,'lic(iii's headlines on the stoi'y of this sale 
declared "(t beats tlie world I Ninety Rnsl; county hogs 
sold foi- ^5,792,40— average of .t()4.3(;.'' The highest price 
realized from a single animal in this sale was >!^()2") for a 
(me-ycar-old boar. In 1893, the Pebout herd leader. 
"George Wilkes.*" sold for ^700, then a record price, and 
shortly aftei'wr.rd "(4n\- Willa'S," from the same herd, 
sold for ^900, also a i-ecord pi'ice at thai time, and from 
that time on hogs liave been a iiiiglily good thing for Rush 
county. It is a fai- cry from the old **i*azor backs" and 
"elm peeleis" that roamed the woods hereabout in pio- 


neer clays, feeding on mast until time to round tliem up 
and drive an unrul}^ herd of them down to market at Cin- 
cinnati, to the sleek Poland Chinas and other pure bred 
strains of the present day, but "the world do move" and 
the hog has progressed and developed along with other 
things to which man has given his thought. 


This reference to the days of the "razor backs" 
recalls the system under which the hog raisers hereabout 
used to keep track of their widely wandering porkers. 
Free to roam at will along the unfenced highways and 
through the open woods hogs and cattle took the country 
in common and it was necessary for each ov^raer to have 
his individual mark or brand in order to make sure of 
coming into his own w^en it came time for the annual 
round-up. That there might be an orderly system and 
that there might be no duplication of individual niai'ks 
each owner filed with the county recorder his individual 
mark or brand and all others were thus barred from using 
the same distinguishing mark. A special record book 
was maintained for this purpose. That was back in the 
'30s and the book, "Marks and Brands A," is still on file 
in the recorder's office, musty but in a good state of 
preservation. The register of marks and brands was 
kept by townships and the entries for Anderson town- 
ship farmers thus opens the record, the first noted being 
those of Henry Sagersee, "a crop and two slits in each 
ear;" William Sagersee, "a croj^ and slit in each ear;" 
Daniel Sagersee, "a swallow fork in each ear;" George 
Troutman, "a crop and slit in the left ear and an under 
bit in the right ear." Other initial entries in some of 
the other townships follow: In Jackson township — 
Thomas Sailor, "a swallow fork in each ear;" Walker 
township — Benjamin C. Plummer, "a crop and two slits 
in the right ear;" Union township — Isaac Arnold, "a 
hole in the right ear," Noble township — Henry Guff in, 


"a smooth crop off of the left ear and a half crop off of 
the upper end of the right ear; Washington township — 
"Benjamin ^tfelser, ''a slit in each ear," and so on, the old 
book showing that many farmers availed themselves of 
this system. 


The Farmers' Association of Rush and Decatur 
counties, better known as the Milroy Farmers' Festival 
or ]May Meeting, was an oi-ganizaticm that did much to 
develop grou]) activities among the farmers (^f the county. 
Tile first of these meetings was held on the third Tluirs- 
day of May (23d day), 1889, at the Methodist Episcopal 
church in Milroy, and oi'ganized by electing George W. 
Reeve, president; John Arnold, secretary, and R. W. 
^Montgomery, secretary. In the absence of Judge Cullen, 
I. P. Root delivered the address of WTlcome, and then 
followed a fine program of choir music, declamations, 
and i)apers, one of which, "Rural Homes and Rural Life" 
by W. R. Pleak, w^as discussed pro and con by Judge 
Bomiei", Doctor Arnold and otliers. Diimer was served 
to all the visitors by the citizens of Milroy, and after a 
continuation of the ])rogram in the afternoon, the meeting 
w^as adjourned until the third Thursday in .Ma.v of the 
following year, i-esolutions of respect and thanks to 
Mili-oy first being ado])t('d. At the second meeting, in 
1890, C. I. Ainswortii was made p(>rnianent president; 
G. AV. Reeve, of Rush, and Hon. Z. T. Riley, of Decatur, 
vice-presidents; W. (\ Mauzy, of Rush, and T. B. Peery, 
of Dccatui", secretaries; and G. H. Puntenney and Senator 
A. M. Kennedy, committee on resolutions. The Decatur 
county contingent reported that the county had already 
availed itself of the I'ecently allowed state ap])rop]-iation 
for the ])ur])ose of hokling fai-mers' meetings, and advised 
I^ush to do likewise. Several papers w^ere given, among 
which were "Fifty Years Ago" by Mrs. S. C Thoinas and 
"The Farmer in Politics" by M. E. Newhouse; the enthus- 


iasm of the meeting ran high, and it was shown that as a 
class farmers were being more generally recognized than 
before, and that the term "mudsills of society," was fast 
becoming obsolete. The third annual meeting was held 
on May 21, 1891, and G. W. Reeve was made president 
and Dr. S. C, Thomas delivered the address of welcome. 
The program was more far reaching than the two prev- 
ious, including, in addition to the usual papers on farm 
questions, one on "House and Home" by Mrs. Ollie 
McGrew, on ' ' Finance ' ' by Judge Cullen, and one against 
the free-coinage silver bill by Hon. A. M. Kennedy. At 
the fourth and fifth meetings G. W. Reeve was retained 
as president, at the sixth W. R. Pleak was elected to that 
office, at the seventh and eighth Mr. Reeve again, and at 
the ninth, in 1897, J. F. Smith was elected. The princi- 
pal subject of discussion at all these meetings was scien- 
tific agricultural education for the sons of farmers, 
politics and home economics being of secondary considera- 
tion. The sentiment of the majority was strongly in favor 
of sending the boys, whenever possible, to Purdue Uni- 
versity, although there were some men who stood out 
against this course, maintaining that most of the instruc- 
tors and speakers at the university could learn more about 
good i^ractical farming from the farmers of Rush and 
Decatur counties than the farmers could from them. 
This spirit of hostility to the state school, however, was 
gradually allayed, and co-operation with the state insti- 
tutions was heartily advocated. Each succeeding meeting 
was more enthusiastic than the one preceding, and the 
attendance at these popular meetings grew to such pro- 
portions that to take care of the throngs became a distinct 
burden to the town of Milroy. 


One of the most important accomplishments in the 
county during recent years was the organization of the 
Rush Countv Farmers' Association. On December 11, 



1918, a inciting was called to organize a fanners' associa- 
tion. At the meeting the following officers were chosen : 
W. A. Alexander, president; John O. Hill, vice-president; 
aiid Howard Kwbank, secretary. 

Mr. Alexander was unable to accei)t the position, and 
at a later meeting D. C. Buell was chosen to fill the 
vacancy. The associati(m decided to chai'ge no niember- 
sliij) fee l)ut to accept all who were willing to join and 
])ledge their sii])port to the organization. \\'hen eleven 
of the twelve townships were organized and alH»nt three 
hundred nienil)ers secured, the Indiana Federation of 
Farmers' Associations was organized. It was then 
evident that Rush county would have to reorganize on a 
paid membershi]) basis and no further work of organiza- 
tion was done until August when the officers were called 
together to discuss plans of reoi'ganization on a basis that 
would conform with the requirements of the state organi- 

The officers divided the county into four parts and 
selected one man for each quarter to advertise the prelim- 
inary meeting to ))e held at Rushville on August 20. 1919. 
It was arranged at this meeting to have at le;ist two men 
from each township atten<l the disti'ict conference of the 
Indiana Federation of Karmers' Associations ;it Slielby- 
\ille on August 2<!. 'rhii-ly-l'ixc Inrmers wei'c ]tresent. 
They elected Howard i^wbank teui])orary chairman and 
decided on a $") membei'shi]> I'ce. From this point Mr. 
Fwbank directed 1 he oi'g;iiiiz;iti(»i! until the permanent 
organization was formed with oxer l.OOO paid members, 
ai)])roximately 50 ])er cent of the t'.nniers of the county. 
By November 30, 1920. the iiieinhership w;is increased to 
^Ai)^). The |)i-eseiit officeis are Fred Bell, ])resident; 
(^harles \'. Spencer, vice-president; Howard Fw})ank, 
secretary, and Jesse W . I'eteis. treasurer. The board 
of directors includes (»ne member I'l'oin e;;ch townshi]) in 
the county, as follows: Fi'cd dessup, Ri]>ley; Walter 
J>itner, ('enter; J. \j. Hayes, Washington; Jesse Price, 


Posey ; Frank Jones, Jackson ; J. A. Looney, Union ; D. 
M. Dearinger, Walker; John O. Hill, Rushville; George 
Smith, Noble; Robert Campbell, Orange; J. C. Power, 
Anderson; and Fred Goddard, Richland. The directors 
are allowed per diem salaries, but the officers, unless 
engaged in extra work for the association, receive none. 


The Mays Farmers ' Club had united with the Center 
township farmers' organization, and after December 1, 
1919, the new organization continued the work of the 
Farmers' Club as a community organization. During the 
past three years the club has been buying its fertilizer 
from the local dealers at a neat saving over the old plan 
of buying individually. The local dealers are glad to get 
the trade at a reduced price because there is a great saving 
in collecting the orders. Monthly meetings have been 
held at which excellent programs have been given. The 
club at the present time claims approximately seventy 
families at a membership fee of $1 the family. 

Five thriving farmers' institutes are now organized 
in the county and are doing a good work in bringing 
farmers together to discuss farm problems. These five 
institutes, all having state speakers, are : Arlington, with 
Zeno Hodge, president; Milroy, Ray Selby, president; 
Moscow, Paul Gosnell, president ; Mays, Bert Trowbridge, 
president, and Fairview, Grant Hinchman, president, 
this last being a joint institute embracing one township 
in Rush and one in Fayette county. In addition to these 
five institutes there is one at New Salem, of which George 
Smith is president, that does not have state speakers. 
The institutes are also doing much toward promoting a 
community spirit, it being decidedly noticeable that there 
is more interest in community affairs and a finer spirit 
of co-operation than where such influence has not been 



The work of the coimty agent's office has been of 
i»i'eat service to the agricultural population of the county. 
This important phase of the farming industry was com- 
menced in September, 1917, under Marion F. Detrick as 
co-operative extension work in agriculture and home 
economics with the Puidue University department of 
agricultural extension, the United States Department of 
Agriculture, and the Rush county board of education 
co-operating, and when the Rush County Farmers' Asso- 
ciation was organized it was made party to the work. In 
his report for the year ending Xovembei- 30, 1919, ^Ir. 
Deti'ick said that whatever success the work had achieved 
had been due largely to the co-operation of the farmers 
and their organizations. The work has been conducted 
chiefly along the lines of improving the crop yields by 
the control of diseases and insects, by making a study of 
the needs of the plants to make a maximum yield, and 
by demonsti'ating the methods of feeding the cro])s to 
the best advantage. When the land was new, soil fertility 
problems were unknown, insect enemies and plant diseases 
were unconuuon, and land was ehca]) and taxes low. The 
chief essentials of success wei'e a strong arm, a good wife, 
and a new piece of soil, but today success in agriculture 
de])ends lai-gely on our ability to devise methods of saving 
the arm, and the wife, and making an old soil act like 
new. ^\'ith the farmers organized, they are beginning to 
capitalize each other's brains in a way that is mutually 
liel])ful, and are working together foi- the solution of 
problems that are common i)ro])erty. 

On March 1, 1920, Donald D. Ball assumed the duties 
of eounty agricultui'al agent, and in a clear and com])re- 
hensive rei)ort of November 30, 1920, portions of which 
are have quoted, gave a quite detailed account of the scope 
of the work of his office and the Farmei's' Association. 
That this organization had been giving some consideration 


to the outlining of a program of work to be undertaken 
was shown by the fact that as soon as Mr. Ball came to 
the county he was met with requests to do work in corn 
disease control and loose smut control. Committees were 
appointed to co-operate with the county agent in working 
out the plans for these lines of investigation. 

Because of lack of time no further effort toward a 
program of work, outlined in co-operation with the asso- 
ciation, was attempted for the year, but upon the recom- 
mendation of the officers of the organization, the agent 
decided to continue a number of projects already started 
by his predecessor. Accordingly, a program including 
the following lines of work was submitted to the president 
of the association for his approval : 

A. Soil Improvement. 

(a) Locating and starting liming demonstra- 

(b) Locating and starting fertilizer demonstra- 

B. Crop Production. 

(a) The establishment of a central seed corn 
testing plant to test seed corn for germina- 
tion and disease elimination. 

(b) To conduct a number of ear-to-row seed 
corn plots. 

(c) To enroll as many corn growers as possi- 
ble in the five acre corn growing contest. 

(d) To establish a central treating plant for 
treating seed wheat by the hot water 

C. Livestock Production. 

(a) Two demonstrations of self-feeder method 
of feeding swine. 

(b) Hogging-down demonstrations. 

(c) Continuation of brood sow production 

(d) Continuation of sheep production records. 


(c) Conduct poultry culliui;- dcnioDstratious 
where wanted. 

D. Club Work. 

(a) To ])romote a Bovs' and Girls' Pig Feediui? 

E. Fami Economics. 

(a) To contiue wheat cost account records. 

(b) Farm record books. 


It was not long- l^efore it was seen that it would be 
impossible to carry out the above program in fidl, as a 
number of projects had to give way to vai'ious activities 
which were not anticipated. Just what has been accom- 
plished in the various projects will be noted in the follow- 
ing pages. 

Twelve liming denumstrations were started in six 
townships of the county. These were not checked up for 
results this year, because in every case tlu^ ci'op gi'own 
was either corn or wheat, and as it is the l)eneficial effect 
of lime on clover that it was wished to show, these demon- 
strations carry over into succeeding yeais, and will be 
checked uj» when the land is carrying a clover crop. 

Two demonstrations on the use of fertilizer on wheat 
wei-e located. Each of these w^as a comparison between 
K) ))er cent acid ])hosphate and mixed fertilizer. Each 
fertilized ]>lot showed an increase of three bushels ])ej' 
acre ovei- the unfertilized portion of the field, but no 
a])])reciable difference ))etwe(Mi the two l^iiids of 

'i'he central seed corn testing plant established under 
the aus})ices of the (.\)unty Farmers' Association was 
o])ened for l)iisiiiess on .March 10, 1920, and from that 
date until May 10th, 1 1,710 ears of seed corn were tested 
for disease aJid gei'uiiiiat inn. Out of this number 2,955 
ears \wovv discarded on accoinit of beijig diseased and 
1,'>7;> ears on account of im2)erfect getinination. The 


modified rag doll tester was used in making the tests, and 
this method of testing proved very satisfactory. 

Eight ear-to-row corn test plots were conducted 
during the year, four of which were checked up with sat- 
isfactory results. The fact that ears of seed corn vary 
greatly in producing power was brought out very plainly, 
the yielding power of the seed ranging from 98 bushels to 
the acre to as low as 34 bushels. The ears showing the 
greatest amount of starch in the kernel proved the poorest 

Twenty-seven contestants w^ere enrolled in the five 
acre corn growing contest in the spring of 1920, sixteen 
of them completing the project. In order to stimulate 
interest, the Peoples National Bank of Rushville fur- 
nished a silver loving cup in 1919 to be competed for 
annually. In 1920, Howard Ewbank was the winner with 
a yield of 98.2 bushels per acre. 

As a result of the operation of a central hot water 
treating plant in the fall of 1919 and the fall of 1920, 
about 1,600 acres were sown to smut-free seed wheat in 
the fall of 1920. This jiroject has proved one of the most 
profitable lines of work carried on in the county since 
extension work was introduced. The per cent of smut was 
reduced by the treatment from as high as 19 to a trace, 
with an average increase of crop value of $6.88 per acre, 
and an average increased yield of 2.5 bushels. 

Only one hog feeding demonstration was completed 
this season, that of Ernest Stuckey, who demonstratecl 
the feeding of corn, ground oats and rye, and tankage in 
a self-feeder. 


Seven farmers began to keep records of the produc- 
tion of their brood sows with the fall litter of 1919. The 
purpose of this project is to keep accurate production 
record of all brood sows in the herd for several litters, so 
that the poor producers can be eliminated. 


Five farmers are keeping records of all expenses and 
income from their flocks of sheep for the purpose of 
studying the factors which determine the profit or loss in 
sheep raising. 

Rush county ])oasts of one of the livest swine 
V)reeders' organizations in Indiana. The Rush County 
Big Type Poland China Breeders' Association was organ- 
ized early in 1920 with A. Link Jinks as i)i-esident, and 
G. H. Kirkham as secretary. Some very important activ- 
ities have been undertaken during its first year, the most 
far-reaching being a tour of the leading herds of the 
county, and an association sale held in the fall of 1920. 

One (»f the most popular and at the same time most 
])i'(»fitabl(' ])rojects carried on in 1920 was the series of 
]joultry cullijig demonstrations. Thirteen culling demon- 
strations were held, and thirty per cent of the hens 
handled were shown to be x>oor i)]-oducei-s and were elim- 
inated from the flocks without materially decreasing the 
number of eggs produced. 

Miss Annette Wissing, ten-year-old daughter of 
.T(»hn ^r. Wissing, of Walker townshi]), was wimier in the 
boys' and girls' pig feeding contest of Walker and 
Orange townships. The Manilla Bank co-operated with 
the county agent in conducting this contest, and offered 
$125 in prizes. 

Forty-eight farmcis are now keeping a iccoid of 
their fai-m business, using the record books i)ublished hy 
the fai-m management division of the Pui'due agricultural 
extcTision department. Twenty of them have agreed to 
submit tlieir b(»oks at tlic end of the year in order that 
tliey can Ite sunnuarized and a study iiia^ie of the farming 
Itusiness of tile county. 

I>lanks for krejiing cost account iccords in connec- 
tion with the 192(i wheat cro}) were distrilmted to nine- 
teen fanners, eiglit of whom returned re])orts foi" siun- 
marizatioii. On the eight farms covered by these reports. 


the average cost of producing a bushel of wheat was shown 
to be $3.13 per bushel. 

The daily livestock marketing service established by 
the county farmers organization has proved of extreme 
value to the livestock feeders and shippers. Each morn- 
ing the agent's office receives the market quotations on 
hogs and cattle from Indianapolis by telephone, and the 
report is phoned to a bank or store, or other point, in each 
township, and posted on a bulletin board in the office. 
The report includes market conditions at the Chicago, 
Buffalo, and Indianapolis markets. 


30, 1920 

Meetings at which agent took part 72 

Total attendance 4,096 

Miles traveled in discharge of duty 4,585 

Office calls on business 2,162 

Farm visits on business 228 

Personal letters written 503 

Circular letters written 8,601 

The county agent has found the officers of the Rush 
County Farmers' Association ever ready to co-operate in 
the different lines of work undertaken, and, in fact, 
success in the work can be accredited to the moral and 
financial support of this association. This is especially 
true in connection with the corn improvement and loose- 
smut control work, which could not have been undertaken 
at all on the basis it Vv^as, had it not been for the backing 
of the farmers' organization. 


The farmers are attacking the various community 
and county problems in a ver}^ commendable spirit. The 
organization is absolutely free of any radicalism, and the 
association is conducting its work along constructive 
rather than destructive lines. It is the purpose of the 


officers of the association to overcome the various dr;iw- 
backs to the farming industry through sound i)olicies of 
co-operation and nuitual hel])fu]ness, rather tlian tlirough 
the ))realving down of otlier existing business. 

The friendly feeling whicli exists between tlie 
Fai'mers' Association and the business interests in the 
towns of the county is a distinctive feature of Rush 
county organizatitm activities. This spirit of neig]!))o]'- 
liness between tlie farmers and the town people was 
3'esponsible for two large comity gatheiings whicli have 
already meant much, and pi'omise to mean more in tlie 
future, towaid the development of the s})irit of co-opera- 
tion ])etween town and country peo])le. 

The fiist of these county gatheiings was the occasion 
of a county farmers and business men's dinner party, 
wdiich w^as given in ]\Iarcli, 1920, })y the business men of 
Rushville to the members of the Farmers' Association and 
their families. Eighteen hundred free dinners weie 
served by lodges and church oi-ganizatious to the guests 
of the business men. Splendid ])rograms and a large corn 
sIkjw were also arranged to make the day the greatest that 
Rush county ever had up to that time. 

When the Farmers' Association i-eturned the favor 
Sei)teml)er 17. 1920, with a mammotli ])ie]iic dinner and 
program, all expectations were surpassed, and tliat will 
always be remembei'ed as a "red letter day" for Rusli 
eounty. The faiiiiers extended iiuita.tions to the business 
and professional men in tlie whole county, and 12,000 
peoj)le enjoyed the feast of country cooking, which was 
served in four great tents in the city park at Rushville. 
Indeed, the estimate of 12,000 in attendance ou this occas- 
ion was declared by Ioe;i.l newspai)er accounts to be "too 
coiiseivati\"e." in c(»nclusion it is not too much to say 
that Ivush county is facing an era of unusual oi)])ortunity 
along agriei'.ltuial lines. I''oi' some years ])ast it has 
pi-oudly claimed the distinction of being the "banner" 
hog county in tlie United States and a generally concerted 


movement even now (1921) is being worked out to make 
it also the banner corn county in the country. The ' ' corn 
shows" which have been held each fall in Rushville during 
the past few years have attracted much attention, prizes 
having been put up by the business men of the city exceed- 
ing in attractiveness those offered by the state fair asso- 
ciation and some wonderful corn exhibits have been made, 
these exhibits serving as a stimulus to others to achieve 
like results. 


The law of 1913 authorizing the registry of farm 
names, thus giving the owner of a farm a sort of a copy- 
right to the sole use in his county of any name he might 
select has been taken advantage of by quite a number of 
persons in Rush county. The first entry in the farm 
names record kept in the county recorder's office is that 
of "Spring Branch Stock and Poultry Farm," entered 
in the name of Ruth A. and John K. Henley, May 10, 
1913. The last entry at the time of this writing is that 
of "jVleadowbrook," entered in the name of Caroline 
Hodge, Januarv 18, 1921. In between are many names, 
some romantic, some picturesque, l^ut all graphic, such 
as Walnut Grove, Hillcrest. Speedway, Shankatank, 
Sunny Side, Willow Grove, Enterprise, Homeland, Home 
Place, Oldliolme, Saint Vedas, Wayside, Pine Hill, 
Shadeland, Shady Nook, Beech Grove, Woodlawn, Burr 
Oak, Stockton, Brookside, Helendale, Branch Corner, 
River View, Rosemont, Shadow Lawn, Hopewell, Brook- 
land, Woodside, Eden Valley, Plain View, Hampden and 
Green Gable. 



At the time of the orgauization of Rush county, there 
were no transportation facilities of any kind avaihible to 
the settlers, no railroads, no pikes, no canals. As most 
of the citizens of the state lived in the southern portion, 
and along the ^^'hite\vater valley, and as the trend of 
settlement was toward the north, it l)ecanie a matter of 
pressing importance to have avenues of travel opened 
up. When Indiana was admitted to the Union, Congress 
set aside 5 per cent of the net proceeds of all the hmd sold 
in the state for road building, 3 per cent of this being 
placed at the disj^osal of the General Assembly, and was 
always kuowm as the 3 per cent fund. An agent of this 
fund was appointed, and he paid out, according to the 
.'i}»pro])riation by the Assembly, t(» the various county 
agents where roads were to be built. These state roads, 
as they were termed, were supposed to be TOO feet wide, 
but owing to the insufficiency of the fund whicli only 
served to have the tinibci' cleared, and the extreme short- 
age of labor, the roads foi- many years were little more 
than bridle paths. Pioneers received $1.50 a day for 
working on the roads, but so sparsely was the countiy 
settled, that even this attraction did not serve to gain 
enough men for the work. There were two main ntads 
in the state leading to the cai)ital : a stage line from Mad- 
isrtn to the East fork of the White river, crossing at the 
mouth of the Flat Rock, ruiining almost due north through 
Jcffeison and Ri])lev counties, thence to Cu'censburg, 
across Shelby county, and thence to lndiana])olis. Tiiis 
was K'liowu as the Michigan road, aiid was cojitimied 
tln'f)ug!i I.ogans]>ort, and South Bend, to Michigan City. 
It was fiiia);ced by the sale of lands, not under $1.25 2)er 



acre, for which scrip was accepted. Bridges were of 
wood, and while altogether it was for the times a decided 
improvement, it did not compare in its mechanical aspects 
with the National road. jMost of the settlers from the 
East came in over the National road, while those from 
the Carolinas and other Southern states employed the 
Michigan road to strike into the interior of the state. 


In Rush county, which was not traversed by one of 
the principal roads, the first roads were merely trails. 
These were followed slowly by ordinary dirt roads, which 
were bad enough at best, and in the bad weather, abso- 
lutely impassable. The pioneers, therefore, were practic- 
ally cut off from the outside world. Marketing crops in 
the great centers of trade was almost impossible, and when 
occasionally a man drove stock through the woods to Cin- 
cinnati he received a few dollars in cash, which generally 
lasted him for the year. Currenc.y was but little used, 
labor and its fruits being the mediums of exchange in the 
business transacted. The dirt roads were followed by the 
corduroy roads, built by simply laying cross poles, and the 
corduroy by the plank road, and these in turn by the rock 
or hard surface roads — all of which were very far from 

As soon as the roads were opened up, stage lines began 
to make their apjoearance. Several of these operated out 
of Indianapolis and the southern cities, and in 1831 A. L. 
and W. L. Ross put stages on the Brookville road, which 
connected at Brookville with A. McCarty's line for Cin- 
cinnati, and at Rushville with the Ohio stage. Travel in 
these stages was unpleasant, as the roads were so rough 
that there was imminent danger of the vehicle either 
turning over or becoming mired in the numerous mud- 
holes. The trip from Indianapolis to Cincinnati 
consumed two days and two nights, and the fare was $5.50 
one way. 


lu this county, tin- tiist i-oad oidcrt'd to hv viewed 
beoan at the oast line of Rusli count v, at the corners of 
sections 21 and 28, town 12, ran<ijo 11, one mile north of 
the southeast corner of tlie county, thence on a due west 
line to the western boundary of said township. The 
second one viewed commenced where AVhetzers "trace" 
crossed the west line of Fayette, ruiminu' thence west, the 
nearest and l»est route to the house (d' Richard Thornbury, 
in Rusliville tdwnslii]). and then on westward to the 
Shell)y county line. The Licneral ])lan followed in the 
construction of roads was to have them radiate from the 
county seat, with occasional cross roads. 

(au)WiN(i DKMAxn :()ii p.kttkk roads 

However, the dirt roads were so unsatisfactory as 
means of transportation, and their construction so hap- 
hazard, that the ]ieople wx-re in cryiuii; need of an outlet 
for their products. The increasing size of the cities, and 
the consequent development of manufactures and the 
employment of labor, created a demand for the ])roducV of 
the rural districts which could l)e met oidy with difficulty. 
Progress and development were being retarded in all 
walks of life — the farmer had no ready market for his 
trade, the city man no means of disposing of his manufac- 
tures. In 1849, the General Assembly took steps to en- 
courage the building of good (or better) roads, by the 
enactment of a law authorizing the incorporation of stock 
companies for the- consti'uction of ])la7d<: roads, and the 
j-eady icspoiise on the part of nearly evei'v county 'u\ the 
state i-el'lected the wisdom of this bill. 

Rush county was not slow to take advantage of the 
new hiw. and slock coiiijiaiiies were f'oiined to build pro- 
jected roads. One of the more im]»ortaiit of these early 
roads was the Andersoiiville I*lank K*oad ('om])any, and 
ill duly. IS.IT, ihcre was published in the Rushville 
licpuhUcdu a notice of the coming election of seven direc- 
tors of the comjjany, three in Rush county and four in 


Franklin, to be held at the office of James H. Moore, 
Esq., August 10, 1857. Other road companies were 
formed, and the advantages arising from them were great. 
Superior facilities were given to the farmer for hauling 
his grain and stock, and increased value was given to the 
land which lay along the road routes. As business propo- 
sitions, the roads themselves were profitable, because 
when they were laroperly managed they paid the stock- 
holders a handsome profit on their investment. In 1865. 
although it was not yet completed, the Rushville and 
Vienna (now Glenwood) turnpike paid a six per cent, 
dividend to the stockholders. New roads were projected 
rapidly, and the sentiment of the people and the press was 
much in favor of them, money being freely subscribed. 

In July, 1865, it was announced that the last legisla- 
ture of Indiana had passed a general road law which pro- 
vided for the piking of public highways where certain 
steps were taken. It was provided that where three- 
fifths of the landowners within three-fourths of a mile on 
each side of any public highway desired to convert the 
highway into a turnpike, they might make their petition 
to the board of county commissioners giving the length, 
beginning and terminus of such proposed road, the same 
not to be less than five miles in length. The land then 
lying within three-fourths of a mile on each side of the 
proposed road was taxed in proportion to its valuation to 
pay for the construction of the road. 

Those who were required to pay the tax to build the 
road were allowed to form themselves into a corporation, 
elect directors, etc., and become a regular stock company, 
and when they had constructed four miles of their road, 
might erect toll-gates, toll-houses, and collect toll under a 
very liberal rate as authorized by the law. The tax was 
levied on the estimate of cost made by a competent com- 
missioner. The receipts went to keep up repairs, pay the 
officers and the balance was to be divided among the 
stockholders. The companies were allowed to collect toll 


for twenty years, and at the end of that period tlie road 
reverted to the public and became free. From time to 
time objections were raised to the provisions of this law 
on the ground that as the votes were proportioned to the 
number of acres owned, the rich had more influence in an 
election than tlie poor, but since the tax w^as also levied in 
proportion to the amount of land owaied and the benefits 
were shared equally by all, there seems to have been but 
little logical excuse for this opposition. 

In 1869 the legislature passed a law giving the board 
of trustees of incorporated towns in Indiana the exclusive 
power over the streets, highw^ays, alleys and bridges 
within the corporate limits of such iovn\ : and the marshal, 
under the direction of the trustees, was empowered to 
perform the duties of a road supervisor, and exercise all 
the functions theretofore ]^ertaining to that office, thus 
a))olishing tlie office of road supervisor within the limits 
of incorporated towns. 


Communication betwTen the towns of the county be- 
gan to increase with the improvement of the highways, 
and in 1S70 Caleb Russell ran a daily hack between Rush- 
ville and Milroy, leaving Milroy at 7 a. m, and starting on 
the return journey from Rushville at 2 p. m., except on 
Sundays. Thei'e also were hack lines from ^Tilroy to 
({reensburg, from Carthage to Knightstown, from Milroy 
to Richland, from Rushville to New Salem, one out of 
Raleigh, and otheis. The several "star route" mail lines, 
which were operated throughout this part of the state 
in those days, also ought to be recalled to mind in this 
connection, as there were a numbei- of these which served 
the rural comnnmities in Rush county. But the towns of 
adjacent comities se(>nied to be more aware of the neces- 
sity of good roads, and while the neighboring towns were 
pushing highways into the county to ta]) its trade, Rush- 
ville was aj)parently quietly slumbering. There was 


great need, if Rushville was to keep pace with the other 
county seats of the region, to have good turnpike roads 
centering here and stretching out through every section 
of the county. The hick of them would send trade abroad 
which should be retained at home. In the direction of 
Milroy there was a good gravel road with two branches, 
only partly completed, however, and that thriving little 
village could only be reached by traveling four or five 
miles of the most wretched mud road. In the meantime, 
parties at Milroy were using great energ}^ in pushing 
ahead a project which promised to give them a good 
gravel road to Greensburg, and it became vital to the 
interest of Rushville that a good gravel road be completed 
to Milroy before the trade of that section was wholly 
diverted to another county. 

Moscow had a good road to Shelbyville and a miser- 
able road to Rushville, and the citizens of Rush county in 
that vicinity were very well acquainted at Shelbyville. 
Manilla was also without good communication with Rush- 
ville, and there was a gravel road running from Knights- 
town through Carthage and on to Burlington (now Ar- 
lington), which at Carthage tapped the Big Blue river 
country, one of the richest portions of the county, and 
furnished a good highway to carry its trade to Knights- 

Urged on by the local press and by the knowledge 
that Rushville trade was suffering by prevailing trans- 
portation difficulties, new life was instilled into the 
building of roads. The Hilligoss, Miller, Rushville and 
Moscow Gravel Road Company took up, in 1873, the 
construction of six miles of gravel road out of Rushville 
toward Moscow, but later amended their plans so as to 
construct only four miles, and in November of the same 
year the Rushville, Shelbyville and Mull Company's 
gravel road was completed. At the same time the town of 
Rushville itself took steps to further improve its streets, 
and the corporation trustees let a contract for $4,800 to 
Hugh Davis for grading and graveling the streets 



aroinid the publir- square, the streets to be fifty-five feet 
wide with bowklered untters, 


As fast as was th(^ii ])ossible, tj:ood roads were ex- 
tended into all ])arts of the county, free pikes were con- 
structed as fast as money ^ould be devoted to this purpose, 
and many of the old toll-roads had reverted to the county 
and become free, their twenty years of ^race having- been 
passed, when, about ten years })rior to the close of the 
century, Rushville was known throughout the entire 
region as a good place to trade. Farmers from other 
counties brought their products to Rushville, the free 
pikes making a material saving for them. They would 
come farther tt> Rushville in many instances than the 
distance to their own county seat, if they were from other 
counties, not only on account of the free roads, but also 
because the large volume of business handled by Rush- 
ville made it possible for the business men of the town to 
offer higher prices for grain at tlic elevator, and to give 
better bargains in the stores. 

In 1S93, the General Assembly ]>assed a i-oad law 
which was substantially this: r]ton the ])etition of at 
least fifty voters in any township or townships contigu- 
ous to each other, including therein any incorpoi-ated 
town or city of less than :}.00() ]>o])ulati(ui, a vote could be 
tnken on the construction of free gi'avel, stone or macad- 
amized roads at the n.ext si)ring or fall elections called for 
that purpose. Tf a majority of the votes cast were in 
favoi- of tlic buikling of the load, the county commis- 
sioiters were to ])roc('ed to do it, but not otherwise — con- 
struct ion to Ix' awarded to the lowest Itiddei- and bidders 
to file l)ond in twice the sum of their bids. For the pur- 
pose of raising the necessary funds the county commis- 
sioners were to issue county bonds for the full amount of 
not less than *50 noi- more than $500 each. 

The voters JTi Ri])ley and T*osey townships were the 


first to take advantage of this law. In April, 1893, an 
election was held in reference to the Arlington and Carth- 
age turnpike. Since the road was already built, it was 
only necessary for it to be bought, the construction having 
already been taken care of. The result was in favor of 
buying the road, the amount to be raised being $4,248.10, 
$800 to go to the owners as purchase price, while the re- 
mainder was to go for repairs. Later in the year the 
commissioners levied a special tax of about $9,500 to buy 
several gravel roads. 

Most of the bridges throughout the county were of 
wood, many of them of the old covered type, and about 
this time many of them began to give trouble, being inad- 
equate to the demands of traffic placed upon them. In 
November, 1896. the county commissioners contracted 
with the Bellefontaine Bridge Company, of Bellefon- 
taine, Ohio, for a single span steel bridge, 120 feet long, 
over the Blue river, near Carthage — the cost to be $3,500. 
Four years later, the commissioners submitted to the 
county council an estimate of $15,665 for sixteen new 
bridges in the county. 

Thus, in the passing of a century, the county has pro- 
gressed from having only a few necessary trails cut 
through the wilderness to a point where most of the farm- 
ers of the county have highly improved hard surfaced 
roads passing their doors. The roads are kept in perfect 
repair, as are the bridges and culverts, and the life of the 
county's commerce and trade pulses unrestricted along 
the arteries of traffic. The Indiana "Year Book" for 
1919 presents the following statistics with reference to 
Rush county, bearing on public highways, bridges and 
ditches: Highway Expenses — viewers and damages, 
$293.89; preliminary road construction, $367.75; gravel 
road construction, $117,568.34; gravel road bonds re- 
deemed, $151,680.83; gravel road, $43,832.32; township 
gravel road bonds, $513,027.40; miles gravel roads com- 
pleted in 1918, fifteen ; total miles gravel roads, 328 ; miles 


iiniiiipi'ovcd roads, seventy-five. Bridges — expenditures, 
on new bridges, $11,01 :*>.20; bridge repairs, ,$5,924.12. 
Ditches — expenditures, $958.90. 

Under the ])r(>visic)ns of the new state liigliway law a 
great deal of ])reliniinary work is being done in the way 
of establishing state highways, making surveys and pre- 
paring specifications, and under the direction of the state 
highway commission a tentative system of highways has 
l)een i)launed to reaeh every county seat and city of five 
thousand in Indiana, making a network of highways 
which will coiuiect every market center of the state. 
Much discussion has been created by the workings of the 
present highway laws and revisions of the laws are likely 
to be made from time to time, but eventually Indiana 
seems destined to have a fine system of trunk highways, 
and in the working out of this system Rush county inevit- 
a))ly will profit. The state highway commission has 
taken over approximately forty-four miles of the 
county's highwa,ys to be maintained by the state under 
what is knowm as the state highway conunission law. 
This county is widely accorded the reputation of having 
as excellent a system of gravel roads as that of any county 
in the state, and it also has the equally gratifying reputa- 
tion of maintaining these I'oads in as admirable a fasliion 
as any. 

The office of i-oad supervisor has ))een one of im- 
])ortance in the development of the county. At first these 
officers wer(^ a]'»point('d l)y the township trustees, then 
they w<'rc elected on the county ticket every two years, but 
))egimiing .January 14, 1905, a new state law })i'ovided that 
only the v(»tei-s in the road district electing the supervisor 
could \(»te foi' liini. 


Although it never materialized as an important 
avenue of transportation on account of the advent of the 
railroad, and while it did not quite touch this c()unty, so 


important was it in the public discussions of the time and 
would have been in the practical phase of transportation 
as affecting Rush county, that the Whitewater canal is 
worthy of some extended mention. Logan Esaray, in his 
"History of Indiana," gives us an accurate account of 
the canal : 

' * The Whitewater canal was the starting point of all 
these discussions [in the General Assembly]. The set- 
tlers in the valley, the most populous district of the state, 
as early as 1832 had petitioned for a canal. The assembly 
of 1833 ordered a preliminary survey, a report of which, 
by Surveyor Gooding, was laid before the assembl}^ De- 
cember 23, 1834. The valley was reported to be shallow 
and the fall excessive, requiring a great number of locks. 
There were many washed banks where the canal would 
have to be built over the river. The survey began at 
Nettle creek, near Cambridge City, in Wayne county, 
close to the crossing of the old "^"ational road. Thence it 
passed down the west bank to Somerset, at the Franklin 
county line, where it crossed, recrossing again at Brook- 
ville, and following the west bank to the Ohio at Law- 
renceburg. The length was seventy-six miles ; seven dams 
were necessary, fifty-six locks, and 491 feet of lockage. 
The estimated cost was $1,142,126. 

"It would give an outlet for Franklin, Rush, Fay- 
ette, Henry, Randolph and Hancock counties, as well as'a 
large part of Wayne, Union, Decatur and Delaware— a 
district aggregating 3,150 square miles. Produce could 
be transported by this means at an average cost of $3.65 
per ton as against $10, the present cost. This would save 
$221,000 for the section each year. The water power 
would turn 318 pairs of millstones. * * * 

"A big celebration at Brookville September 13, 1836, 
at which David Wallace, Governor Noble and ex-Gover- 
nor Ray were the orators, ushered in the undertaking. 
The work was always pushed more than any other on ac- 
count of the great bulk of the population of the state being 


in that valley. * * * December 20, 1838, Superin- 
tendent Long- reported the canal well-nigh completed to 
Brookville. This line was practically finished when the 
failure of the State Bank i-equired a cessation of work, 
notice of which was given hv Noah Noble, president of 
the board, August 18,1889. * * * 

"The \Mute\vater canal was turned over in 1842 to a 
company organized to complete it. It was finished to 
Brookville in 1843; to Connersville in 184'), and to Cam- 
bridge City in 1846. A flood in 1847 did ^100,000 damage, 
and the repairs for a single flood in the next vear cost 
$80,000. The Whitewater Valley i-ailroad paralleled it 
in 1865, and f(»rever put it out of business." 


As the po])ulation iiicreased and the production in 
all lines of business, but especially in agriculture, in- 
creased, it became ap]3arent that ready foreign markets 
would have to be sought. The oidy feasible way to reach 
them was by means of the steam railroad, and agitation 
accordingly was commenced in favor of attracting to 
Rushville and Rush county this means of transportation. 
Since no outside capital could be influenced to c(mstruct 
a line through the county, the citizens decided to raise 
the money themselves by stock subscriptions, and accord- 
ingly the Rushville & Shelbyville railroad was built, the 
first cars coming into Rushville over its tracks on Sep- 
tember 10, 1850. Another i-ailroad touched tlie nortli- 
western part of the county, but was of no great import- 
ance to the larger part of the county. This was the Shel- 
byville & Knightstown railroad. At Shelbyville these 
roads coiniected with the Indiana] >olis and Cincimiati 
roads, and at Knightstown with the Indiana Central, 
serving to give some outlet to the county. 

'i'hc Shelbyville I'oad fiom Rushville was a flat-bar 
affair, and while it sui)i)lied the wants of the people to 
some extent, it was in general quite inadequate. Passen- 


ger trains made a round trip from Rusliville to Edinburg 
once a day, and many were the curious who sought a novel 
experience by taking the trip. In 1857 sentiment in favor 
of a $30,000 subscription to improve the road by laying 
an iron rail was aroused, and gradually the road, now a 
part of the Penns,ylvania system, was improved until it 
compared favorably with other roads. In 1860, the new 
rails were laid, and after the track was ballasted, the trip 
from Shelbyville to Manilla could be made in thirty 
minutes, and in April of the same year, an excursion to 
Madison was run over this road and the Madison & In- 
dianapolis. Two months later a return excursion was 
held, the young people of Rushville entertaining those of 
Madison with a grand ball and supper at Odd Fellow hall. 
In 1857, the Sandusky, Indiana & Louisville railroad 
was projected. Its course was to be from Sandusky to 
Winchester, Ind., there making a connection with the 
Pittsburgh, Indianapolis & Bellefontaine railroad, and 
with two important roads at Cambridge City, the Cincin- 
nati & Chicago, and the Daj^ton & Indianapolis, or Cen- 
tral. This was considei'ed to be one of the best routes in 
the state, connecting the Ohio river with the Great Lakes. 
The merchants who bought their goods in New York and 
Philadelphia were at that time compelled to ship via the 
Lake Shore route, but after leaving that road the goods 
took such a circuitous route that freight amounted to an 
enormous figure when the destination was reached. The 
same was true for the cattle raisers and drovers, who 
shipped to Eastern markets. It was pointed out that this 
new road would obviate these difficulties by giving a di- 
rect road to the best markets of the world. As it was there 
was no prospect of real estate rising in value until there 
was an outlet for trade. The county was cramped — grain 
and other surplus products frequently had to be carried 
miles in wagons and often the price declined before it 
could be shipped. Lewis Maddux, of Rushville, was 
elected president of the road, and although it was favor- 
ably thought of, it never materialized. 



Another road, the Fremont (fe Indiana raih'oad, 
which was seeking a connection with the falls of the Ohio, 
was ni-ti-ed to constnict its track throiiuh Riishville, hut 
was never l)uilt. In June, 1860, arran«ieinents were made 
so that tlie daily train over the Rushville & Shelhvville 
connected with the Tjawrenceburg train from Indianapo- 
lis, the train from Rushville arriving!; at Madison in some 
seven or eight hours, the fare being $2.50 from Rushville 
to Madison. T^ater in the same year an impromptu meet- 
ing was called in Rushville to find out the sentiment of 
the people in regard to the Lake Frie & Pacific railroad, 
another projected road. Stock to the amount of $4,000 
was at once subscribed, and plans were made for the con- 
struction of the road through Rushville. The road was to 
be l)uilt in three divisions, one hundred miles each, and 
Rushville was to be at the end of the second division, 
which would mean a machine shop and at least two hun- 
dred inliabitants to the town. The enthusiasm of the 
])eople was great, and nearly $100,000 of stock was suli- 
scribed in Rush eounty alone by the end of the year, 1860. 
It was figured that a saving of from five to ten cents per 
bushel would be made in the shi])])ing of grain, which 
would very soon pay for the investment, and that the rise 
in value of real estate would more than cover the cost of 
the road. A stockholders' meeting was held at Cambridge 
City, and (1. B. Rush, of Hush county, was elected chair- 
man. Plans foi' raising the lest of the stock were made, 
and a resolution ])assed in favoi- of running the road from 
Union City to Rushville, making Cambridge ('ity a ])oint. 
Howevei-, so slow was the \V(»ik on this road, that the 
})eo])le ra])i(lly lost confidence in it, and when $12,000 ad- 
ditional stock was asked to be subscribed in Rush county, 
it was refused, and the work for a time abandoned. The 
sentiment of the peo})le was reflected in the Rushville 
UcjmbJicini m 1865, when the F<»rt Wayne & Southei-n 
raih'oad tried to interest theni: "if we ai'e not the 


worst deceived and most systematically trifled with peo- 
ple in the world, we are, at least, very fortunate in always 
having a peg to hang hope upon. It is not so long since 
that the memory of our citizens runneth to the contrary 
that we were very certain, indeed we felt that it was a 
dead sure thing, that the Lake Erie & Pacific railroad 
would be built, but alas, all our hopes vanished into thin 
air and our money into the pockets of the smooth-tongued 
scoundrels that had the management of the institution. 
But we bear our disappointment and losses with fortitude 
and resignation, hoping for better luck next time. Next 
came the Junction Railroad with fair promises of speedy 
completion and we got on our 'high bosses' thinking of the 
wonderful benefits we were soon to realize from the 
building of this road, but judge of our feelings when we 
found that we had again been sold. Now comes the Fort 
Wayne & Southern railroad and our hopes arise like the 
fabled bird from its ashes, but we are not going to make 
fools of ourselves. * * * All we know about the con- 
struction of the Fort Wayne road is that a party of 
engineers, said to represent an English compan}^, lately 
passed through here examining the proposed route." 

In September, 1865, at a meeting at the court house, 
a proposition was laid before the people of the county by 
the agents of the Indiana, Central and Jeffersonville 
roads, pledging that if the citizens along the line of the 
Lake Erie & Pacific road, between here and Cambridge 
City would raise $60,000, $20,000 of which had already 
been subscribed, the company would have the road done 
and the cars running by June 1, 1866. No action was 
taken at the meeting, some attending being in favor of the 
company getting a release of subscription notes to the 
Junction railroad, and that then perhaps they would 
subscribe the amount needed. 

However the Junction railroad was not defunct. 
Work on it was rapidly pushed in 1867, by the first of 
January it was completed to Morristown, fifteen miles 
west of Rushville, and trains were run daily from Cincin- 


iiati to that ])lac('. and In* tlic middle of the following year 
it was eom|)letc'd to Iiidiana])olis, and the citizens of Rnsh 
county could make the trip to the capital and back without 
taking- a week for the trip. On July 4, 1868, the first train 
was operated through the town on the Jeffersonville, 
^fadison & Indianapolis. This gave Rushville two good 
railroad facilities, and there was a rapid improvement in 
almost every branch of trade, wliile in population and 
building there \^"as an equally rapid advancement. 
(Mark's addition became dotted over with new dwelling 
houses, and in the early spring of the next year several 
fine brick and frame dwellings were (M-ected. Rent was 
very high, and there were not sufficient houses or business 
buildings to supply the demand. Trade of every kind, 
taking into consideration the times and conditions follow- 
ing the war, was lively. A\'ith as rich a farming county as 
Rush, the means of transportation now in existence could 
not but improve Rushville rajudly. Peo])le began to 
improve the appearance of the town, and altogether there 
was a general trend upward. 


On .laiiuary 25, 1870, on petition of more than one 
hundi-ed freehoUlei's of the county, the board of conunis- 
sioners ordered an election on whether or not the county 
should be taxed >i590,000 to be given for the construction of 
the Toledo & Louisville raili'oad, through Rushville. and 
the m(>asui-e was lost by an overwhelming majority. Tlie 
peo])le had been "done" too often to favor a tax of this 

In 1872, slii]»]»ing was further facilitated by the estab- 
lishiiiciit of tlirough freight rates hy the Jeffersonville, 
Madison Sc Indianapolis to all ])oints east and south, and 
at the same time through ])assenger tickets were sold for 
all eastern cities. Passenger traffic inci-eased with the 
yeai's, and in 1S77 it was reported that the i-eceipts from 
this ti-aft'ie alone on the C. II. S: 1. (the old Juncti(m) 
amounted to .^1,000 2)er month. 


There had been various meetings from time to time in 
the county to construct a road on the line of the old Ft. 
Wa}me & Southern — one of these in 1872 held b}^ the 
citizens of Rush and Decatur counties, was so strongly in 
favor of it that steps were taken to construct such a road. 
Large donations were made by the people in the way of 
stock subscriptions, and in September, 1881, the V. G. & R. 
railroad was completed, opening for better trade facilities 
a large portion of Rush county, benefiting not only the 
county seat, but the town of Milroy. The year before its 
completion a surveying j^arty had been over proposed 
lines for the Rushville & Newcastle railroad, and in 1882 
this road, known first as the N. & R. railroad, was fin- 
ished. In 1889 the C. W. & M. railroad was built north 
from Rushville, touching Carthage and continuing 
through Knightstown to Anderson, Ind. This gave Rush- 
ville its four railroads. In 1890 the J. M. & I. railroad, 
formerly the Rushville & Shelby ville railroad, was 
changed to the P. C. C. & St. L., or Pennsylvania railroad; 
the name of the old Junction was changed first to the 
C. H. & I., and now operates as the Cincinnati, Indianapo- 
lis & Western ; the X. & R. is now the Lake Erie & West- 
ern. The V. G. & R. railroad is now a part of the C. C. C. 
& St. L. railroad or Big Four system. 

Aside from the large amount of freight business done 
by these roads, there are exceptionally good passenger 
accommodations afforded. The C. I. & W. operates five 
trains daily east and an equal number west ; the Pennsyl- 
vania, two each day south and north, a total of four ; the 
Big Four operates four passenger trains, two each way; 
and the L. E. & W., though primarily a freight road, 
operates one each way every day. 


A later development in rail transportation was the 
electric railroad, or traction. In 1898, the C. H. & D. 
railroad organized the C. H. & D. Traction Company, and 


after two years of inactivity it began to consider building 
an electric line from Indianapolis to Rushville. In June 
of the same year, 1900, the Rushville & Rrookville electric 
railway was i)r()niote(l with a capital stock of $50,000 in 
500 shares, 310 of wiiich were subscribed in Rushville. 
However, more than one traction company was not 
deemed necessary at the time, and the w^ork done in push- 
ing through the Indianapolis line caused the other to be 
abandoned. In 1901, in May, fresh impetus w\is added to 
the buiUling of the electric line fi'om the capital when the 
Rushville city council granted the right of way for the 
line through the city. This company was kno"^Ti as the 
Indianaj>olis & Cincinnati Traction Company, and every 
effort was put forth to construct the line as quickly as 
possible. In 1903, it was announced that the power plant 
for the line would be located eithei- at Connersville or 
Rushville, and there was consequently keen competition 
between the two cities for this addition to the business of 
the town. In June, 1903, it was located at Rushville, the 
tei-ms of the agreement guaranteeing a site foi* the plant 
at a cost of $5,000. At the beginning of the year 1905, 
although the line was not com]>leted all the way to Iiidia- 
napulis fi-om (Ntmicrsville, its ])res('nt terminus, cars were 
run throiigii Rushville every tw(t hours, attracting great 
attention from the ]»eo])le, many of whom rode for the 
novelty. When the I'oad was com})leted to Indianapolis a 
short time later, and through cars run over the entire 
route, the ])('o])le realized what an advantage it was to the 
town, although at first it had been opposed by many 
merchants on the gi'ound that much of their trade would 
go to the larger city when the trip was made so easy for 
them. I'he 1. & C. traction was the fii'st to use the single 
phase alternating current system in the operation of its 
cars, and its success attracted the attention of electric 
railway men all over the country. 

A eonsidcrable amount of fi-eight, ])rin(-ipally light, is 
cariied ovci" this line in addition to the twenty-eight 


passenger cars which are operated daily, fourteen each 
way from Connersville to Indianapolis, giving excellent 
service and satisfaction to all who can avail themselves of 
it. A right-of-way has been secured by the Indianapolis 
& Cincinnati Traction Company for a line southeast of 
Rushville and at this time (1921) there is a strong proba- 
bility that the project for the construction of the line will 
be accomplished. One phase of the traction systems is 
the accommodation of towns along the lines which are able 
to secure ample current from the traction wires for local 
lighting purposes, and the Indianapolis & Cincinnati 
is now furnishing lighting current for Shelbyville, as well 
as to some of the villages through which it passes. 

Before passing from the subject of railroads it is 
proper to note that there still is visible in places the eleva- 
tion thrown up in the '50s for the creation of a roadbed for 
a railroad that was operated through this county from 
Knightstown to Shelbyville. The road seems never to 
have been properly financed and was abandoned after a 
few years of unsuccessful operation. 

Bench and Bar 

Tlie act of the state lot'islatiire providing]:; for the 
organization of Rush county outlined a plan by which 
justice should be administered in the new county. Section 
4 of the ena))ling act provided that not only the circuit 
court but all other courts should be held in the house of 
Stephen Sims until suitable accommodations could be 
had at the seat of justice, Rushville, and that this act 
should become effective April 1, 1822. The house of 
Stei)hen Sims stood on the west "eighty" of the farm later 
o-^med by Aaron Frazee, south of and adjoining Rush- 
ville, and here it was, on Thursday, Apiil 4. 1822, the 
circuit court was organized. 

Hon. William AV. Wick, judge of the Fifth circuit, 
was presiding judge, and Elias Poston and North Parker 
were associates. Robert Thompson held a conunission 
from Governor Jonathan Jennings as clerk of the circuit 
court, and this he presented on the morning of A])ril 4, 
together with a crude seal which, though somewhat 
lacking in artistic beauty, was adoj^ted as the seal of the 
county, and an impression of it was ])ut upcm the records. 
(Vnirt having been organized and the matter of the seal 
disposed of, the court adjourned to meet at 2 p. m. at the 
house of J elm Perkins, about five miles southeast of 
Ruslivillc. 7\t this afternoon session, lliram M. Curry 
made a])plication and was admitted to the bar as an 
attoi'uey, was a])poiiit(Ml ]>rosccuting attorney, and 
immediately sworn inlo o}'t'iee. John Hays, the first 
sliei'irr of l^usli county, iheii i"e]>orted his ]»anel of gi'and 
Jiii'ois, viz., William .huikeii, foi-eman ; Jehu Perkins, 
L'te l-*erkins. Christian Clymer. John Walkei-. Powell 
Piiest, (Jarret Derlin, John liower, Jacob Reed, John 



Hale, Richard Hackleman, Benjamin Sailors, and Peter 
H. Patterson — thirteen — who were sworn in and charged 
by the court. On the same afternoon, this grand jury 
returned into court and reported that they had found no 
bills of indictment or presentment, and they were then 
discharged and allowed 75 cents each for his day's 
services. The court then adjourned until ihe meeting at 
the regular term, which was held at the home of John 
Lower, on his farm some three miles southwest of Rush- 
ville, on Thursday, October 3, 1822. Judge Wick, the 
presiding judge was absent from this term of court, and 
the associate judges, Poston and Parker, held the court. 
In the interim between the first and second terms of court, 
the sheriff, John Hays, had lost his mind, and having 
wandered into Hancock county was placed in jail at 
Greenfield and perished when he set fire to the jail. It 
being necessary to have a sheriff, Richard Hackleman, 
the coroner of the county, was dej)utized to act for Hays, 
and he brought in a grand jury composed of the following 
men: Edward I. Swanson, foreman; Andrew Tharp, 
Michael Hittle, Henry Lyon, George Shappell, Samuel 
Gruell, Daniel Overlease, Joseph Owen, Peter Looney, 
William Pogue, Isaac Jessup, James Fordice, Thomas 
Nash, and George Hittle — fourteen — who were sworn and 
charged. It is to be noted that the foreman of this grand 
jury, Edward I. Swanson, was about seven years later 
tried for the coldblooded murder of Elisha Clark, found 
guilty and executed. Several attorneys were admitted to 
the bar at this term of court — Charles H. Test (later 
judge of the criminal court at Indianapolis), Martin M. 
Ray, Joseph A. Hopkins, James Noble (afterward United 
States senator), James Rariden (afterward representa- 
tive in Congress), and Charles H. Veeder, the first post- 
master at Rushville and second recorder of Rush county. 


At this term the first cause for trial was placed on 
the docket— Thomas Colbert vs. Rachel Colbert, alias 


Jniit'S, for divorce. The bill itself has disappeared so it 
is impossible to know on what grounds divorce was sought, 
but at the next term of court divorce was granted by 
Judges Poston and Parker, Rachel, a nonresident of the 
state, liaving failed to take notice of the publication of 
the case in the Brookville Enquirer, a weekly paper. On 
the second day of this secojid term, the grand jury brought 
in several l)ills of indictment, one of which was "The 
State of Indiana vs. John Ray," an indictment for lar- 
ceny and hog-marking. 

In this case the defendant demanded a .juiy, having 
pleaded not guilty, the deputy sheriff called a jury of 
"good and lawful men, and discreet householders of his 
bailiwick," and when all the evidence had been heard the 
defendant's counsel showed his legal shrewdness by 
moving the court to dismiss the case for want of jurisdic- 
tion. Judges Poston and Parker sustained the motion, 
"on the ground that the offense was committed before the 
law took effect organizing this county." 

On October 5, 1822, the court, Poston and Parker, 
fixed the rate of tavern license at $10, and Richard Thorn- 
berry and Jehu Perkins were both granted license to 
keep taverns. Then, after allowing thcnnselves each $2 
per day for their services and the grand jurors each 75 
cents ])er day, the judges adjourned the court to meet 
again at the regular term, at the house of Robert Thomp- 
son, in Rushville. For the sake of comparison it is inter- 
esting to note the amount necessary to run the circuit 
court in the fii-st year of the (^ou]ity. 

Gi-and jury, two days ". $21.00 

Petit juiy, one day 9.00 

Two judges ". 12.00 

(Merk (;.00 

Siierit'f 6.00 

Prosecuting attoi'ney 5.00 

Bailiff to grand jury 2.00 

Grand total $61.00 


It is unfortunate that the names of the men who 
comprised the first petit jury of the circuit court of the 
county were omitted from the records by the clerk, as it 
would be interesting to know who these men were. But 
through inexperience on the part of clerk and judges, 
who were probably at best unfamiliar with legal forms, 
this list is lost to us. 

The April term of 1823 was held at the house of 
Robert Thompson, near the foot of Main street where the 
Scanlan hotel now stands. The fall term of 1823 was 
held in the house of Reu Pugh, who kept a tavern situated 
near the present site of the Rushville National Bank, and 
from this time until October, 1826, all sessions were held 
in the house of Robert Thompson with the exception of 
one held at the house of Christian Clymer. At the April 
term of 1823, Hiram M. Curry resigned as prosecuting 
attorney, and Charles H. Test was appointed in his place. 
Nathaniel Marks was sheriff, and the associate judges, 
Poston and Parker, conducted the business of the court, 
no circuit judge being present. On April 24, 1823, Oliver 
H. Smith was admitted to the Rush county bar. He after- 
ward became distinguished as a lawyer and politician, 
being elected in 1837 to the United States Senate, where 
he served with much credit to Indiana. When he had 
abandoned politics but was still engaged in the practice 
of law he published a series of very engrossing sketches 
of the early trials in Indiana. Some of these are incident 
to Rush county, and the more interesting appear 
elsewhere in this section. 


At this same term of court, Aaron Anderson, an 
Irishman, made application for citizenship under the 
naturalization laws of the country — the first to become 
naturalized in Rush county. Also, the court convicted 
Daniel Lauman of selling liquor without license, upon his 
own admission, and fined him $2 in each of two cases. 



This was the first euuviction for this offense in Rush 
count}', an offense committed all too often throughout the 
subsequent liistory of justice here. Before adjourning, 
the court apjjoiuted John -Julian county commissioner. 

Violations of the liquor laws of the state and several 
assault and battery cases engaged the attention of the 
court throughout most of the August term of 1823. In 
November of the same year, it assembled again, and tried 
the case of the State of Indiana vs. Albin Shaw for 
adultery and fornication. He j^leaded not guilty, and a 
jury was empaneled to ivy the case, viz., Andrew Gilson, 
Richard Thornberry, James Abbott, William Dill, Adam 
Conde, William Alexander, Sampson Oassady, Amos 
Baldwin, Amos Diekerscm, James Walker, David Morris, 
and John Xasli, who returned a verdict of not guilty. 
According to the records, this was the first petit jury that 
found a verdict in the Rush (^ircuit (Vmrt, and this the 
first case decided by a jury in that court. 

In the April term, 1824, the following men were 
admitted to the bar: Joseph Cox, Philip Sweetser and 
Calvin Fletcher, all of whom became distinguished at the 
bar in later years. James Crier, at this term of court, was 
the first man to he t*(»u]ul guilty of ('()ntem|)t of court. He 
was fined $1, but even this small amount was afterward 
remitted. The giand jury, before adjoui-ning, inspected 
the new jail, then just com])leted. and re})orted that it had 
been built in accordance with the specifications, and was 
in good condition and I'cady foi- the reception of any who 
might be coiisiuiicd 1o it. This was the first gi'aiid jury 
in(iuest as to llie (Mnidilion oj' llic coinily jail. The fiist 
]ietition of a guai-diaii. l'(»r any pinpose, was filed in this 
coui't by Isaac Fleeiicr, pi-aying for an order to invest his 
ward's money in land; this was granted. And for the 
first time, .Judge \\'ick, in the ]terformanee of his duties 
as re(|uii('(l by law, made an examination of the clerk's 
office, lie re]»orted that the duty never before haviiig 
been j»crt'(Miii<'d since 1hc organization (d' the c(nnitv, he 
was coiiipclh-d t<» g(» o\-ei' the entire record, and that "the 


final record and order-book furnish evidence of industry 
and care." It was very certain that the people of Rush 
county were satisfied with Robert Thompson as their 
clerk, because they kept him in office twenty-one years, 
and it was only by a hard and close contest that he was 
defeated by John L. Robinson in 1841. He left the county 
in disgust, esteeming himself an ill-used man. At this 
same term of the court the prison limits of Rush county 
were defined by order of the court to be " at the limits of 
the town plat of Rushville. as recorded in the Recorder's 
office." This is the first official mention we have of 
prison limits in our county. Imprisonment for debt was 
then possible, and these limits were for the benefit of 
unfortunate debtors. The first settlement of an executor 
in Rush county was made at this term by David Morris, 
executor of Joseph Morris, deceased. 

The next term was held in Rushville, at the house of 
Christian Clymer, on April 7, 1825. Bethuel F. Morris 
was presiding judge, succeeding Judge William W. Wick, 
who had been made secretary of state. Now was tried the 
first slander suit, in which John Newan was awarded 
$808 damages from Thomas Wilson, the defendant. 

The October term of 1826 was held in the new court 
house, a brick building, forty feet square with thirteen 
and eighteen inch walls. The court room was on the first 
floor, the four county offices on the second, and the whole 
building surmounted by a cupola embellished by two or 
three gilded balls. It was erected by Reynold Cory at a 
cost of $2,500, and required three years for its completion. 


The October term of the following year was opened 
by Hon. Bethuel F. Morris, who tried the county's first 
murder case — the State of Indiana vs. Andrew Young. 
James Whitcomb and Oliver H. Smith were employed 
for the state, and James Rariden, James T. Brown, and 
Charles H. Test for the defense. The account of this trial 


is^ly told l)y Oliver H. Smith in his "Rouiiii- 
iscences" and is here quoted. 

" let me present the great and exciting trial 

of Alexander Young for killing John Points, in the Rush 
Circuit Court. The case was prosecuted by James Whit- 
comb and myself for the state, and defended by Charles 
H. Test. James Rariden and James T. Brown for the 
prisoner. The facts of the case were these : Young was a 
justice of the peace of Rush county, who had a beautiful 
and beloved daughtei-, about seventeen years of age. 
Points was a fine-looking young farmer, the son of a 
respectable man in the n(nghborhood, but somewhat wild 
and reckless. He had for some time been attached to the 
Squire's daughter and had asked the consent of the father 
to their man-iage; ))ut was rejected and denied the privil- 
ege of longer visiting the house. The young couple then 
arranged for an eloi)enient, to get married at a neighbor- 
ing village; the father got wind of their intentions and 
determined at all hazards to prevent it. He loaded his 
rifle and hung it up at a convenient place, to be taken 
do\NTi at a moment's notice of the approach of young 
Points. The Squire was absent one morning from his 
house, when Points rode u]) on horseback; the daughter 
was ready, stepped to the block and sjjrang up behind him, 
and off they bounded on a circuitous path round the fields 
to the ])ublic road leading to the village where they were 
to be married, and theii' earthly joys to commence for life. 
They left the house full of life, with bright hopes of the 
future, and the ultimate reconciliation of the i)arents, as 
they had been readers of romance, and imagined this was 
to be a noted adventure, like escaping fi-om a castle by 
young lovers. But alas for their dreams! The Squire 
returned a few moments after they had left, and seizing 
his rifle ran across the fields to the road, and took his 
position near the roadside — behind some trees, where the 
young couple had to pass. They soon ap])roached at a 
rapid pace, wholly unconscious of impending harm. As 


they were directly opposite the tree, where the Squire was 
concealed, he raised the rifle. The crack was heard at the 
house by the mother. The ball grazed the head of the 
daughter, and young Points fell from his seat a corpse, 
leaving the intended bride in her seat on the horse. She 
returned to the house with her father, and was the prin- 
cipal witness against him on the trial. 

"The case created great excitement throughout the 
whole country. The coroner's inquest charged Young 
with the murder of Points. The Squire was arrested and 
confined in the jail of Rush county. The grand jury 
found a bill of indictment for murder in the first degree. 
The clergy visited him in his cell repeatedly. He 
expressed the most poignant regret, and the deepest 
sorrow, so as to make a profound and lasting impression 
upon all who visited him— among the rest, upon my ven- 
erable friend, the Rev. James Havens, who took a deep 
interest in the trial. The court house was crowded, and 
surrounded at every window, during the trial, with the 
most anxious countenances I ever saw on any occasion; 
and while the daughter testified, the crowd seemed almost 
to cease breathing, such was the silence that surrounded 
us. The daughter related the whole facts and circum- 
stances of the case briefly- and calmly, but evidently with 
great feeling, and so far as we could judge, without any 
disposition to withhold anything material because her 
father was on trial. However, the tragedy proved too 
much for her strength. She gradually sank into a state 
of partial alienation of mind, from which she was never 

"The case was argued with all the ability the eminent 
cousel on both sides could bring to bear upon it. Mr. 
Whitcomb for the state and Mr. Charles H. Test for the 
prisoner especially distinguished themselves. The 
appeals to the sympathy of the jury were not in vain. A 
verdict of manslaughter, two years in the state prison, and 
a pardon from the governor, were the final result, but I 
learned that Alexander Young never smiled afterward." 



From tliis time forward the courts attended to their 
usual routine ])usiness, with no case of great general inter- 
est until the murder of l^]lisha Clark by Edward I, Swan- 
son in the early part of October. 1828. Dr. John Arnold 
was an important witness of this murder and in his 
"Reminiscences of an Old Settler" gave an accurate 
description of this case which resulted in the only hanging 
which has occurred in the county. 

"I think it was on the 4th of October that the muster 
was held at my father's st(n'e, and as was customary on 
such occasions, the company indulged i)retty freel}' in 
drinking old Monongahela whisky (Bourbon had not 
then attained its high reputation). In the evening after 
the rest had gone home, Elisha and Lewis Clark and Rich- 
ard Blackledge still remained in the store. My father was 
tired and wished to shut up, had gone back into his resi- 
dence thinking that they would soon retire. I remained 
until they finally went out of the store and turned their 
course to the west. ^Vhen they passed out T also went out 
on the ])orch and walked to its west end. The three men 
were walking abreast, IClisha (Mark in tlie middle; just 
then the gate opened and Swanson advanced three or four 
steps and in an instant })resent(Ml and fired his I'ifle. 
Clark fell, and Jjcwis Clark and Ulacklcdge sprang upon 
Swanson and a fiei'ce struggle (Misucd, tlie men rolling 
over on a pile of lumber that lay tliere. At this moment 
Mrs. Swanson, Mrs. Cruzan and Polly Swanson, a stout 
gii'l of eighteen, rushed to the rescue and instantly freed 
Swanson f'fom the hand of Clark and Blackledge. He 
picked uji liis gun and retui'iied tln-ough the same gate. 
My f'athci- and two men took n\) tlie murdered man and 
laid him on a h)ng table in our kitchen, lie gave one or 
two convulsive gasps after they took hold of him and all 
was over. The l)all had ])assed tln-ough his heart." 

Tlie cause for discord which led to the murder of 
Clark is alluded to by Br. Arnold thus: "The Swanson 


family were on terms of most friendly relations with 
Robert Cruzan's family. Mrs. Cruzan was a fine-looking 
woman and a good neighbor, but it seemed that years 
previous to her marriage, there had been in circulation 
reports most damaging to her character. Clark had 
revived and circulated these reports through the neigh- 
borhood, thereby exciting the intense indignation of the 
subject of them. She made her husband fight Clark, but 
the result was not decisive, and he refused to try it again. 
Swanson and famih^ strongly sympathized with the 
Cruzans and severely denounced Clark ; this led to a bitter 
quarrel between the parties, which ultimately culminated 
in the slaying of Clark," 

Swanson was taken some time later, and brought to 
trial in April, 1829, in the circuit court. He was ably 
defended by Charles H. Test, but his conviction was 
almost certain from the start of the trial, and he was 
condemned to death by hanging. His execution took place 
on May 11, 1829, between 10 a. m. and 4 p. m. on Fourth 
street about midway between Main and Morgan. The 
following redundant indictment is a copy of the original 
document in this case. 


"State of Indiana, Rush county, in the Rush Circuit 
Court, of the term of October, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and twenty-eight. 

"Rush County, Rush Circuit, ss. 

"The grand jurors for the said state of Indiana, 
empaneled, sworn and charged in the said Rush Circuit 
Court, to inquire in and for the body of the same coimty of 
Rush, upon their oath present that Edward I. Swanson, 
late of the said county of Rush, yeoman, a person of 
sound memory and discretion, not having the fear of God 
before his eyes, but being moved and instigated by the 
devil, on the fourth day of October, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-eight, about 


the ]i(»nr of six (i\'lock in the aftcriUKai of tlie same clay, 
with force and arms, at and in the county of Rush, afore- 
said, in and n])on one Elisha Chirk, a reasonable creature, 
in and under the peace of Cod and the state of Indiana 
then and there being, did then and there unlawfully, fel- 
oniously, and of his malice aforethought, make an assault, 
and that he, the said Edward I. Swanson. a certain rifle 
gun of the value of ten dollars, then and there loaded and 
charged with gunpowder and one leaden bullet, which 
said rifle gun. he, the said Edward T. Swanson then and 
there in both hands had and held, then and there uidaw- 
fnlly. feloniously and of bis malice aforethought, did 
(lischai'ge and shoot off to. against and U]>on the said 
Elisha Clark, and that the said Edward T. Swanson with 
the leaden bullet aforesaid, out of the rifle gun aforesaid, 
then and there by the force of the gunpowder aforesaid, 
by the said Edward I, Swanson discharged and shot off 
aforesaid, then and there unlawfully, feloniously, will- 
fully and of his malice aforethought did strike, penetrate 
and wound, the said Elisha Clark, between the lower end 
of the left shoulder blade and the spine of the said Elisha 
Clark, then and there with the bullet aforesaid so as afore- 
said shot off and discliarged by him the said Edward T. 
Swanson, out of said rifle gun as aforesaid, by foi'ce of 
the gimpowder aforesaid in and ujxm the back of him the 
said Elisha Clark, between the lower end of the left 
shoulder blade and the s])ine of the said Elisha Clark, and 
near the spine of the said Klislia Clark, one juortal wound 
of the depth of seven inches and of the breadth of one 
inch, of which moi'tal wound, the said Elisha Clark on 
aiul from tlic Iiciir of six u'clock of the aftei-iioon of the 
foui'th day of October, in the year of oui' I^ord, one 
thousand eight hundred and twenty-eight, aforesaid, until 
the lioui- of seven o'clock <»n the same afternoon of the 
fointli day of October in the year of our Lord, one 
thousand eight Innidied and twenty-eight aforesaid, in 
the county of Rush, aforesaid, did languish and languishly 


did live, on which said fourth day of October in the year 
of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and twenty- 
eight, about the hour of seven o'clock of the same after- 
noon, of the same da_y as aforesaid, the said Elisha Clark, 
at and in the county of Rush aforesaid, of the mortal 
wound aforesaid, died ; and so the said jurors aforesaid, 
do say that the said Edward I. Swanson herein the said 
Elisha Clark, in the manner and by the means aforesaid, 
unlawfull}^ feloniously and of his malice aforethought 
did kill and murder, contrary to the form of the statute in 
such cases made and provided against the peace and 
dignity of the state of Indiana. 

James Whitcomb 
''Attorney prosecuting for said state for the fifth 
judicial circuit thereof." 


The Third Judicial Circuit included what was then 
known as the Whitewater country, and extended from the 
county of Jefferson north, to the state of Michigan, some 
two hundred miles in length, and from the Ohio line on 
the east, to White river, some seventy-five miles west. The 
country was new, sparsely settled, and being on the west- 
ern frontier, the towns and villages were filled with In- 
dians, trading their peltries, wild game and moccasins, or- 
namented Avith the quills of the porcupine, with the set- 
tlers, for calicoes, whisky, powder, lead, beads and such 
articles as met their fancy. The population of the country 
embraced by the circuit, was a hardy, fearless and gener- 
ally honest, but more or less reckless people, such as are 
usually to be found advancing frontiers from more 
civilized life, and consequently there were more collisions 
among them, more crimes committed calling for the action 
of the criminal courts, than in common in older settled 
parts of the older states. 

The judiciary system at the time referred to was, 
like the country, in its infancy. The circuit court was 


composed of a pj-esident jiid.U'e, ek'ctod by the legislature; 
who presided in all the courts in the circuit, and two asso- 
ciate judges, (dected in each county by the people. These 
"side judges," as they were then called, made no preten- 
sions to any particular knowledge of the law, but still they 
had the power to overrule the presiding judge, and give 
the opinion of the court, and sometimes they even "out- 
guessed" the president, giving the most preposterous 
I'easons imaginable for their decisions, as, in one instance, 
that a writ of scire facias to revive a judgment, would not 
lie, unless it was sued out within a year and a day. The 
decision of the associates was affirmed in the supreme 
court, for other reasons of course. The court houses were 
eithei- frame or log Imildings, arranged to hold the court 
in one end, and the grand jury in the other. The r)etit 
jury was accommodated in some neighboi-ing outbuilding, 
rtsed as a kitchen of the neighboring inn, dui'ing vaca- 
tion. The clerks had vei-y few qualifications for their 
duties. Still they were honest, and the most of them could 
write more legibly than many a United States senator. 
The sheriffs were elected by the people, as they are now, 
and seemed to have been selected as candidates on account 
of their fine voices to call the jui-ors and witnesses from 
the woods, from the door of the court building, and their 
al)ility to run do^^'n and catch offenders. The most impor- 
tant personages in the country, however, w\>re the young 
lawyers, vudversally called "squires" by old and young, 
male and female. (Queues were much in fashion, and 
nothing was more couunon than to see one of these young 
"squires," with a wilted hat that had once been stiffened 
with glue in its better days, u])on a head, from the back 
])art of which hung a queue three feet long, tied f lom head 
to tip with an eelskin, walking in evident superioiity, in 
his own estimation, among the peo])le in the court yard, 
sounding the ])ublic mind as to his j)rospects as a candi- 
date foi- the legislature. There were no caucuses or con- 
ventions then. Kvery candidate brought himself out, and 


ran upon his own hook. If he got beat, as most of them 
did, he had nobody to blame but himself for becoming a 
candidate ; still he generally charged it upon his friends 
for not voting for him, and the next season, found him 
once more upon the track, sounding his own praises, 


The court rooms in those da3^s were prepared and 
furnished with much simplicity, and yet they seemed to 
answer all the purposes absolutely necessary to the due 
administration of justice. The building generally con- 
tained two rooms — the court room being the larger — at 
one end of which there was a platform elevated some three 
feet, for the judges, with a long bench to seat them. The 
bar had their benches near the table of the clerk, and the 
crowd was kept back by a long pole fastened with withes 
at the ends. The "crowds" at that day thought the 
holding of a court a great affair. The people came from 
miles about to see the judges, and hear the lawyers 
"plead," as they called it. 

The great vai'iety of trials and incidents on the circuit 
gave to the life of a traveling attorney an interest that 
they all relished exceedingly. There was none of the 
green-bag city monotony, no dyspepsia, no gout, no ennui, 
rheumatism or neuralgia: consumption was a stranger 
among them. An occasional jump of the toothache, 
relieved by the "turnkey" of the first doctor they came to, 
was the worst. All was fun, good humor, fine jokes well 
received, good appetites and sound sleeping, cheerful 
landlords and good-natured landladies at the head of the 
table. They all rode good horses, good travelers, trained 
to the cross-pole mud roads and to swimming. The 
counties furnished too little practice for the resident 
attorney, so all looked to a circuit practice. Some rode 
the whole circuit, and others but a few counties. 

Some of the trials which were brought into court in 
the early days of the county are of present interest as 


sei-viiii,^ as a study in tlu' effect of the changing times on 
our judicial and legal system, and are here reproduced 
from the ''Reminiscences" of Oliver H. Smith, heretofore 
referred to. 


"As I was on my return home from Indianapolis, 
accompanied by my friend, the late George H. Dunn, we 
stopped at a little shanty tavern in the woods between 
liig Blue river and Rushville, to stay for the night. The 
landlord, I call Pei'ry leaden. AVe had a good open log 
fire, a tolerable supper, and took our seats. AVe were 
evidently strangers at the inn. The landlord, who was a 
small, frisky, run-about fellow, eyed us for some time, 
and at last drew u]) liis 'splint-l)ottomed chair' and 
commenced: 'Are either of you lawyers?' 'Yes, both of 
us,' 'Then you are the very men I want to see — I have a 
lawsuit for you.' 'What a1)outr 'The man that keeps 
the tavei'u in sight down the road [whom I call Elzy C. 
Lee] has slandered me the worst kind.' 'Indeed, what 
did he say of you?' 'He said that I fed my travelers on 
stolen pork.' 'Perha])S he was only in fun.' 'Not he, it 
was all done to o^ei the traveling custom to his tavern.' 
This looked plausible, and as I practiced in the Rush 
Circuit C(ni]'t, the matter began to assume a serious, busi- 
ness-like character, as I thought myself somebody in 
slander cases, although 'Starkie on Slander,' in two 
volumes, had not then met the eye of the profession. We 
generally carried with us on the circuit, 'Espinasse's Nisi 
Prius' and 'Peak's Evidence' with dogears turned down 
at each heading. Judge Dumi was my senior in practice, 
and had some expci-ience in the difficulties that sometimes 
embnirass connscl uiton the ti-ial. when, for the first time 
tlicy Icai'ii that theii- clients only told the truth as far as 
tlicy went, but foi'g(*t to tell the whole truth, which alone 
would euaMe them to meet the true state of the case before 
the court. 'One question uun-c Mr. Laden,' said Judge 


Dunn, 'did you ever kill anybody's hogs by accident and 
bring them home, out of which your neighbor might have 
made up this story against you '^ ' ' Never ! I never killed 
a hog in the woods in my life; besides I can prove my 
character from a boy, by Captain Bracken.' This settled 
the matter in favor of the action. Judge Dunn, living at 
Lawrenceburg, and not practicing in Rushville, the case 
was given uj) to me ; the fee agreed upon, $20 certain, and 
one-half the damages contingent. The case was brought 
at the next term of the court, and Captain Bracken sub- 
pen aed to prove the good character from infancy of my 
client. My expectations were high of the large damages 
that I was to divide with my client ; I had read of $20,000, 
$10,000, $5,000, and such verdicts in aggravated cases of 
slander. The court came on, my case was called. 'A rule 
for a plea, ' sa3^s I. ' Plead instanter, ' says James Rariden 
for defendant. 'Hand the plea to me, Mr. Clerk,' says I. 
The clerk handed over the plea. A single glance satisfied 
me that there was trouble ahead. The plea was a 'justifi- 
cation' of the words, and charging the stealing of two hogs 
by my client, the property of some one unknown. I told 
my client the substance of the plea. 'It is all a lie, they 
can't prove it, and if they do Captain Bracken will clear 
up my character.' Of course I took issue upon the plea. 
A jury was called, and Mr. Rariden and Chas. H. Test 
called to the witness stand and a girl that had lived with 
my client at one time, but had been discharged some time 
before the trial. She swore positively that my client had 
killed two hogs in the woods, skinned them, cut off their 
heads and brought them home before daylight on a sled ; 
and said that he could kill enough for his winter's meat 
for the whole family. 'How is this,' I whispered in his 
ear. 'Ask her what I said when I came home.' I put the 
question. 'He said as he had cut off the heads and legs 
of the hogs, and had skinned them; nobody could tell 
whether they were deer or hogs.' My client seemed 
pleased with the answer to his question. 'Now call up 


Captain Bracken, and lie will i;iA-e mv character.' 
'Captain Bracken, stand up and be sworn. Are you 
acquainted witli the plaintiff, and how long have you 
known him?' 'I have knowTi him from a boy." 'What is 
his character?' 'Well, he always dealt fair enougli with 
me.' 'But for his honesty; you never heard anything 
against him for honesty?' 'Well, I can't exactly say that ; 
he stole a fine hog from me that I had killed and hung up 
in the smoke house; I tracked him the next morning, and 
found the hog at his house, and he paid me for it.' 
Rariden laughed aloud, and my head fell at least forty 
degrees. The case was chtsed l)efore the jury. The proof 
was positive. I s]jrang to my feet, and addressing the 
court, 'I ask the couit to instruct the jury, that before 
they can find for tlic dcfcndaut the evidence nuist be so 
strong that if the plaintiff was on trial for stealing the 
hogs, the}' would send him to the penitentiary.' 'I admit 
that to be the law; let the jury take the case,' said ^h\ 
Rariden. The jury letired to their room, and the court 
adjourned. I walked silently to the tavern, amid the jeers 
of the lawyers, and the exultation of my competitor for 
the verdict. The jury was out all night, and just as the 
court met in the morning, returned with a verdict of 'one 
cent damages for the phiintif f . ' The defendant rushed up 
to me and tendered the cent. Mv. Rariden most indig- 
nantly step]jed up to the foreman, 'How could you find 
such a verdict?' 'li})on ycmr own admissions.' 'What 
did T aduiit?' 'Mi. Smith said if we found for the defend- 
ant, we must send the ])laintiff to the i»enitentiary, and 
you admitted that to be the law; so we could not think of 
sending a man well off, and ^^itll a good tavern stand, to 
ihe ]»eriitentiary, for stealing two little hogs, and jxtor at 
tliat.' .fndgnicnt was icndered for one cent in damages, 
and over *:'()() costs. All my imaginary income from the 
v('i"(lir-t \anished, and the next time I heard from the 
])artics, the tavern of the defendant was advertised bv 
the sheiiff to pay the costs. This case has occupied more 


space than I would have liked, but it contains a profes- 
sional mo^'al worth remembering." 


''In an interesting trial at Rushville, in which T was 
engaged as couEseL my principal witness to sustain the 
case was a woman by the name of Elizabeth Blackstone, 
She had sworn positively to the facts of the case. .Messrs. 
Test and Rariden, the coimsel on the opposite side, saw 
that the case was with me unless they could impeach her 
testimony. She was a stranger, and none knew her 
character, good or bad. She had testified, however, that 
she was in the state of Ohio at a particular time. This 
was taken down by the counsel, and upon that point they 
expected to contradict and discredit her. After she left 
the stand, they called a witness that resided in Illinois to 
prove that at the time she stated she was in Ohio she was 
in fact at a dance in Illinois, where the witness was. 
Elizabeth wore a beautiful set of artificial teeth — a mouth 
full. She was at some distance back from the witness 
stand. The witness from Illinois swore positively to her 
person, and that she was at the dance in Illinois at the 
time, directly contradicting her. The counsel gave over 
the witness to me. Elizabeth whispered in my ear: 'Let 
me ask him a question. ' ' Certainly. ' She turned her head 
from the witness, slipped out her false teeth and wrapped 
them in her handkerchief, stepped quickly up to the 
, witness, looked him full in the face, opened her mouth 
wide exhibiting a few rotten snags: 'Did you ever see 
me before?' 'No, I can swear I never did. You looked 
some like the lady I saw, but I see you are not the same 
woman. She had beautiful natural teeth.' The triumph 
of 'art' in Elizabeth was complete. I afterwards learned 
that she was at the ball, and the first impression of the 
Illinois witness was correct. ' ' 


"At a term of the Rush Circuit Court, came on for 
trial an important case against Dr. Sexton for malprac- 


tice, in failing to cure a case of whitlow on the plaintiff's 
fiiiucr. The doetor was one of the first surgeons in the 
state. I was employed to assist my young friend, Charles 
H. Test, in the defense ; Amos Lane and flames T, Brown 
for the i)laintiff : damages claimed .$10,000; Bethuel F. 
Morris and his 'side judges' on the hench. It was 
acbnitted that The fingers of the hand in (piestion were 
drawn to the ])alm, and entirely stiff, when Dr. Sexton 
was first called. Preparatory to the trial, the doctor had 
placed in my hands 'Bell on Surgery,' giving me an oppor- 
tunity to understand his case. The prosecuting witn(\ss 
was a little |)ox-marked Irish doctor, whom I call by the 
iuicomm<jn name of Smith. He had been but a few years 
from the Emerald Isle, with a 'rich brogue^' upon his 
toiigue, and a good spice of the hlarney, and with a very 
laudable amhition to become the competitor of Dr. Sexton. 
Like death 'he chose a shining mark.' He professed to be 
a regular graduate from a college^ in Cork, and with the 
most significant look would draw from his pocket a round 
silver medal, u])on which was stamped 'Dr. Smith, 
dii)loma,' and exhibit it to the gaze of the ])eople. The 
doctor would have succeeded well had he confined himself 
to a countiy practice, and, as my ancient friend, Jeremiah 
Cox, of Richmond, said in the senate, to 'connnon doctoi'- 
ing with i)ills and ])()wders, and let surgenary ahme.' It 
seemed that he had lieard of this whitlow case, had got 
u]) the ])rosecuti<.n against Dr. Sexton, and now stood 
u})on the witness stand as the main, and indeed only 
witness for the plaintiff. He clearly testified to the mal- 
])ractice of Dr. Sexton, and most tiiuniphantly ])ointed to 
the stiff fingers. 'What more do you want hut the hand 
ye see?' The plaintiff rested, and my duty of cross-ques- 
tioning the doctor commenced. 'Doctor, you say this was 
mal])ractice.' 'I do, sir.' 'Are you a regular surgeon?' 
'I suppose I am.' 'Have you a diploma?' 'I have, sir.' 
'Will you let me see it?' 'I will not, sir.' 'It is in your 
pocket, is it not?' 'It is, sir.' 'Then hand it out.' 


Counsel for plaintiff — 'We object; it is a private docu- 
ment, and no notice has been give to produce it, nor has 
subpoena duces te cum been issued,' The Court — 'Objec- 
tion sustained. ' ' Well, Doctor, is not your diploma silver, 
about the size of a dollar?' 'Suppose it is — what's that 
to you.' 'You swear that this was malpractice; do you 
understand that the muscles were contracted and the 
fingers stiff ; with the ends drawn into the palm of the 
hand, when Dr. Sexton first called "?' 'I understand so.' 
'Do you think you. could have straightened the fingers 
and given elasticity to the joints in that state?' 'Cer- 
tainly.' 'What would you have applied to the case?' 
'A poultice of slippery-elm bark.' 'Doctor, what charac- 
ter of whitlow is this? Was it seated under the cuticle 
near the root or side of the nail, or in the cellular mem- 
brane under the cuticle, or in the theca or sheath of the 
flexor tendons, or in the periosteum?' It was evident that 
this question struck tlie doctor all aback. It was, in the 
language of my facetious friend, Jas. T. Brown, on 
another occasion, 'all Greek and turkey tracks,' to the 
witness. Y/itness greatly confused, large drops of per- 
spiration falling from his chin, and looking imploringly 
at the court, 'Must I answer such questions? I did not 
come here to be examined as if I was before a college of 
physicians asking a diploma ! ' Judge Morris — ' The ques- 
tion is proper, the witness must answer.' 'I shan't 
answer — the court ma}'' send me to jail.' It was apparent 
to me that the doctor thought he could not make his posi- 
tion worse than it was becoming on the stand, and that 
going to jail would be a fortunate escape. 'You could 
answer if you would. Doctor?' 'Certainly I could, in a 
moment of time.' 'But you won't do it?' 'Not I.' 
'Doctor, do you think this was a case of paronychia ?' Of 
what did you say?' 'Of paron^^chia. ' 'I shan't answer.' 
'You could answer if you would. Doctor?' 'Surely I 
could,' stepping about the floor, and becoming more 
agitated. 'Doctor, might not this have been a case of 


onychia maligna T 'I shall answer no such questions.' 
'You eoulcl answer if you wouldT 'In a minute.'' 'Don't 
some <»f the authors that you have read, speak of the 
disease under the divisions I have named'?' 'I believe 
they do.* "Which of them. Doctor"?' 'I shan't answer.' 
'You eouhl tell me if you would f 'Yes sir, I could uaine 
fifty of them.' 'Please name one?' 'I shan't do it.' 
'Docto]", do not some of the authors you have read, say 
that in certain stages of the disease, it is proper to use 
lunar caustic and other escharotics?' 'I tell you I shall 
answer no such questions.' 'You could give me the names 
of the autliors if you would. Doctor ?' ' Indeed could T. as 
long as your arm." Here the eounsel for the plaintiff 
rescued the doctor, 'May it please the court, we will press 
this case for the i^laintiff no further: let the jury find 
for the defendant in the hox.' Yerdict and judgment 
accordingly. ' ' 


The case which was perhaps more far-reaching in its 
effect on suhsequent judicial decisions of a similar nature 
than any othei- ever tried in the state, was the Megee will 
case. The suit, Peter W. l?ush et al. vs. Mary ATegee et ah 
was hrought in May, 18(57. to contest the will of John 
Megee, deceased. The defendants asked a change of 
venue and Judge Jeremiah M. Wilson of the Fourth Judi- 
cial Circuit was a])])oiuted to hold this s]tecial tenn. 
liluch exceptionally fii'e legal talent was employed on 
both sides, II. F. Claypool. 1). W. \'ooi-liees, and W. A. 
Cullen by the plaintiffs; Leonidas JSexton, T. A, Hen- 
dricks, O. B. Hord, and A. AY. Hendricks for the defend- 
ants. The will was contested on the grounds that the 
testatoi- was of unsftund mind at the time of the making of 
the will, and the answei- was a general denial. Megee 
ha<l heconie o})sesse(l with tlie idea that two of his rela- 
tives. Dr. Rush and Mi', liiii!;, were in a conspiracy to 
pftisoTi him, and thus share in his estate. The evidence 
showed that lie liad in\-sterioHsl v left his home without 


the knowledge of his family, had gone to Kentucky where 
he remained for some time, and while there had shot 
himself. It was held that every man is presumed to be of 
sound mind until the contrary is made to appear by 
evidence, and the jury found for the defendants, the court 
charging them with the costs of the trial. A motion for a 
new trial was overruled, and exceptions were properly 
taken by the defense, an appeal to the supreme court 
being allowed upon the filing of bond in the sum of $1,000. 
The case came up for trial in the supreme court in the 
May term of 1871. The evidence was voluminous, cover- 
ing 200 pages. Briefly, the question was this : If Megee 
was afflicted with delusions which related to his sons-in- 
law. Dr. Rush and Mr. Link, which were entertained at 
the time of the execution of the will, and believed that 
they designed to poison him, and persisted in that belief 
without reason, and against all evidence or probability, 
and if such delusion affected his judgment in disposing 
of his property among the members of his family just 
alluded to, such a disposition could not be maintained. 
But if, notwithstanding he entertained such delusions in 
regard to Dr. Rush and Mr. Link, he did not permit them 
to affect his judgment as to the members of his family, 
and his mind was not influened by them, his will would be 
valid. The vital question then became — What was the 
condition of his mind at the time of making the will ? 

The judgment of the Rush county court was reversed 
at the costs of the appellees, and the cause remanded for 
further proceedings not inconsistent with this opinion. A 
petition for rehearing was overruled. The opinion of the 
supreme court cleared up many points of law, and estab- 
lished precedent for all time in cases of a like nature. 


Besides the circuit court, business was transacted '^ 
the court of common pleas, the pri^bate court, commmis- 
sioners court and for one year the duties of the last named 
were discharged by a court of justices, composed of one 


justice from each township. The probate court was 
abolished iu 185?). its jurisdiction heiuo- transferred to the 
court of conunon pleas, and those presiding as judge of 
this court were: Elias Poston and North Parker, the 
associate judges from 1822: Elias Poston, 1829: Turner 
A. Knox, 1836; Pleasant A. Hackleman, 1837; Alexander 
Walker, 1841 ; and James Hinclunan, 1848, The court of 
common pleas was established in the year 1853, and was 
designed to have jurisdiction over x)robate matters, and 
over all offenses which were less than felonies and not 
allotted to the special jurisdiction of justices of tlie peace. 
This was a very populai' court, and much objection was 
raised to its abolition in 1872. Its jurisdiction was, in 
most cases, concurrent with the circuit court, and for a 
time appeals could be taken from it to that court, but this 
provision was abandoned, appeals l)eiug taken dii'ectly to 
the supreme court of the state. The clerk and sheriff of 
the circuit court were the officers of the court of common 
pleas, and while it was in existence the office of judge was 
filled by Royal P. Cobb, 1853; Samuel A. Bonner,' 1857 ; 
AYilliam Grose, 1861; David S. Gooding, 1862: William 
R. West, 1865; William A. Cullen, 1867; and William A. 
Moore, 1871. 

The office of judge of the Rush Cii'cuit Court has 
been held as follows in the order named: \Villiam AV. 
Wick, Miles C. Eggleston, Bethuel F. Morris, Charles H. 
Test, Saunu'l Bigger, James Perry, Jehu T. Elliott, Oliver 
P. Morton, William i\I. McCarty, Reuben 1). Ijogan, Jere- 
miah M. Wilson, William A. Cullen, Samuel A. Bonner, 
John \y. Study, James K. Ewing, John 1). Miller (died in 
office), David A. Myers. Douglas Morris, Will M. 
Si)arks, Alonzo Blair. John D. Megee (api)ointed when 
Rush ccmntv was made a ciicnit l)v itself) and Will M. 
S])arks (re-elected in 1920). 


The pi'osecutiug attorneys of the Rush Circuit Court 
have been : Hiram M. Curryj 1822 ; Charles H. Test, 1823 ; 


James Whitcomb, 1826 ; James Perry, 1830 ; William J. 
Brown, 1832; Samuel W. Parker, 1837; David Macy, 
1839; Martin M. Rav, 1841; Jehu T. Elliott, 1843; Jacob 
B. Julian, 1844; John B. Still, 1846; P. Y. Wilson, 1848; 
Benjamin F. Johnson, 1850; Joshua H. Mellett, 1851; 
Oscar B. Hord, 1853; William Patterson, 1856; Henry C. 
Hanna, 1859 ; Milton H. Cullum, 1861 ; Samuel S. Harrell, 
1863; Creighton Dandy, 1865; Kendall M. Hord, 1867; 
Alexander B. Campbell, 1869; Elias R. Monforth, 1873; 
Orlando B. Scoby, 1874: John L. Bracken, 1879; Richard 
A. Durnan, 1880; Marine D. Tackett, 1881; George W. 
Campbell, 1886 ; Daniel F. Shields, 1890 ; David A. Myers, 
1892; George W. Young, 1894; Elmer E. Roland, 1896; 
Ned Abercrombie, 1898 ; George H. Meiks, 1900 ; James V. 
Young, 1902; Elmer Bassett, 1904; J. Oscar Hall, 1908; 
Wilbur W. Israel, 1910; John C. Cheney, 1912; Albert C. 
Stevens, 1914, the present incumbent. 

The clerks of Rush county have been: Robert 
Thompson, 1822; John L. Robinson, 1843; Pleasant A. 
Hackleman, 1847; George Hibben, 1856; John S. Camp- 
bell, 1860; Benjamin F. Tingley, 1864; James W. Brown. 
1872 ; Jetson Smith, 1875 ; James W. Brown, 1879 ; James 
M. Hildreth, 1885 ; Thomas M. Green, 1892 ; Sanf ord M. 
Boston, 1900 ; William A. Posey, 1904 ; Verne W. Norris, 
1908; Arie M. Taylor, 1912; George B. Moore, Jr., 1916; 
Loren Martin, appointed August, 1919, elected Novem- 
ber, 1920. 

The sheriffs of Rush county have been : John Hays. 
1822; N. W. Marks, 1823; William Bussell, 1826; Alfred 
Posey, 1830 ; Greenberry Rush, 1834 ; George W. Brann, 
1836 ; Alvin N. Blacklidge, 1838 ; TCehemiah Hayden, 1842 ; 
Walter Brown, 1844; Harmony Laughlin, 1848; Nehe- 
miah Hayden, 1850; James M. Caldwell, 1852; Harmony 
Laughlin, 1854 ; Samuel Caskey, 1856 ; Harmony Laugh- 
lin, 1858 ; Samuel S. McBride, 1864 ; Alexander McBride, 
1866; J. H. Cook, 1868; J. K. Gowdy, 1872; George W. 
Hall, 1874 ; Harrison S. Carney, 1876 ; George W. Wilson, 


1880; John \y. Tompkins, 1884; Francis M. Redman, 
18SS: Benjamin L. MeFarlan, 1892; William L. Pi-ice, 
189G; William M. Bainbridge, 1900; William King, 1904; 
Clata L. Bebout, 1908; Voorhees Cavitt, 1912; E. M. 
.Tones, 1916; and S. L. Hunt, sheriff -elect, 1921. 


jlpjiy attorneys who have practiced in the Rush 
county c<»arts have l)een known prominently, not only as 
attorneys, but have also occupied important judicial and 
political positions, both state and national. Among the 
foremost men at the bai- in the early days was Judge 
Charles H. Test, a son of the Hon. John Test. He was a 
young man of fine talents and great energy of character, 
at an early age taking a high position among the notables 
of the profession. In person he was slender, al)()ut the 
medium height, had a small head, high forehead and pro- 
jecting teeth. It is said of him that "he was not a very 
handsome man, and yet his countenance lit up so well 
when speaking that he passed without jiarticular com- 
ment." The forte of the judge was before the jury on 
facts. He made a strong argument and his s^anpathetic 
aj>i)eals were unsurpassed. His hal)its were strictly tem- 
perate. He held the offices of president judge of the 
circuit, judge of the criminal court in Indianapolis, and 
after sevei-al .years as setn'etary of state, returned to the 
practice in "Wayne county. Samuel Bigger, judge of the 
circuit court, latei' l)ecame Gov<'i'noi' of Indiana. Hugh 
B. Eggleston practiced here and then removed to New 
Orleans, where he took a commanding position at the 
bar. W. J. Brown, who became a member of Congress, 
secretary of state of Indiana, and assistant postmaster 
general in the cabinet of President James K. Polk, served 
as i)rosecutor in this circuit, George B, Tingley once 
represented Rush county in the state legislature, and was 
known as an astute lawA'^er. Finley Bigger was registrar 
of the United States treasury during the administrations 


of Pierce and Buchanan, and thereafter became a member 
of the Rushville bar. Pleasant A. Hackleman, though not 
particularly talented as a lawyer, was a brilliant orator. 
His forte was politics, and during the Civil War he rose 
to the rank of brigadier-general and was killed at the 
battle of Corinth, Indiana's only general to meet death in 
action. Leonidas Sexton was admitted to the Rush county 
bar in 1847, and in addition to being an able lawyer, was 
a keen politician. He was a member of the state legisla- 
ture, was lieutenant governor of Indiana, and a member 
of Congress from this district. George B. Sleeth, one of 
the most brilliant orators ever gracing the local bar, came 
to this county from Pennsylvania, worked on a farm, 
borrowed money from his employer to obtain an education 
at Farmers' College, near Cincinnati, studied law under 
Leonidas Sexton, and took a commanding place among 
the members of the profession. He was elected state 
senator from the district of Rush and Decatur counties, 
and in 1878, representative from Rush county. George 
Puntenney was a native of Rush county, having been born 
here in 1832. He received his education in the common 
schools of the day and at Fairview Academy and Rich- 
land Academy. He served in the Union army during the 
Civil war and was admitted to the bar in 1867 where he 
became distinguished. He was a newspaper man of 
ability and for many years edited the Rushville 
Jacksonian. Ben L. Smith was one of the most successful 
members of the local bar, where he practiced most of his 
life. He became widely known throughout the state and 
was selected as a trustee of the Knightstown Soldiers' and 
Sailors' Orphans' Home. Jesse J. Spann, a member of 
the bar for sixteen years, from 1871 to his death in 1887, 
was during the period one of the leaders of his profession. 
He was an able advocate and trial lawyer, although his 
legal knowledge was not so great as that of either Sleeth 
or Sexton. He was a member of the state senate where 
he made for himself an enviable reputation. Judge 


William A. Ciilleii, David S. ^Morgan and many others 
hjivc bv their aehieveinents made bright pages in the 
history of the legal i^rofession. Senator James E. 
Watson, wlio was engaged in practice here for a short 
time prior to his entrance into ])olitics, was born in Win- 
chester. Ind.. and was admitted to the bar in that city in 
1886. In 1893 he removed to Rushville, and almost 
innnediately entered the political arena as a candidate for 
election to the United States Congress. He was elected to 
the 54th Congress (1895-7) . He was also a member of the 
r)6th-60th Congresses (1899-1909) from the Sixth Indiana 
district. Mr. Watson was Repu))lican nominee for gover- 
nor of the state in 1908. but was defeated in the election 
by Thomas R. Marshall. In 1916, he took his seat in the 
United States Senate to fill the unexpired term of Ben- 
jamin F. Shively (deceased) from 1916-21 and in 1920 
was re-elected to the Senate. Donglas ^lorris, a present 
member of the bar, was judge of the Rush Circuit Court 
for six years and for a like jjeriod (1911-16) was a justice 
of the Indiana Supreme Court. The venerable Frank J. 
Hall, ]»rcsent acknowledged dean of the bar of the Rush 
Circuit Court, was lieutenant governor of Indiana dui'ing 
the Marshall administration, 1909-13. Mr. Hall is a 
native of Rush eonnty. a son of Squire William S. Hall. 
wh(tse sti-ong pei'sonal influence in behalf of better schools 
hei'e in his generation has rendeicd his memory an endur- 
ing one in Rush county. There are two woman members 
(tf the b;ir, Miss Anna L. Bohannon, junior member of the 
law firm of Gary & Bohannon, who was admitted in 1919. 
and Miss Hannah S. Moi-ris, admitted in 1921, who is 
practicing in association with hei- father, Douglas Morris. 

N()Tai5m:s vuoy] \i:i(;ni',(ii{ix(i riHcriTS 

Am(»ng the ]»ractitioners at the Rushville bai- during 
the past centui-y there have been many from sur)-ounding 
counties win* have been i-ecognized for their ability in 
both the pi-.icTicc of the legal ]>rof<'Ssion and in political 


positions. A few of these have been : Oliver H. Smith, 
afterward a member of the United States Senate ; James 
Rariden, afterward a member of Congress; James T. 
Brown, of Dearborn county, a profound lawyer with a 
keenness of sarcasm seldom equalled; Caleb B. Smith, 
afterward representative in Congress, and secretary of 
the interior under President Lincoln. 

Oliver Hazard Perry Throck jMorton, the fourth son 
of James Throck and Sarah T. (second wife) Morton, was 
born August 4, 1823, in a two-story frame house in 
Salisbury, Wayne county, Indiana, then kept by his 
father as a tavern. The Mortons were descended from an 
old English family, the Throckmortons, but changed the 
name soon after coming to this country, many of its 
members using Throck as a given name. At his mother's 
death in 1826, Oliver, who was then three years old, went 
to live with his maternal grandfather, John Ivliller, of 
Springfield (now Springdale), Ohio. In this family of 
stern Scotch Presbyterians he lived until he was fifteen, 
when, at his grandfather's death, he became a druggist's 
clerk in Centerville. He soon came to a misunderstanding 
with his employer, however, and he was then "bound out" 
for four years to his brother William to learn the hatter's 
trade. During this period his fondness for music asserted 
itself and he played in the village band on the cornet, 
clarinet and flute. Six months before the end of his 
apprenticeship, in 1843, he left his brother's establish- 
ment, and entered Miami University at Oxford, Ohio. 
He had a splendid physique, and his sociable disposition 
made him a favorite with his fellow students. Although 
an "irregular," he stood high in his classes, and attained 
some distinction as a debater. After leaving Oxford in 
the spring of 1845, he began the study of law in the office 
of John S. Newman, of Centerville, then a leader at the 
Wayne county bar. He said of Morton that he was 
"laborious in his studies, strictly temperate in his habits, 
and genial in his manners." Shortly after he had begun 


liis studios witli Newmau he married huciiida ]\[. 
Burlxudv. of Ceiiteiville, Ohio, and to this liappy 
marria.ue five ehildieu were liorn : John Milk'r, Mary 
Elizabeth, Sarah Lilas, Walter Scott, and Oliver Throck. 

In the fall of 1845 :\Ir. :\Iorton boiiiAht $200 worth of 
})ooks from his preceptor, and entered the practice of the 
profession as his partner. This partnership continued 
for something' over a year, and in the spring of 1847 he 
formed an association with Charles H. Test, In 1849 he 
practiced alone, and in 1850 with Nimrod H. Johnson, 
formed the law firm of Morton & Johnson. In 1853, he 
was elected .judge of the Sixth circuit, hut in the summer 
of the same year traded circuits with Judge W. W. Wick, 
of Marion county. He presided at the Rush Circuit 
Court, and his signature may be seen on some of the 
records in the clerk's office at Rushville today. But this 
calling was not to his liking — he longed for the battle of 
wits that comes to the attorney, and in the fall of 1852. 
having been a judge altogether less than eight months, 
lie went to the Cincinnati Law School where he was a 
student for six months. In 1853 he formed a partnershi]) 
with John F. Kibbey, undei' the firm name of Morton & 
Kibbey, at Ccntciville. and this partnership continued 
until Morton's election as gov(>rnor of Indiana in 18(i0. 

Although in his earlier life Mr. Morton had been a 
Democrat, he was elected on the Republican ticket, and 
then foi- two terms as governoi-, during the trying Civil 
wnr days, he distinguished himself as an executive. It 
was while he was governor of the state that he became 
])artially i)ai-alyzed, and ever thereafter was forced to go 
about in a wheel-chaii'. Fn 1868, he was elected to the 
United States Senate, and almost immediately was recog- 
nized as ))erha])s the ablest man in the upper house of 
( 'ongi'css. He was returned foi- a second term, but before 
the expiiatioii of this, the fighting career of Oliver Perry 
Morton was brought to a close, his death occurring at his 
home in rndiana])olis on November 1, 1877. 


Thomas A. Hendricks, . later vice-president of the 
United States; Judge Jeremiah M. Wilson, who later 
became one of the leading lawyers of the country while 
practicing at Washington ; and others of renown have at 
one time or other practiced in this county. 


The present (1921) active members of the bar of the 
Rush Circuit Court are J. Thomas Arbuckle, Howard E. 
Barrett, Anna L. Bohannon, George W. Campbell, 
Chauncey W. Duncan, Abraham L. Gary, Thomas M. 
Green, Frank J, Hall, Samuel L. Innis, John F. Joyce, 
Gates Ketchum, John D. Megee, Benjamin F. Miller, 
Wallace G. Morgan, Douglas Morris, Hannah S. Mor]"is, 
William L. Newbold, Donald L, Smith, John Q. Thomas, 
John A. Titsworth, Samuel L. Trabue, George W. Young 
and James V. Young. 

Ifi Chronological Order — In the order of their admis- 
sion the following lawyers who resided in this county at 
the time of admission have practiced at the bar of the 
Rush Circuit Court : Hiram M. Curry, admitted in 1822 ; 
Charles H. Test, 1822; Charles H. Veeder, 1822; William 
J. Brown, 1830; John McPike, 1831; John Alley, 1831; 
George B. Tinglev, 1835; Samuel Bigger, 1835; Finley 
Bigger, 1836; Robert S. Cox, 1836; Pleasant A. Hackle- 
man, 1837; A. W. Hubbard, 1840; Phineas Cassady, 1840; 
Reuben D. Logan, 1843, George C. Clark, 1844; Leonidas 
Sexton, 1847; Robert S. Sproull, 1847; Benjamin F. 
Johnson, 1849; W. Robinson, 1849; Lewis H. Thomas, 
1852 ; Thomas C. Galpin, 1856 ; Samuel B. Garrett, 1856 ; 
Ben L. Smith, 1857; William A. Cullen, 1857; William 
Cassady, 1857; Isaac H. Stewart, 1858; William O. 
Sexton, 1858; Rodman Davis, 1859; William H. Pugh, 
1859; Jefferson Helm, Jr., 1859; John R. Mitchell, 1863; 
George B. Sleeth, 1866; Alexander B. Campbell, 1866; 
Hugh M. Spalding, 1866; Davis S. Morgan, 1867; George 
W. Bates, 1867; George H. Puntenney, 1867; Frank J. 


Hall, 1869; Samuel F. King, 1869; A. Smith Folger, 
1870; John W. Study, 1870; Levi W. Study, 1870; Jesse 
J. Sparm, 1871 ; Thomas Poo, 1871 ; John Q. Thomas, 
1871 ; A. B. Ii'viii. 1871 ; David \V. McKee, 1872; George 
W. Young, 1872; Claude Camhern, 1874; Albert Irvin, 
1874; O. S))eneer Moore, 1874; James W. Brown, 1875; 
Thomas M. (Ireen, 1875; John 1). Megee, 1876; Thomas J. 
Newkirk, 1876; William A. Posey, 1880; Wesley S. 
Morris. 1880; George \V. Cam].bell, 1880; Gates Sexton. 
1881 ; U. I>. Cole, 1881 ; Frank P. Kennedy, 1881 ; Thomas 
A. Smith, 1882; Samuel H. Spooner, 1882; William J. 
Henley, 1888; James W. Tueker, 1884; Thomas M. 
Ochiltree, 1884; Douglas Morris, 1885; Howard E. 
Barrett, 1885; Charles F. Kennedy, 1886; John F. Jovce, 
1886; Benjamin F. :Miller, 1886;^ Lot D. Guffin, 1887; 
Samuel L. Tunis, 1887; John M. Stevens, 1893; Wallace 
G. Morgan, 1893; John A. Titsworth, 1893; James E. 
Watson, 1894; Sanuiel L. Trabue, 1894; Ned Aber- 
crombie. 1895; Donald L. Smith, 1895; Will M. Sparks, 
1896; W. C. Bretz, 1896; Ora W. Herkless, 1896; John 
S. Abercrombie, 1897; James V. Young, 1898; Carl Y. 
Nipp, 1898; James Thomas Arbuckle, 1899; William C. 
Mc(\)lgin, 1900; William L. Newl)old, 1902; John H. 
Kiplinger, 1902; Walter E. Smith, 1903; Chauncev W. 
Duncan, 1906; Edgar E. Hite, 190(5; Dennis O'Neil, 1906; 
Joim S. Matthews, 1906; Abraham 1.. Gary, 1907; Gates 
Kctchuiii. 191(i; Anna L. Bolunnioii, 1919; Hannah S. 
.Mollis. 1921. 


MiLiTAEY Annals 

The military annals of Rush county prior to the Civil 
war fail to show any separate organizations (barring 
meager references to the pioneer militia) although a few 
of the residents of the county had particiiDated in the 
Mexican war. It is recalled that the majority of the 
voters of the county were opposed to the administration 
that carried on that war and that local enthusiasm in that 
behalf was at most but lukewarm. However, on receipt 
of the news of the battle of Palo Alto, May 8, 1846, 
Nehemiah Hayden and Oliver G. Hackleman aroused a 
sufficient degree of patriotic fervor to recruit a company 
for service. They went to Indianapolis to get their 
company accepted, but found upon arrival that the 
required thirty companies from this state already had 
been filled. Captain Hayden enlisted in another unit^ 
however, and went to the front, as did George B. Tingley 
and possibly a few others whom the older chronicles do 
not mention. Not a few of the pioneer settlers of Rush 
county had rendered service in the War of 1812 and there 
also were quite a number of the soldiers of the Revolution- 
ary war who spent their last days within the confines of 
this county, having joined their children or grandchildren 
among the pioneers of this section, and the graves of these 
latter, where known, have been marked by the local 
chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. 


One of the most illuminating glimpses of the early 
days hereabout that has been preserved among the numer- 
ous "reminiscences" of the pioneers is a narrative of 
Elijah Hackleman dealing as follows with the peaceful 
exploits of Col. William S. Bussell's "Light Horse 
Troop," a locally famous unit of the state militia in pio- 



neer days : "The drill Liidinids were on some of the newly 
made pasture lands (»t Jehu Pei'kins. Tn faney's vision I 
yet see them entering;- the field of drill, with their dashing 
chief at their head, arrayed in their bearskin caps, faced 
with red on each side, with long red plumes streaming in 
the air, their blue coats well tipped off with red and yel- 
low flashes, long swords at their sides, their fiery steeds 
prancing to the martial music and their silver-mounted 
saddles and holsters flashing in the sun. * * * i remem- 
ber on one occasion — the 11 th of May, 1829 — of seeing this 
comjjany escort old Edward Swanson from the jail to the 
gallows in Rushville."" 

The short-lived Indian n^jrising known as the Black- 
hawk war in April, 1833, in which Abraham Lincoln 
served, gaxc the people of Rush county their first real 
war thrill, rnliai)pily, the five mounted companies called 
for as Indiana's qnota in this war were filled before the 
news reached Rush county, but Colonel Bussell, Elihu 
Garrison, Harvey Hcdrick and William Lower enlisted 
and on -July 23 there was a gathering of citizens to see 
them off to war. Colonel Bussell died in 1822 in Georgia 
and Alf i-ed Posey succeeded him as colonel of the Seventy- 
first Indiana militia regiment. The militia system was 
al)andoned about 1837 and iu\ older chronicle relates that 
the last attempt to hold battalion di-ill was on Henry 
A i-nist long's farm near New Salem, this narrative con- 
tinuing to relate tliat "out of 600 (.r SOO uien enrolled only 
thirty or forty wci-c in the ranks, and they without arms, 
although at that lime eveiy man in the county owned a 
rifle. Fully 1.000 peo])le assembled as spectators. Col. 
.John Tyncr inoinited a stum]) and with cha])eau in hand 
thanked tlic battalion for former services and relieved the 
men from I'urtliei' duty.*' 


A (•(•ntcmporaiy account says that "nothing in Rush 
county lia.s cvci- exceeded the excitement that followed the 


bombardment of Ft. Sumter. For nearly a week people 
in every walk of life abandoned their callings and congre- 
gated in groups about the towns and villages to learn the 
latest reports from the scene of conflict. The first news 
reached Rushville on Sunday morning, April 15, 1861. 
Those who were wending their way to their respective 
places of worship either turned aside to inquire further 
details or pursued their course with little thought of 
their religion. Perhaps a short prayer was breathed for 
the preservation of their common country and the main- 
tenance of the right." 

Upon receipt of news of Ijincoln's call for 75,000 men 
the disturbed people took new heart and on Wednesday 
evening a meeting was held at the court house. Col. Joseph 
Nichols presiding. Among the patriots who made stir- 
ring speeches at this meeting were Joel Wolfe and P. A. 
Hackleman, and resolutions were adopted pledging the 
county's support to the National Government. A num- 
ber of volunteers responded to the call for service at this 
meeting. On the following Saturday another meeting 
was addressed by Joseph J. Amos, William A. Cullen. 
William Cassady, P. A. Hackleman, Joel Wolfe and the 
Rev. James Havens and pledges were made that the fam- 
ilies of men who enlisted would be taken care of. Upon 
the call for volunteers ninety-three men enlisted, and a 
company was organized with the following officers : 
Captain, Joel Wolfe ; first lieutenant, Paul J. Beachbard ; 
second lieutenant, Robert J. Price ; third lieutenant, John 
Fairley. This company proceeded to Indianapolis and 
was there encamped at the state fair ground when on 
Sunday, April 28, IMiss India Hackleman, in behalf of the 
women of Rushville, presented the command with a silk 
flag. When accepted for service the company was reor- 
ganized, and went to the front as E Company of the Six- 
teenth Indiana regiment with the following officers: 
Captain, Paul J. Beachbard; lieutenants, John S. Grove 
and Silas I). Byram. P. A. Hackleman was commissioned 


colonel of the rcuiniciit and -hw] V>'olfo major, the former 
beinc;- })r(»iii()t('(l in rime l)ii,uadiei--geiieral and the latter 

On one of the jianels of the beautiful soldiers' monu- 
ment in Kast Hill cemetery, Rushville, Rush county's 
service in the Civil war is ])riefly told in letters of stone, 
thus : ' ' Rush county furnished for the war for the Union 
2,385 soldiers. C()in])l('te comi)anies — Infantry: Com- 
pany F. Sixteenth Indiana, one year; Companies C, G 
and H, Sixteenth Indiana, three years; Company K, 
Thirty-seventh Indiana, three years; Company O, Fifty- 
second Indiana, three years; (Company H, Fifty-fou.rth 
Indiana, one year; Company I), Sixty-eighth Indiana, 
three years; Company E, One Hundred and Twenty-third 
Indiana, three years. Cavalry: Company ]\I, Ninth In- 
diana, three years. Artillery: Twenty-second Indiana 
battery, three years. The lemainder enrolled in other 
c(mipanies and regiments." 

The beautiful stone in East Hill cemetery commemo- 
rative of tlie deeds of the men from Rush county who took 
part in the war foi- the L^nion is the (tuly soldiei's" mon- 
ument in Indiana erected bv a (fraud Armv post. On 
May 2, 1884, the comrades of Joel Wolfe post, G. A. R.. 
held a campfii'e ;.t Melodeon hall in Rushville to raise 
money to aid in the erection of a soldiers' monument at 
the state capit.-d. this having' been before the state pro- 
vided for the election of the ])resent monument there. 
The sum of >f<300 was raised at this meetinij; and was for- 
warded to indiana])olis, but when this volunteer move- 
ment on the part of the old soldiers of the state fell 
throu^Ii, the money was i-eturned, and in March, 1885, the 
])ost a])])ointed three tiustees who kept the money at 
ei.udit ]»er cent, iitteicst t'oi- fifteen years, at the end of 
which time it liad e.niied ^To !.()(), inakinj^ flio fund 
amount to >i^l, 054.0'). U'ith this sum in hand the post 
c(mtracte(l with Schiichte S: Sons, of Rushville, who 
erected in I'^ast Hill a monument which has siiice been the 


pride of the whole county. The cost of this monument, 
including the soldier figure on top, was $1,350, and the 
balance required to take care of the cost was taken from 
the general fund of the post. This monument was un- 
veiled with appropriate ceremonies on October 16, 1900, 
in the presence of a large crowd. 


It is the experience of our country that no war has 
ever been fought by the United States that the party in 
power was not opposed in its policies before, during, or 
after the war. It was thus in 1812, 1846, 1861. 1898 and 
in 1917. In a Government like ours it will always be so ; 
but it was especially true during the Civil war. Dating 
back to the adoption of the constitution the question of 
slavery had been a serious problem presaging the "irre- 
pressible conflict" and ending in secession and the sub- 
jugation of the South with the end of slavery. 

Oliver P. Morton had succeeded to the governorship 
of Indiana, and well for the credit of the state, and the 
welfare of the Union, for a man of another type might 
have permitted a rebel wedge to be driven through the 
IN orth to Lake Michigan, and as it was it took all the loyal 
strength of Ohio and Illinois and the indomitable cour- 
age of Morton to prevent the formation of a Northwest- 
ern confederacy. Treason, headed by Yallandigham in 
Ohio and spreading westward through Indiana, Illinois 
and Missouri with oathbound organizations, for a while 
threatened the safety of the Union. In 1863, a legislature 
opposed to the governor met at Indianapolis and after 
refusing to receive the governor's message sought to 
shear him of all his war power and create a military 
board. To prevent this the loyal members of the legis- 
lature left the hall and city, thus destroying a quorum. 
No appropriation bill was passed and the state institu- 
tions, the state arsenal, the state militia and all other 
public essentials were left to perish. But Morton rose to 



the occasion and succoodcd A loyal house in New York 
advanced the money and the state's credit was preserved. 
Harrison H. Hodd. gi-and commander of the Sons of 
Liberty in Indiana, was tried and convicted of treason, 
but with the aid of friends and a rope escaped from a 
room where he slept and made his way to Canada. 
Bowles, ^lilligan. Horsey, and Humphrey were tried and 
convicted (the first three sentenced to death, the latter to 
life imitrisonment), but General Hovey remitted the sen- 
tence to ;i short time in his own county jail, while Gover- 
nor Morton interceded with President Johnson and 
Bowles, Alilli,i>-an, and Horsey were sentenced for life at 
Columbus, Ohio, j)enitentiary. l)ut later, under Johnson's 
amnesty ]»roclamation allowed to return home. 

These incidents may seem foiviiin to a county history 
wcic it not I'oi" the fact that Rush county w^as only an 
inteu'i-al i)art of the state and the conditions here were 
similar to those in other parts of the state. On June 10, 
1863, Hon. J. Frank Stevens, ex-senator from Decatur 
county, while acting as assistant enrollinu; officer in 
Walker towiishi}), this county, was shot and killed, while 
Craycraft, enrolling- officer, was mortally wounded by 
unknown assassins al)out three miles southeast of Homer. 
A Rushville newspaper had warned all draft offi- 
cers ''to insui'c their lives," showing a knowledge of dis- 
loyal and treasonable designs, while a convention held at 
Rushville on January 31, 1863, resolved "That w^e are 
o])])osed to the further ]>rosecution of this abolition war, 
and l)<li('\iug tiiat in its continued prosecution there 
awaits us only the unirdcious saci'ifice of legions of brave 
men, igiioniinious defeat shaiue and dishonor * * * 
We are for ])eace."' 

All this, too, after Indiana had sent nearly a hundi'ed 
regiments to the f'l'ont. and hei- soldiers had won im])er- 
ishable icuowu on a Innidi'cd liatlle fields. June 3>, 1861, 
at Phillipjii, \'a., twenty-seveu Rush county men of 
Company I-], Seventh Indiana, with othei' troops fought 


and won the first battle of the Civil war and one survivor 
of Company F, Thirty-fourth Indiana (Daniel Kinney), 
fought at Palmetto Ranche, Texas, May 13, 1865, the last 
battle of the war. 


Beginning with the Seventh regiment, Rush county 
was represented in twenty-six regiments. Company F, 
Sixteenth regiment (one year), was officered by Col. 
P. A. Hackleman (afterward brigadier-general, killed at 
Corinth, Miss., October 3, 1862), Lieutenant Colonel Joel 
Wolfe, Captain Paul J. Beachbard, Lieutenants John L. 
Groves, Silas D. Byram, with ninety-six privates. The 
Sixteenth Indiana was reorganized as a three-year reg- 
iment and Companies C, G, and H were principally from 
Rush county. Company C was officered by Lieutenant 
Colonel Joel Wolfe (killed at Richmond, Ky., August 
30, 1862, and the whole regiment taken prisoners). Major 
James M. Hildreth, Quartermaster Henry B. Hill, Sur- 
geon John C. CuUen, Assistant Surgeon John H. Spur- 
rier, Captains Paul J. Beachbard and Wm. A. Ingold, 
Lieutenants D. C. Barnard, G. W. Marsh, I. N. Wester- 
field and R. S. Davis, with 117 privates. Company G., Six- 
teenth regiment officered by Capt. Aaron McFeely, 
Lieutenants Isaac Steele, Vv^. L. Pecldiam, T. M. Bundy, 
and James Steele, with 126 privates, twenty-four of 
whom were transferred to the Thirteenth cavalry. Com- 
pany H, Sixteenth regiment, officered by Capt. Elijah J. 
W^addell, Lieuts. James G. Glore, J. C. Ellis, and J. M. 
Huston, with eighty-one privates. Rush county was well 
represented in the ranks in the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, 
Twentieth, Twenty-first, Twenty-sixth, Twenty-ninth, 
Thirty-fourth, and Thirty-sixth regiments. Company 
K, Thirty-seventh regiment was a Rush county command, 
officered by Captains John McKee, and John B. 
Reeve, Lieutenants Wm. R. Hunt, Isaac Abernathy 
(killed at Stone River, December 31, 1862), and John 


Pattou (died Fchniarv 13, 1863, from wounds received 
at Stone River), Assistant Surgeon Jefferson Helm, with 
eighty-four privates. The Thirty-ninth and Fifty-fii-st 
]-eginu'nts i-epresented Rusli county. 

The 1^'ifty-second regiuuiit was commanded by Col. 
K. H, Wolfe (afterward l)revet l)rigadier-geiieral), Tjieu- 
tenant Colonel Wui. C. McRcynolds; (^uartermastei- W. 
H. Smith; Surgeons Marshall Sexton and James W. 
JMartin. ('()ni})any 0, of this regiment, was ('a])tained by 
Joseph .Me(\>rkle and Ross Guff in, Li(Miteuants C. M. 
Ferree, Theo. Wilkes, James H. Wright, W. S. Conde, 
and H. S. Carney (the last two being the only living com- 
missioned officers of Rush county), with seventy-three 

Tn Comi)any H. of the Fifty-second regiment, were 
thii'ty-four privates from this county but no officers. 
(Company H, Fifty-fourth regiment, was captained by 
John H. P'erree, Lieutenants John W. Mauzy, and AVm. 
M. Brooks, with thii-ty-five piivates. Capt. Nathan Pat- 
ton commanded <\>nipany I, Sixty-eighth regiment, with 
twenty-two privates. Company D, Sixty-eighth reg- 
iment was officered by Major James W. Tunis, Captain 
James H. Mauzy and l^ieuteTiants Wm. Beale, Deliscus 
Lingenfeltei- aud 1). S. Tliomas, witii sixty-five ])rivates. 
Com})any 1, Fighty-foui-th I'egiuient, had thirty-three 
privates aud (\)m])auv F six privates from Rush county, 
with iio offieei's. The Oue Hundred and Eleventh regi- 
ment (uiiiiut(> men) was couuuaiided by Captain James 
S. Hiblx'ii and Lieutenant Ileniy Dixon, with fifty-nine 
privates. The One Hundred and Twenty-first regiment. 
(Ninth eavali-y) was officered by Captains James Fi'azee 
and John W. Jack, 1 lieutenants N. F. Leisure and Alex 
B. Hariis, of Companies E, F and ]\I, had 133 privates. 
This regiment lost fifty-five men in the explosion of the 
Sultana, Ai)ril 2(1, 1H65. The One Hundred and Twenty- 
third regiment was officered by Lieutenant Colonel W. A. 
(/ullen and Surgeon John H. Spurrier (regimental offi- 


cers), while Company E was captained by Franklin 
Swain (died of wounds August 23, 1864), and John Flee- 
hart; Lieutenants L. P. Aldridge, Oliver Richey, J. W. 
Tompkins, E. T. Allen, and Wm, J. Allen, with eighty 
privates. Rush county men were also in Companies B, 
H, I, and K of this regiment. Company K, One Hundred 
and Thirty-fourth regiment (one hundred-day men), 
Captain Jos. R. Silver and Lieutenant Albert C. Walton, 
with thirty-one privates. 

The One Hundred and Forty-sixth and One Hun- 
dred and Forty-eighth were represented also. The Twen- 
ty-second battery, light artillery, was commanded by 
Captains B. F. Denning (killed in action at Kenesaw 
Mountain), and Edward Nicholson; Lieutenants James 
N, Scott, James W. Williamson, Alonzo Swain, George 
W. Alexander and M. E. Muse, with 168 privates. The 
One Hundred and Thirty-first regiment (thirteenth cav- 
alry) had thirty-three privates, but no officers. The 
Twenty-eighth United States (colored) represented the 
county with four privates. In addition to the above units 
the county is credited with 101 enlistments in other 


The troops of no other state were scattered so widely 
as Indiana troops ; they having been engaged in 308 sep- 
arate conflicts and fought in seventeen different states 
In every one of these states from Virginia to Texas sleeps 
an Indiana soldier, and in most of them one from Rush 
county. At Atlanta, Indiana had forty-six regiments and 
nine batteries. Rush county represented by two regiments 
and one battery; at Corinth, twenty-four regiments and 
eight batteries, Rush county represented by three reg- 
iments; at Chickamauga, twenty-nine regiments and 
eight batteries. Rush county by three regiments; at 
Franklin, twenty-one regiments and one battery, Rush 
county by three regiments ; at Gettysburg, six regiments, 


Rush county l)v three; Kenesaw ^louutaiu, forty-seven 
I'cLiiincnts and one battery, Rusli county by five reg- 
iments; at Xashvilh', tliii'ty regiments and nine batteries, 
Rush county ))y seven regiments; at Resaca, forty-one 
j'cgiments and Jiine l)atteries. Rush county by four reg- 
iments; at Stone River, twenty-six regiments and five 
batteries. Rush county by five regiments; at Vicksburg, 
twenty-four regiments and one battery. Rush county by 
three regiments. 

The records show the death h)ss in the field of Rush 
county troops to have been 178, but the total deaths during 
and growing out of service was not far from four hun- 
dred, Many men who were discharged for disability or 
wounds died at home, and this does not show on the re- 
})orts of Adjutant Terrill. the post-war records of some 
50,000 Indiana soldiers ])eing missing. 

Rush county furnished two brigadier-generals; 
Pleasant A. Hackleman and E. H. Wolfe (brevet), and 
Hackleman was tlie only man of that rank from Indiana 
to be killed in action. Lieutenant-Colonel Joel Wolfe was 
killed in action at Richmond, Ky., August 30, 1862, and 
('aj)tain B. F. Denning was wounded at Kenesaw Moun- 
tain tm June 26, 1864, and died July 3, 1864. So far as is 
known, these thi'ee men were the only commissioned offi- 
cei-s fi'om Ivusli county to l)e killed in action. 

The whole niuiibcr of soldiers of the Civil wai' still 
living in Rush comity, as re])oi'ted by the (irnnd Army of 
the K('))ublic ,it their last enumei'ation, was eighty-seven, 
and this nninbcr includes Union soldiei'S from all states 
now i-esi<leii1 in the county. 

sronv OK isorxTiEs axd draft 

Evei'v county in the state IssucmI boTids to pay boun- 
ties to volunteers, after the liegimiing of 1863, as pi'ior to 
that time the (Jovei'mnent bounties of *100 had been suf- 
fi<'ieii1 to seciiic enlistments. Fp lo lliis time Indiana 
was far in excess of liei' (|U(»ta under pi'cvious calls, })ut 


the drain on her industrial resources was such that in 
many counties the issuance of bonds became a necessity 
and were issued and paid in varying amounts from Starke 
county with $2,719 to Marion county with $1,337,199, or a 
total for the state of $15,492,876.00." 

To avoid the draft many townships offered large 
bounties, which served to fill the quotas, but failed to 
strengthen the army, as hordes of the worst class of men 
from all over the world, deserters from the rebel army, 
and thieves and pickpockets from everywhere thronged 
the recruiting stations, enlisted, were mustered in, re- 
ceived their bounties, clothing and advance pay, only to 
cast aside their uniforms in a few hours and play the 
same game at some other recruiting station. This became 
intolerable, so much so that Colonel Warner, Seven- 
teenth regiment V. R. C, commanding the Indianapolis 
post, determined to break it up. A large prison, well 
guarded, was prepared and as they were rounded up they 
were manacled together in squads, and sent to the front, 
only again to desert, many joining the rebel army or 
guerrilla bands. After trial by court-martial at Camp 
Morton three convicted "bounty jumpers" were publicly 
shot on the parade grounds, and this served in great 
measure to lessen the evil. 

Rush county paid in bounty $124,000 

Rush county paid in relief 18,099 

Rush county paid in miscellaneous 600 

Ripley township paid in bounty 13,300 

Posey township paid in bounty 11,250 

Walker township paid in bounty 6,400 

Orange township paid in bounty 8,755 

Anderson township paid in bounty 15,600 

Rushville (including Jackson twp.) 6,000 

Center township paid in bounty 9,350 

Washington township paid in bounty 8,450 

Union township paid in bounty 6,000 

Noble township paid in bounty 11,457 


Richland township paid in bounty 3,250 

All townships in relief " 15,000 

Total $257,511 

This magnificent contribution does not include the 
thousands of private contributions made to the soldier in 
the field and the immediate home. The lejiial vvj^ht of 
counties to issue bonds for bounties was contested, but on 
appeal it was affirmed at the November term (1865) of 
the Indiana Su]treme (\)urt. For much of the above infoi-- 
mation and for much that is io follow with relation to the 
military annals of Rush county tlie present historiog- 
ra]»her t^ratefully acknowledges the exti'cme hel])fulness 
of that admirable little volume, "Rush (\»uuty War Ac- 
tivities, 1861 to 1918, at Home and in the Field," compiled 
and edited by the chairman of the executive board of the 
Rush county chapter of the American Red Cross and 
printed in the summer of 1918. 


Followini,' are the rosters of the military units com- 
j)osed of men from Rush county Avho served in the 
Civil war: 

— (Uimpatiy E, Seventh Regiment (Three Yenr.t Servire) — Ciiptiiin, G. P. 
Clayton; I.icutcn:int, C. V " Atwatcr; Soifrcaiits, J. N. Self, Mathcw 
SanipHon, S. T. Youn}^; Corjxirals, Ezra S. Leo, W. J. Wlu'cler, H. L. 
McFarlan; Privates, B. F. Abbott, Ak-x Boslcy, A. C. Boslcy, P. L. Bass, S. R. 
Hritjlit, Mort P.ostic, J. W. Campbell, W. M. Hamilton, David Hoil'ncr, W. H. 
Hamilton, .7. W. Foster, M. K. Lee, W'vatt Linville, G. \V. Meiks, J. M. Oldham, 
Hiram Radcr, D. I). SeriKlif, X. M. Stanley, A. J. Kay. 

The above nam<d were ninety-day men in first call and saw service in West 

— Ctim/niini /•". Sijtr(iitli Heriirnenl (Our )'((tr) — Colonel, PUasant 
A. llacklfinan ; Lieutenant (\)lonel, .loel Wolfe; Quarternuisti r, Henry 
I',. Hill; Captain, I'aiil .1. Beaelibard ; Lieutenants, .lolin L. Grove, 
Silas 1). P.vram; Srrf,nants, .lolin G. Orr, Henry Dixon, Cordon W. Smitli, 
(Corporals, L. F. Mieliael, R. W. Young, .1. D. Gage," I. y\. Clark, David Crawford, 
G. T. Ilieliie; .M'isiei:.ns, U. A. MeClure, P.. W. Morpfan; Privates, .lolin 
Armstronu, .1. I{. Hell, William Mnrns, F'^zra P.iillard, .L D. Blair, .7. A. Hlair, 
J. M. CuTT, A. J. Campbell, .7. B. Copeland. Martin Conway, G. R. Chitwood, 
William Coe, Henry Davis, .losepli Day, J. M. Duvall, J. C. Ellis, John Fox. 
J. F. (!ard, F. .NJ. Hill, Nel Hrndrieks, S. Henrvliaii, .7. A. Heavenridf^e, Charlen 
number, W. D. Hall, G. W. Immeil, C. H.'.7arrell, M. M. ,7ohn3on, W. R. 
.7olinsori, Win. .lolinson, .J. W. Kinj:, M;i(l. Kirkli;iin, O. A. Morpau, Robert 


Mason, Jas. McManers, John McGuirc, Thos. Nelson, Griff. Pentecost, J. W. 
Pickett, J. W. Richie, Joseph Pfichards, Nath. Shadinger, Wm. Sheaff, H. C. 
Smith, Math. Temple, Dan Thomas, A. F. Vanhorn, Lin. Walker, W. D. Woods, 
W. H. White; Recruits, Elijah Bolander, Joseph Bradford, Leo Boudenestle, 
Samuel Burns, B. F. Ballinger, Thos. Booth, J. M. Carr, John Donner, Wm. P. 
Doggett, M. G. Earlywine, Joseph Jones, W. L. Lingchfelter, Alex ilcBride, M. 
M. Morrison, Jacob McGinness, Artemus Moore, Frank A. McCoy, Geo. W. Page, 

E. C. Pattison, Oliver Richie, J. A. Rankin, Cornelius Ruddle, C. P. Sheaff, Isaac 
Searight, Anton Sherbeer, W. M. Thomas, J. L. Wyatt, Oliver Wyatt, J. Q. 
Webb, Wm. F. Wolfe. 

— Company C, Sixteenth Ecgimcni {Three Years) — Lieutenant Colonel, 
Joel Wolfe; Major, James M. Hildreth ; Quartermaster, Henry B. Hill; 
Surgeon, John C. Cullen; Assistant Surgeon, John H. Spurrier; Captains, 
Paul J. Beachbard, William A. Ingolds; Lieutenants, David C. Barnard, 
George W. Marsh, Isaac N. Westerfield, Rodman L. Davis; Sergeants, Lewis F. 
Michael, John R. Bell, Lewis D. Woodcock, Charles G. Shaw; Corporals, J. A. 
Worthington, W. B. Graves, W. B. Philips, Wilbum Tucker, R. Y. Flynn, L. Y. 
Smith, E. P. Thrasher; Musicians, Thomas Higgins, Shepherd Washburn; 
Privates, T. H. Arbuckle, Fern Barnard, Jared Beaty, Ransom Beaty, L. W. 
Berry, Sol Buzzard, Wm. Buzzard, Reuben Busby, J. W. Bushfield, J. M. 
Cook, David Davis, Caleb Dill, A. J. Dicks, J. W. Ellis, John Flanagan, J. M. 
Fishback, John Foster, D. M. Floyd, Samuel Garner, J. T. Garrett, Abiel 
Garmier, John Garner, John Gruell, G. W. Gregory, M. G. Glass, Robert 
Hackleman, John Hackleman, R. W. Hall, Joseph Heck, P. M. Herrell, S. R. 
Irwin, Abe Jinks, James Kennedy, Wm. Kennedy, Dan Kennedy, R. F. Lee, 
Jacob Lipps, O. L. Lawhead, P. J. Lakin, D. W. Macy, P. V. Morley, Thomas 
Moore, C. McCarter, H. McGibbon, L. Wl Norris, L. M. Osborn, G. D. Pearse^^, 
Rue Pugh, R? H. Philipps, J. W. Pike, J. S. Rice, D. T. Rader, A. Razell, J. R. 
Ross, P. Rader, Oliver Robb, Den. Russell, S. C. Smith, James Smith, W. T. 
Smith, D. F. Smith, Wm. Smith, J. H. Shepherd, Louis Schwartz, Thos. Simp- 
son, Allen Shaw, O. H. P. Springer, M. C. Stevens, Nathan Shaddinger, Solon O. 
Tevis, J. C. Tevis, O. M. Thompson, Charles Virtue, L. A. Waggoner, I. N. 
Westerfield, John Widener, Weir Webb, Cass Worthington, John Youngs, Isaac 
Young; Recruits, W. T. Barlow, David Buzzard, H. F. Davis, Henry Jines, J. F. 
Jones, Henry Lockwood, John McGibbon, Newt. McCammon, Allen W. Scott, 
Sylvanius Smith, Benj. Smith, J. W. Coffman, J. M. Collins. 

— Company G, Sixteenth Regiment {Three Years) — Captain, Aaron 
McFeely; Lieutenants, Isaac Steele, James Steele, William L. Peckman, 
James Steele, Thomas M. Eundy; Sergeants, Allen Hill, Jesse H. Crosby, C. W. 
Overman; Corporals, A. J. Graham, J. F. McCarty, Levi Phelps, D. M. Morton, 
George Manis, J. L. Macy; Musicians, Wm. Shaffer, Wm. L. Walkers; Privates, 
J. J. Arnett, D. M. Alsman, H. W. Alsman, Lon Atkinson, W. T. Adison, D. C. 
Alspaugh, Isaac Bitner, R. Bloomfield, W. H. Bitner, J. L. Bitner, M. C. Brown, 
Wm. BuUen, Pendleton Bullen, Albert Butler, Joseph Cassady, Oliver Cherry, J. 

F. Coffman, Jas. Cornelius, Jonathan Cook, Wm. Cory, Dolph Domick, Morris 
Davis, Wm. Dye, A. E. Eaton, J. M. Edmunston, Dawson Elliott, J. F. Gilbreth, 
George Green, P. F. Gross, O. H. Gregg, Cyrus Henrv, J. H. Huston, Joseph 
Halpin, Milton Hooten, R. A. Holford, Edmund Hall, W. T. Hill, William 
Humphrey, Samuel Jones, W. R. Johnson, O. Y. Katin, F. J. Katin, Sam Kirk- 
ham, Wm. Kearns, John Lacy, Isaac Lanipher, L. M. Laymond, W. W. Lathrop, 
Delzel Lossen, Ad. McConnell, G. W. McCounell, J. H. McCounell, B. F. Morgan, 
Wm. McBride, 01. Newby, Michael Nolan, J. A. NLxon, O. P. Overman, Mord. 
Perry, D. M. Petro, W. H. Parker, James Pursoll, W. A. Pugh, Wm. Perkins, J. 
C. Parker, R. S. Pollett, E. J. Reagles, O. B. Reiscn, Pres. Robinson, C. M. 
Rutherford, Eli Reeves, A. W. Ray, J. W. Stravhorn, B. F. Stone, J. V. Smith, 
H. C. Smith, W. M. Stevenson, H.' W. Skillman," J. V. Shipp, Jordan Talbott, J. 
V. Tucker, P. B. Vannatta, L. I. Walker, Jesse Walton, James Welch ; Recruits, 
Chas. Bohlens, Robt. Ballard, Dan. Bowers, H. A. Brown, Nich. Fettig, Jamce 
Gobin, Taylor Gobin, Divine Hays, W. H. Horton, Jacob Highland, B. F. Lett, 


A. J. Laughlin, John Lawson, J. M. Mills, J. A. Moorhead, John Pickens, Wm. 
Ray, John Stagg:, David Sleeth, Wni. Snow, S. A. Trvon, Sam Wriglit, Davis 
Winkler, J. W. Young. 

The above recruits were transferred to the Thirteenth Cavalry. 

— Company H, Sixteenth Regiment, {Three Years) — Captain, Elijah 
J. Waddell; Lieutenants, James C. Glore, John C. Ellis, James M. 
Huston: Rerg.'ants, O H. Brann, P. S. Pyle, N. S. Conde, J. C. Ellis. 
Ben.i. Stillinger; Corporals, Jacob Allender, Kelh'r Harper, G. A. Wooster, 
Reuben Conrad, G. B. Walton, P. N. White, R. F. Bebout, Manly Pierson; 
Musicians, J. H. Hester, J. A. Styers; Privates, L. C. Bagley, Wm. Beckner, 
Joseph Bruner, N. D. Butler, W. J. Briggs, O. S. Carr, Rush Carley, Samp 
Cassady, Pet'-r Clara, J. F. Clee, Joe Clevenger, James Close, John Conrad, W. 
G. Conrad, Cv. Crawford, Al. Dearmond, O. H. Denning, Jacob Dewester, W. H. 
Dillinger, George Eck, B. H. Edwards, R. A. Edwards, Wash. Edwards, T. J. 
Edwards, W. C. Edwards, J. W. Engle. Jolin Frakes, J. B. Francis, T. D. 
Golding, O. H. Glore, E. H. Gre^-r, Thos. Griffin, J. M. Harney, Op. Hays, W. D. 
Hester, Dan. James, Alex James, T. J. Kennedy, M. C. Lightfoot, J. W. Martin, 
J. W. Miller, Weslev Miller, David Morris, J. W. Musselman, Abe Myers, Jos. 
McMichacl, Wm. Odell, H. W. Parish, Eobt. Pollett, Sam. Pollett, Jolin Plank, 
A. J. Seward, J. W. Scott, Joe Sliook, J. A. Smith, Robt. Stewart, J. J. Stewart, 
G. W. Thoma.s, L. T. True, J. W. Wagner, Isaac Willi:ims, Thos. Wallace, J. H. 
Willis, G. W. Willis, Lin. Walker, H. H. Windier, J. W. Zike. 

—Company K, Einlticenth llcgimrnt — J. K. Carr, .1. Dewester, W. B. Jack, 
Henry MacKay, John Rains, Henry Wingarth, J. L. Yager. 

— Covipany D, Ninicenth Rcf/iment — J. R. Alexander, T. J. Addison, J. F. 
Beckner, J. W. Cooper, Henrv Bell, H. L. English, H. A. Junkins, Williiiin 
Plank, J. H. Pike, J. M. Raton, Daniel White, W. H. Wood. 

— Company I, Tu-cniieth Regiment — Henry Phelps, John Collins. 

Companies A, L. and M, Twenty- First Regiment — W. J. Alexander, J. L. 
Aldridge, J. H. Andrews, W. C. Andrews, J. E. ]5ates, Abraham Barnes, J. W. 
Baker, John Ben.jamin, G. A. Benton, Wm. Benefiel, Geo. W. Cart, R. T. Carr, 
George Divis, J. W. Davis, Frank I'^llison, P. Fitzgerald, Ifarvey Gallowaj', Di'.n 
Holford, L. M. Hum])hrey, Dan Hilligoss, Wm. Hollern, Robt. Lyman, A. W. 
Myer.s, Wm. McMurry, G." F. Nelson, J. W. Phelps, Jas. Pritchard,"w. J. Pearc, 
Rue Pugh, M. L. Robinson, G. A. Workman. 

All service, unless otherwise named is three years. 

Covipanies D and K, TieentySijlli Regiment — John Christopher, V. B. 
Phares, Thos. Golding, Porter Lacy, W. H. Thompson. 

— Company A, Twenty-Nintit Regiment — Wm. II. Keyes, George Fisher. 

— Company F, Thirty-fourth Regiment — Daniel Kinney, Wm. Mullins. 

— Company A. Thirty-sixth Regiment (Three Years) — Musician, David 
Young; Wagoner, Augustus Gliddi'u; Privates, Geo. P. Beach, .Tesse Buiik>r, 
A. L. Hush, .1. F. Cooper, .T. A. Crickmore, Free Goldsberry, J. R. Henry, A. P. 
Haves, Henrv Kent, I. G. Manis, II. B. Saulsberrv, W. F. Stewart, .lohn 
W.'rking, J. K. Werking, G. W. Conrad, A. J. Moh'ler, Curtis Manis, F. M. 
Mohler, James Mallory. 

— Company I\, Thirty-seventh Regiment — C;ii)tains, John McKee, .John B. 
Reeve; Lieuten.'ints, William R. Hunt, Isaac Abernathy, .Tohn Patton; Assistant 
Surgeon, Jefferson Helm; Sergeants, G. II. Puntenm^y, Sauniel Danner, .T. F. 
Liiigenfelt.r, John Patton; Corporals, D. Schwartz', J. M. Stewart, W. J. 
Plough, Marion Elstun, E. II. Cowan, J. W. Rankin, .Jasper Richey, Robert 
Cowan; Musician, Sil)rant Bastion, J. S. Butler; WagoniT, .James (J'Briru; 
Priv.-ites, J. 10. Brown, .losepli Blair, Jerry Black, M. I. Bowlbv. Thos. Bovlan, 
W. C. Bowling, J. A. Cowan, J. W. Culver", Joseph Clements, E. "h. Davis, j". W. 
P.. Davis, J. W. Davis, J. L. Elliott, J. T. Endicott, Fielding Goble, L. M. Glass, 
Samuel fMa.sH, Alex Ilolnu^s, T. X. Harrison. J. M. Hall, R. I. Iludelson, W. H. 
Hudelson. Wm. R. Huston, W. W. Homerly. E. T. Jones, Henry Jackson, W. B. 
Jones. Wash .lunken. .\. B. Kirkham, .Jacob Kethsel, Clinton Linsay, James 
Lothridge, Arthur Mcri.-iin, J. S. McCulhiugh, James McGhe, J. W. Mitchell, P. 
A. Morgan, Thos. McGinness, W. T. Mitchell, S. R. Patton, W. C. Patton, Jerry 


Rankin, S. A. Rankin, James Ruddle, D. S. Stewart, J. M. Stephens, Henry 
Shively, Dan Stowhig, Harrison Stewart, S. P. Stewart, W. N. Stewart, W. H. 
Scott, Charles Williams, H. B. Wiggins, A. S. Thompson; Recruits, A. S. Butler, 
W. L. Buck, D. L. Mitchell, J. B. Morelock, Joseph Minor, R. C. Stev.-art, J. D. 

— Be-organised Company A — J. M. Bodtne, C. H. Gibson, Barnard Kelley, 
Harrison Levi, John Powell, Len Widener, Abe Widener. 

— Company M, Thirty-ninth, Regiment — J. W. Toler. 

— Company D, Fifty-first Regiment — P. A. Crawford, S. S. Jones, John A. 
Hood, Lon Fox, M. D. L. Weaver. 

— Company F, Fifty-second Regiment — Jabez Smith, Frank Hasty, E. A. 
Corbin, W. O. Johnson, J. S. Dougherty, Richard Sliger. 

— Fifty-second Regiment — Colonel, Edward H. Wolfe, Lieutenant Colonel, 
Wm. C. McReyuolds; Quartermaster, Wm. H. Smith; Surgeons, Marshall Sexton, 
James W. Martin. 

— Company G — Captains, Joseph McCorkle, Ross Guff in; Lieutenants, 
Charles M. Ferree, Theodore Wilkes, James H. Wright, Winfield S. Conde, 
Harrison S. Carney; Sergeants, Amos I. Stevens, T. E. Brook, J. W. Williams; 
Corporals, G. W. Stewart,' J. A. Conger, Elias Bagley, Wm. Laughlin, J. F. Lowe, 
Resin Stevens, E. J. Stewart, Wm. McMains; Privates, Alex Addison, William 
Arnett, Jas. Armstrong, James Bagley, Ben Bravard, Joseph Bruner, Melvin 
Brook, W. H. Butler, W. A. Criders, H. Crawford, Weir Crawford, W. O. 
Carpenter, M. S. Dawson, J. W. Dawson, Geo. Drinley, C. E. Davis, J. S. 
Endicott, J. Vv^ Gates, Wm. Gowdy, Marshall Gruell, T. B. Hankins, T. I. 
Henley, Henry Henley, J. R. Kearns, W. C. Kennedy, D. W. Kennedy, J. H. 
Keightler, J. T. Lewis, T. B. Lewis, T. L. Linton, H. A. Lowden, S. T. Lynn, G. 
W. Mason, Ras. McDougal, J. V. Margison, J. Q. Meremee, Wm. Midkiff, W. 
Montgomery, J. A. Mullis, Jonathan Murphy, S. D. Nelson, F. M. Nelson, James 
Nealis, Zimri Rigsby, A. C. Pearsv, Joe Robinson, John Smith, W. H. Smith, 
S. C. Smith, Hugh Smith, G. W. Smith, Sam Shepherd, J. T. Spaey, O. F. Spaey, 
James Stephens, Daniel Stewart, H. J. Stephen, W. W. Truesdale, H. W. Vedder, 
W. M. Waters, David Wall, Ozro Walker. 

- — Company H, Fifty-second Regiment — W. E. Alexander, G. T. Alexander, 
A. R. Alexander, James Chapman, W. W. Couger, Lem Day, Jasper Elder, Jacob 
Ennis, R. R. Ewbank, Lem Farrow, J. A. Flid, Wm. Gaven, G. H. Hall, John 
Hary, Joshua Hiers, G. W. Hines, V. B. Kiger, Luke McPherson, Thomas 
McPherson, Pat. McLaughlin, Thomas Mason, Chas. Merrick, R. J. Morris, Drury 
Holt, W. B. Holden, R. W. Jackson, John Pea, Ente Pea, John Reahl, Alph. 
Sherman, J. Q. Smith, I. D. Waits, Jacob Willis, Isaac Dawson. 

— Company H, Fifty -fourth Regiment {One Year) — Captain, John H. 
Ferree; First Lieutenant, John W. Mauzy; Second Lieutenant, Wm. H. Brooks; 
Sergeant, Alonzo Davis; Corporals, Geo. W. Looney, John Hollowell, Morris 
Hinchman, Wm. Davis; Privates, Sylvester Armstrong, Thompson Arnold, 
Charles Berry, D. W. Blackburn, D. W. Calkins, Samuel Clark, Isaac Clawson, 
W. H. Conklin, Thomas Carney, Wm. Churchill, G. W. Gerrell, Geo. A. Groat, G. 
W. Hendrix, John Hicks, Jacob House, Wm. Hill, Florilla Johnson, Noah Jarvis, 
Wm. Johnson, Thomas Kelly, Elijah Longfellow, Henry Landon, Samuel 
Matthews, Patrick McKee, H. O. Monroe, Albert Miller, Wm. Morris, James 
Newman, John Smith, Robert Wilson. 

— Company I, Sixty-eighth Regiment — Captain, Nathan Patton; Corporal, 
Jacob Smisor; Wagoner, Jolin Plough; Privptes, O. P. Gard, W. J. Gard, S. M. 
Gard, Wm. Goldsmith, Worth Humes, John C. Humes, Jas. N. Hood, Eph. 
Lefforge, John T. Lyons, W. W. Matherly, Ira Mellvain, W. W. Mcllvain, John 
D. Murray, Nev.-tou Mitchell, Alex McCorkle, Henry Reed, R. A. Runyan, D. C. 
Reed, Reason Reed, John H. Reed. 

— Company B, Sixty-eighth Regiment {Three Year Service) — Major, -James 
W. Innis; Captain, James H. Mauzy; Lieutenants, Wm. Beale, Deliscus Liugen- 
f elder, D. L. Thomas; Sergeants, James A. Smith, Gabriel Cohn, Geo. W. Snider, 
Wm. Burns, Geo. T. Richie; Corporals, James W. Richie, James W. C. Smith, 


Isaac C Ilurst, Wni. Innis, Harvey Ciildwcll. Wni. Woods, Wm. ^T. Ponder; 
Privati's, Wm. F. Aldridfrc, J. H. Alexander, T. E. Bramblett, Michael Burns, 
John D. Brown, James R. Bosley, James Bradburn, S. S. Rodine, Thomns 
Bosley, A. S. Rillinfrs, Wm. C Riizani, \VV>sley Chalfant, David Connor, John 
Calender, Ben F. Cohee, Heiirv Conrad, Jas. B. David, W. }{. Danner, Charles 
Eagy, A. W. Earnest, D. S." Fleeliarl, A. J. Gates, Frank Gissebach, E. A. 
Junkin, Wm. Hendricks, S. B. Jones, Charles Lester, John Lytle, Charles Long, 
Caleb Lee, Mason Ma.xey, J. .J. Mohler, O. W. Moliler, Wm. Nipp, James Nip)), 
John O 'Toole, R. C. Pegg, M. W. Pierce, T. T. Pattison, Lew Pierce, J. H. 
Roberts, J. A. Roberts, A.sbury Richey, Isaac Rogers, John Simmonds, L. T. 
Stu.-irt, (). II. Sailors, Dan Simpson, Mjirt Trevillian, A. B. Wilson, .1. L. Wilson, 
J. H. Widener, D. S. Widener. 

— Comjiany I, Eighty-fourth llcfiimcnl {Three Years) — Corporals, Ira 
Caldwell, H. C. Freeman, Wm. Voorhees, F. E. Glidden, Henrv Caldwell, T. B. 
Vandvke; Privates, Wm. Bunker, Jeff. Caldwell, Daniel Carr, W. J. Cook, W. T. 
Dobbins, Joe T. Daly, Lind. Freeman, W. A. Henry, A. P. Hays, W. T. Jackson, 
Milt Jeffries, S. H. KeLsey, Nelson Miles, W. A. Maze, Wm. McCann, Wm. 
Nelson, Jerry Pile, James Sprong, M. K. Shackle, Wilson Taylor, W. R. Tillman, 
W. S. Trumbull, J. E. Voorhees, R. W. Vickcry, IX P.. Voorhees, J. S. Wooters, J. 
S. Young. 

— Company F — D. A. Mason, T. G. Hill, Amos Butler, Joe O'Banion, G. W. 
Doron, C. O'Banion. 

— Company E, One Hundred and Eleventh Ree/iment {Minute Men) — First 
Lieutenant, James S. Hibben; Second Lieutenant, Henry Dixon; Sergeants, 
James M. Carr, Wm. M. Brooks, John W^ Short, Thomas Booth, Wm. .\. Fox; 
Corporals, James C. Ferguson, Wm. W. Wolfe, J. P. Lakin, Lucien W. Norris; 
Privates, W. M. Alexander, John Rodine, Edward Bates, Len. Bragg, F. C. Bell, 
K. J. Carmichael, .lohn (Jarmieiiaei, Fred Cajip, J. F. Coleman, Edwin C^onde, W. 
C. Caldwell, Barton Caldwell, W. A. Cullen, Joseph ('ash, Lycurgus Cox, Rodman 
Davis, O. n. Denning, Peter Enos, A. J. Fletcher, W. W. Frame, Michael Foster, 
Win. Havens, George Havens, L. F. Hinchmau, Jeff Helm, Jr., Asa Hubbard, W. 
H. Lanham, Sidney L.'irue, J. S. Lakin, S. II. Mauzy, Julian Murpliy, W. C. 
McReynolds, B. W.". Morgan, O. A. .Morgan, J. R. Mitchell, C. M. Mock. W. B. 
Poe, Sam Rodabaugh, P. W. Rush, I). II. Rieketts, Lew Stanley. M. II. Sexton, 
H. G. Sexton, Jr., Geo. B. Sleeth, J. II. Spurrier, W. H. Shurmam, T. H. Sloan, 
Benj. Stoddard, E. T. Thornburg, J. L. Winship. 

— Ninth Cavalry, One Hundred TwrntyFirst Kefiiment {Thne Year Service) 
— Captain, John W. .lack; Lieutenant, Nathan V. Leisure; Lieutenant. Alex B. 
Harris; Sergeants, .1. D. McGinntss, Tliomas Frazee, David Gaskill, J. II. 
Bennett, L. L. Thra.sher, Wm. L. Peckham, .Mex Abernathy, J. W.; 
Corporals; .1. M. .\rnistrfmg, Milton Hunt, Peter Kr:;nier, L. B. Williams, Isom 
Griffin, J. R. Moore, .1. W. LaR.-ir, Wm. Briggs, Josiah Watson. J. 1>. Alexander, 
Russell Keller. O. C. Hunt, D. R. Crawford, D. S. Mason. 

— Company E — James Brooks, Franklin Bails, ,1. 1j. Edwards. C. A. 
Fleming. Ben 1). Grubbs, R. W. (iilbreath. Thomas C. Hill, Robert H. Hill. I. W. 
Harvey, Milton Hill, J II. Hill, Nathan Hill, J. G. Holt, W. 11. Leisure, Jesse 
Leeks, K. Mendenlrall, C. O. Nixon, .John Kunyan, .1. P. Stanley, Charles Shejiler, 
Reuben Sisks, K. B. White. 

— Company /''— L. T. Cutler, Daniel ("iistcr. .lotin Memson. .1. W. Griffin, II. 
W. .lack. Owi-n Pryor, Howard Reed, S.-jimik I Sinitli, Henry Wallam, M. J. 
Watson, Theo. Woodbridge, E. G. Warner. 

— Company 77 — E. \. Caldwell, H. S. Kent on. 

— Company M — William Allentharp, Willi.-im Armstrong, Charles Bat- 
tersby, I'atrick B.'igley, Theo. Benjamin, .lames Br:idbnrn, George W. Blake, 
Henry Brown, Alex Bonner, (Jeo. W. Chance, W. II. Chance, Levi Conklin, 
.Jon;ithan Oix, Homer Cree<l, G. W. l);imcron, W. I'. Hoggett, Wesley Edwards, 
Samuel English, Barton Fletcher, Wm. Flowers. D. H. Forrester, .Joseph Frazee, 
A. Frazi<r, .lohn Garner, J. P. Guffin, N. E. Gruell, Ennis Hollowell, Patrick 
He.-iney, Martin Iloye, T. Iloneycutt, Wm. Havens, Wm. H. Huffm.Mn. Robert 
Hutchinson, Wm. L. Isentragor, J. M. Isentragor, Columbus Jessup, Joseph 


James, D. W. James, Samuel King, C. C. Lanteser, George Linville, John 
Loucks, Wm. Madison, E. B. Maple, J. J. Maple, Levi Maple, S. S. McGinness, 
Geo. H. McGee, T. McMichael, T. P. Milliard, Gardener Moore, Geo. S. Orcutt, 
Ute Pea, Levi Pickering, Ira Poston, Meshig Ralston, S. L. Raymond, Frank 
Bialey, J. A. Ryan, Jake Schoolcraft, Thomas Shepherd, Milton Smith, Lorenzo 
Smith, Wm. Steele, A. W. Stevens, H. J. Stevens, Oscar Spacy, I. K. Story, S. 
K. Thrasher, James Tattle, D. F. Taylor, Augustus Walker, R. E. Woods, 
Jonathan Wright. 

This regiment lost fifty-five men in the loss by explosion of the ' ' Sultana, ' ' 
on April 26, 1865. 

— Company E, One Hundred Twenty-Third, Regiment (Three Years) — 
Lieutenant Colonel, Wm. A. Cullen; Surgeon, John H. Spurrier; Captains, 
Franklin F. Swain, John Fleehart; Lieutenants, L. P. Aldridge, Oliver Richey, 
J. W. Tompkins, E. T. Allen, Wm. J. Allen; Sergeants, Oliver Richie, David M. 
Carr, Stephen Seyon, James Gamble; Corporals, Edwin Conde, J. A. Harris, 
Marsh Sailors, W. H. Shurmm, John Bodine, S. H. Bosley, Well Humes, J. G. 
Boys ; Musicians, Aurora Ferguson, Arnold Murray ; Wagoner, Wesley G. 
Fleener; Privates, W. D. Alter, John Alter, A. M. Asken, T. G. Hall, Henry 
Harrison, W. H. Huston, J. M. Poston, Henry Rapp, Wm. Russell, Levi 
Bartlett, J. F. Brown, Jas. Burton, Sr., Jas. Burton, Jr., James BartL'tt, Noah 
Cowger, W. T. Cooper, L. T. Downey, W. H. Earlywine, J. W. Elstun, B. F. 
Elder, Joseph Endieott, Peter D. Enos, Isaiah Fleener, C. A. Ferguson, J. E. 
Flynn, C. I. Glover, T. E. Glass, Thomas Havens, W. T. Jones, H. W. Jones, J. 
M. Knox, Josiah Knox, L. M. Knapps, John Koons, Walter Kaler, Zenas King, 
Daniel Kinney, J. M. Knapp, Sam Mathews, J. F. Morgan, L. M. Norris, E. S. 
Palmer, J. H. Perkins, George Perkins, C. A. Price, J. W. Price, J. H. Smith, 
Marsh Smith, Sol Smith, Fletcher Smith, W. H. Shanklin, George Snyder, John 
Seward, P. D. Sloat, Thomas Shaw, Wm. T. Smith, G. J. Stiffler, J. M. 
Thompson, I. P. Thompson, Theo. Walker, Wm. Wilhelm, Wm. W. Wolfe, Wm. 
T. Wilson, J. M. Young, Wesley Morgan. 

— Company B — E. T. Allen, Z. T. Gwinnup, A. T. Harrison. 

— Companies H. I. and E. — ^J. B. Hidgon, Gideon Miner, James Cassady, 
Taylor Smith, J. E. Hudson, W. B. Jones. 

— Company K, One Hundred Thirty-Fourth Regiment (One Hundred Days) — 
Captain, Joseph R. Silver; Lieutenant, Albert C. Walton; Privates, W. H. 
Allender, J. T. Allen, C. A. Ball, C. W. Ball, B. D. Bravard, George Bogue, W. 
A. Caldwell, Clay Chrisman, J. R. Cammach, J. D. Earnest, A. S. Folger, Jared 
Ford, J. G. Gartin, James Griffin, J. K. Holloway, J. H. Junkens, W. H. 
Junkens, W. S. Johnson, Henry Lacy, J. W. Leonard, Wm. Leisure, Wm. 
Manley, Harry Morris, J. D. Pierce, Armstead Sutton, John Stanley, Albert 
Stanley, George Small, Noah Small, Harvey Weed, John Willis. 

— Company F, One Hundred Forty-Sixth Regiment — Lieutenant, L. B. 
Ingolds; Adjutant, Allen Hill; Assistant Surgeon, Rush Carlcy; Privates, 
Joseph Baxton, J. M. Cherry, Reuben Hewitt, Benj. McDaniel, Phuell Linville, 
R. M. Linville, J. L. Peters, Allen Shaw, Albert Talbert, C. S. Thompson, S. G. 
Vance, J. P. Whicker. 

— Company B, One Hundred Forty-Eighth Regiment — R. T. MeCormick, W. 
H. Taylor, Robert Mattox, Caleb Hightshoe, J. T. Wells. 

— Twenty-second Battery, L. A. (Three Years) — Captains, Benj. F. 
Denning, Edward Nicholson; Lieutenants, James M. Scott, James W. William- 
son, Major E. Muse, Alonzo Swain, George W. Alexander; Sergeants, W. C. 
VanAsdoll, R. McReynolds, J. S. Huntsinger, J. S. VanAsdoll, J. H. Rounds, O. 
W. Huston; Corporals, B. K. Trew, Marsh Dodd, J. L. Kenton, G. W. Hile, 
James Muse, G. W. Alexander, Geo. Owens, W. H. Lee, Geo. W. Hill, C. D. 
Huffman, Thos. Johnson; Buglers, H. C. Nicholas, J. M. Grewell; Artificers, 
John Fox, Samuel Eckles, J. T. Waddle ; Privates, A. Alexander, J. W. Aber- 
nathy, John Anderson, E. M. Barnhart, John Bagley, Isaac Bradburn, J. A. 
Blair, James Blair, Jacob Buck, R. H. Brown, Wm. Buck, Mart. Clevenger, 
Samp Cassady, D. C. Catt, J. A. Caldwell, Samuel Carter, C. A. Cramer, B. D. 


Collins, Isaap Coffinan, Wni. S. CoUis, Alf. DeArniitn, J. II. Decker, Jas. 
Drysdale, T. B. Day, Marion Dawson, Wm. Daiiton, John T>unn, Abe Daniel, 
Nathan Flint. C. II. Frakes, Janus Gardner, J. L. Garrison, F. M. Goble, Oliver 
Goddard, John (Jallat:her, naiiicl Grace. G. W. Grace, Simon Gi'orp;e, John 
Gilmore, W. R. Ilelfin, P. E. Ilerrel, Elias Henley, James Tec, Janes Judy, 

E. A. Jordan, Arch Kennedy, Lind. Leonard, Elisha Lock, W. K. Meredith, 
Joseph Miller, Jacob Moore, Isaac Mat,'<iart, Henry Miller, P. .1. Mc- Donald, J. 
W. Norvall, Samuel Owens, Henry Owens, W. E." Payne, Fred Pifester, D:;n 
Plummer, H. Pressener, Abijah Powell, Henry Powell, B. F. Ridenbaugh, James 
Sells, Oliver Seward, J. M. Temple, B. F. Vorles, Thos. Virtue-, A. H. Watson, 

R. J. Walker, Geo. Willey, J. W. Woods, Alf. Wintrode, W. P. Wilson, J. H. 
Winslow; Recruits, S. B. Abernathy, Owen Astrey, A. Archibald, Nich Bowers, 
P. H. Burns, W. H. Bell, Erhart Bruel, S. E. Bartholomew, John Cline, R. J. 
Clark, B. F. Creese, John Cain, F. M. Chver, W. Cunninfrham, Wm. Dick, J. Dean- 
vister, J. H. Durham, J. Dilschneider, Ed. Ducket, Peter Eckert, Rom. Freits, 
Lawrence Fox, James Glenn, S. Hickmnn. Tim Ilickey, .Jas. Hamilton. .1. E. Hig- 
gins, Nelson Hartley, D. T. Hutchinson, Albert Hardin, Riley Holmes, J. F. Harpel, 

F. M. Hartley, G. W. Hardwick. Bazil .lohnsen, Jeseph Kenel. J. R. Lloyd. W. E. 
Lotsen, T. L. I>yons, Jas. McFadden, G. A. Muttra, Bart. Minear, Niek Messer, 
John Nichols, Samuel Payne, J. P. Pennoek, C. A. Ravhouser, D. M. Rilev, Sam 
Rennock, Henry Roberts," Wm. Sly, G. H. Stewart, G. H. Smith, T. R. Smith, 
W. T^. Sensena, Caspar Snyder, Wm. Straitman, Tlios. Springer. Wm. Shepherd, 
Nath, Townsend, B. :M. Tredwell, .lacob Tucker. J. S. Vanarsdnl, I. M. Vanarsdall, 
J. F. Winner, E. W. Wright, Henry Work, C. E. Whitten, W. Williamson, G. M. 

Twenty-eighth United States Colored — Dan Tucker, Charles Miller, Henry 
.Tones, James Taylor. 

Tliirteentli Cavalry — One Hundred and Thirty-firitt Begimcnt — .Tohn Colley, 
Elijah Ellis, Oscar IT. Gregg, C. S. Genhart, B. F. Headlee, Peter Leaver. Samp- 
son Meiks, Adam S. Miller, .Tames Muiu-ey. Fred Newman. .Tohn Powell. Henry 
Pool, John I?;inkin, Levi Sagle, Peter Swinehart, Harrison Smith, II. J. 
Scott, Charles Smith, Jacob Weinaeht, George Fromer, Wm. Iron, Richard 
McNew, Ben Rathbone, Martin Bohannon, Wm. A. Saxon, Ir,a Hinehman, Jacob 
Warren, Robert Wooden; unassigned, Benson Bear, John Carver, Henry Carver, 
.lohn Fremont, Wm. Th.acher. 

Mi.<<rrJlan(ou.s Volunteers — Perry Sisson, Lewis Green, Shade Childers, Joseph 
Ramsey, John H. Pike. John Grooles, Dr. G. M. Collins, Al. D. Hand, Sam Bo- 
heart, Hugh Tj. English, liobert Fhnn, M. M. Sears, Madison Grose, Dr. H. L 
Bogart, Tim O 'Keefe, S. C. Pegg, Isaac D. Waits, E. A. Corbin, David Richards, 
Wm. Roberts, A. J. F. Stewart, J. A. Stiers. F. M. Spaulding, Jolm W. Study, 
Alex .Tohnson, .Tohn Stanley, Henry Wiggins, Orville Reason, .Tohn Hair, Henry 
Fowler, Lt. .1. C. Rawdon. Leander Carina. Milton Beard. Lew Adams, Miron 
Beard, J. H. Brosius, J. A. Coleman, J. W. Mc.Math, Olinger Philip, Zach Pulliam, 
Henry Beckner, Ben Iluddleson, Wm. R. Rogers, Henry Roelhman, Augustus 
Smith, John W. Shepherd, .T. B. Sanders, M. L. Sisson, W. P. Smith, James Rob- 
erts, Thom;is Diiwson, W. II. Wood, J. W. Cooi)er, J. T. Wells, Byron Buell, 
Ervin Boheart, Ilenrv Fowler, M. A. Pickering, Wm. Cracraft, Alex Abernatliv, 
Jolin L. Brown, Al.-x"Offutt , Jas. J. Osborne, Adam Pettis, Wm. A. Pugh, Jas. H. 
Davis, W. O. Johu.son, Sam Ridenb:iugh, Basil Rhodes, C. G. Shaw, H. J. Steiu, 
J. F. Sadler, Asa Samj)le. 


The iii,-i(i('(|u;icy (»t' ( iovcniiuciit supplies at the ont- 
l)r(al-: (»!' the rchcllioii caused the solicitation of popular 
coiitriltutious, iiiuh'r the direction of the sanitaiy commis- 
sion, and ill this nidveinent Rush county took a leading 
]);>rt, as it has done at all times. 


When the state sanitary commission sent out its call 
to the citizens of Indiana, a Rush county branch was or- 
ganized with Rev. D. M, Stewart as its president. Com- 
mittees were appointed and a call was made in October, 
1861, upon the people for surplus blankets, socks, gloves, 
mittens, etc., for the volunteers who were fighting the 
battles of the Union. The Rushville Sewing and Knit- 
ting Society was formed by many of the women of the 
town, a constitution was adopted, and each member 
agreed to devote one day of four hours each week to the 
cause. It is unfortunate from the viewpoint of local his- 
tory that there prevailed no adequate system of recording 
the actual contributions made during the war by the civil- 
ian population other than financial gifts. Certain it is, 
however, that those to whom fell the unromantic task of 
working quietly at home, nobly met the obligations placed 
upon them by Grovernor Morton and the sanitary com- 
mission. How many thousands of extra garments and 
comforts of various kinds were sent to the men at the 
front it is impossible to tell, yet it is known that no duty 
was shirked — no demand was too great. Toward the lat- 
ter part of April, 1864, it was reported that the Rush 
county branch had contributed $2,984.05 to the Indiana 
sanitary commission, and that Anderson township had 
won the "prize banner" for the largest contribution of all 
townships in the county per Union vote with $500. In 
the last year of the war the total undoubtedly was aug- 
mented by a considerable amount. 


A permanent outgrowth of the admirable relief work 
done by the sanitary commission during the war was the 
eventual erection in this county of the magnificent Sol- 
diers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home in section 10, of Cen- 
ter township, two miles south of Knightstown. Soldiers' 
relief stations or "homes" were established for the tem- 
porary comfort of returning disabled soldiers and sailors 


of the rivi] war, and on March 4, 1865, ))v direction of 
(lovci-nor Moiton tlie Icgishiture ])asscd a bill assessing a 
tax of thirty cents on the $100 of property in the state, 
the proceeds to l^e apjjlied to the relief of soldiers' fam- 
ilies. This tax in Rnsli county amounted to -$10,148.48. 

As the "Soldiers' Home and Rest" had <;Town out 
of teHi])oi'ai y needs the tin;e was iiearinu" wlieii thoughts 
of a home more ])ermanent wei'e aii,itated. On May 15. 
18(i5, Govei'iior Morton pul^lished an address to the peojjle 
of the state, sugg^estinii; the outline and plan of action for 
this purpose. On May 25. he issued a circular lettei' to 
the clergy of the state, ui'ging them to move their congre- 
gations to co-operate in the work. On the same day a 
meeting was held at Indianapolis, which selected Gover- 
nor Morton president of the board of directors; James M. 
Ray, treasurer; AVilliam Haunama]), secretary, and Rev, 
J. H. Lozier, financial agent. One director was chosen 
from each congressional district. The announcement of 
the formation of such a society was immediately followed 
by a])plications for admission from many disabled sol- 
diers. The city c(mncil of Indianapolis gave the associa- 
tion the use of the city hosi)ital buildings, and thei'e on 
August 10, 1865, the h(mie was opened, under the superin- 
tendence of Dr. M. M. Wishard. This was followed by 
(lovei-nor Moiton's message to the legislatuiv in extra 
session Xovein.bei', 18()5, in which wps shown the necessity 
(»f sucli jiernianeiit home. The ])eople had i)een heavily 
biii'dened with the war and the a])]»eal ])roduced small 
results— oidy $4,994.55 being paid in. with $20,000 out- 
standing subscri])tions. The goveiiniieut gave consent to 
use the military hos})ital at deffei'sonville, but the loca- 
tion and other objections made it undesirable and it was 
never used. The Ixtai'd of dii-ectors uKMUorialized the 
legislature fo?- an ap])ropriation to ])urchase a tract of 
land where could be raised vegetal)les for use by the home. 

i^'inally, from ])rivate doTiations, a tract of fifty-four 
acres was purchased for $8,500, known as the "Knights- 


town Springs," on which was one large building used as 
a hotel, and sevei-al small cottages, which afforded room 
for one hundred patients. On March 11, 1867, the legis- 
lature adopted the governor's suggestion and made the 
home of disabled soldiers a state institution, and oppro- 
priated $50,000 to erect buildings and for maintenance 
and appointed a board of trustees, consisting of Capt. 
H. B. Hill, of Carthage ; Charles S. Hubbard, of Knights- 
town, and William Hannanian, of Indianapolis. A sub- 
stantial brick building, three stories and an attic high, 
153 feet long and 63 feet wide, was erected and dedicated 
with imposing cereuionies on June 15, 1867. The super- 
intendent's report for 1868, showed 400 admissions, 
221 discharged, and as thirty-one had died there were 
148 at the home. Under the legislative act creating the 
Indiana Soldiers' and Seamen's Home (then so called) 
admission thereto was granted to, totallj^ disabled sol- 
diers and seamen, partially disabled soldiers and seamen, 
orphans of same, under fifteen years, without father or 
mother; orphans, under fifteen years, with mothers liv- 
ing, and widows of deceased soldiers and seamen. On the 
morning of December 25, 1871, fire destroyed that part of 
the institution occupied by the soldiers, and they were 
moved to the National Military Home at Da}i:on, Ohio. 
The orphans were left in full possession of the home until 
the legislature of 1879 provided for the care therein of 
feeble-minded children. The two classes of inmates were 
maintained in the home until 1887, when the institution 
was reorganized as the Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' 
Home, and the feeble-minded children were removed to 
new quarters. The home has twice been destroyed by fire 
— September 8, 1877, and July 21, 1886 — but in each case 
promptly rebuilt. Educational, religious and industrial 
training is given. 

The law provides for the admission of children in the 
following order : (1) Orphan children of Union soldiers 
or sailors of the army or navy of the United States of the 



Civil war. the war with Spain, the war in the Phili]ipine 
islands, the war with ({erniany, Austria-Hungary, and 
their allies, or in the rcuular service of the United States; 
(2) children of such soldiers or sailors, whose mother is 
living; (8) children of permanently disahled or indigent 
soldiers or sailois of sucli service residing in tliis state or 
in any national military home having been jidmitted 
thereto from the state. Such chiklreu must be residents 
of Indiana, under sixteen years of age and destitute of 
the means of support and education. They may remain in 
the home until sixteen years of Jige unless sooner dis- 
charged for cause, and until eighteen years of age, if, in 
the judgment of the board of trustees, they are unable to 
earn a livelihood. Blank application papers may be ob- 
tained by addi'essing the sui)erintendent. If transporta- 
tion is not otherwise provided, it can be obtained from 
the township trustee. It will be paid by the county if the 
child is a county ward. All the ex2)ense of maintaining 
the institution is borne by the state. The annual report 
on this institution carried in the current Indiana "Year 
Book'' shows an enrollment of four hundred; received 
during the year ending September ;)0, 1919, 44; dis- 
charged, died or withdrawn during same ])eriod, 70; daily 
average attendance during s;nne period, males 205. fe- 
males. 122: average munber of officers, 10; teachers, lit- 
erary, 12; industrial, 12; attendants. i:^>; d(»mesti(*s, laboi-- 
ers and other emj>loyes. 2S; ordinr.ry ex[tenses, '^^119,- 
579.27; extraoi'dina ry exjienses, new buildings and fur- 
nishings and ])eiin;i}ient impro\'ements, ^11,447.7(); re- 
cei}jts and eainings, ■i<210.()S. 


The Cii-and Army of the Rejtublic i-epresents the 
spii-it that ])]-eseived the Union nt the time of the Civil 
war, and althoiigli it is now nioic than fifty years since 
the G. A. R. was organized, and although time has so 
thinned the ranks of the orgiinization that theie remains 


only a remnant of a once great military force, the hearts 
of the veterans are as true to the cause of democracy and 
their loyalty to the flag is as great as when they answered 
the call to duty more than half a century ago. The na- 
tional Grand Army of the Republic was organized at 
Decatur, 111., April 6, 1866, by Dr. B. F. Stephanson, sur- 
geon of the Fourteenth Illinois infantry, and this post 
was followed rapidly by others all over the country. At 
Rushville, Joel Wolfe Post, No. 81, Grand Army of the 
Republic was organized on July 19, 1882, and was mus- 
tered in by Gen. James R, Cai-nahan, department com- 
mander. There were twenty charter members of the post, 
of whom the late Thoma s A, Fritter was the last survivor. 
For many years after its organization, the local post was 
active in the affairs of Rush county, and the veterans, 
although few in numbers, still keep up their organization, 
participating in all the patriotic movements that their 
advancing years will permit. The charter roster follows : 
Post commander, Ulysses D, Cole; junior vice-com- 
mander, Wm. !v. Stewart; chaplain, J, P, Orr; quarter- 
master, J, H. Spurrier; adjutant, John Fleehart; ser- 
geant, Geo. W. Wilson ; officer of the day, David S. Flee- 
hart; William Beale, Robert H. Bebout, Wm. A. Cullen, 
Thos. A. Fritter, Wm. F. Gordon, George Guire, John K. 
Gowdy, F. S. Jones, David Mason, Jas. H. Mauzy, Ben 
L. Smith, Dr. Wm. H. Smith, Edward Young. 

There also are dwindling posts of the Grand Army of 
the Republic at Carthage and Milroy. 

The Woman's Belief Corps was created by mothers, 
wives, daughters and sisters of Union veterans of the 
Civil war, for the purpose of aiding and assisting the 
Grand Army of the Republic to ' ' perpetuate the memory 
of their heroic dead, extend needful aid to the widows and 
orphans, cherish and emulate the deeds of our army 
nurses and inculcate lessons of patriotism and love of 
country in the minds of children." 

The Rushville auxiliary post, Joel Wolfe W. R. C. 


No. 68, was orj^anized on August 27, 1SS7, witli India 
Hacklonian, i)r('sident, and Siddie W. Cole, secretary. 
The organization l)(\aan with twenty-two charter mem- 
bers, many of wh(<m are now dead. On March 21, 1893, 
the W. R. C. Penny Social was organized, as a branch to 
assist in the making of comforts, qnilts, carpets and cloth- 
ing and dist]-il)uting them in such manner a.s not to have 
the recipients feel it a charity. In 1895, the order fur- 
nished a cottage at the State Soldiers' Home at Tjafayette, 
Ind., with a com})lete complemen.t of furnitui'e, cai'pets. 
qnilts and bed linen. The Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' 
Home, nea]- Kiiightstown (bnt in Rnsh county) is always 
kindly and bountifully remembered on Christmas, as are 
also the needy and nnfoi'tunate, the sick and the aged at 
home, not only on that day, but on every day in the year. 
Huring the Spanish-American war and the World w^ar, 
the organization was active in relief and Red Cross work, 
making many liberal donations to various causes. 


Thirty-three years aftei- the close of the Civil war, 
the United States declared wai* on Spain. It is needless 
to enumerate the causes leading up to war except to say 
that the loss of 26() men of the battleship Maine in the har- 
bor of Havana on Februaiy 15, 1898, was the spark that 
fired the magazine of American indigiiation, and on A])ril 
26, 1898, war was officiallv declared. The President 
called foi- 125,000 men, and later. May 25, 1898, for 75,000 

The President's calls For volunteei-s met with instan- 
taneous I'espoiise from tlu' state of Indiana. The Fii'st, 
Second, Third and l^'oui-tli i-egiments, Indiana Xatiinial. 
(Juard, were reci-nited to full strength and renumbered 
tile Ojie II Mildred and Fifty-seventh, One Hundred and 
l''it'ty-eiglitli. One Hundred and Fifty-ninth and One 
Hundred and Sixtieth Indiana \'olunteer Infantry reg- 
iments, to follow consecutively the numbers designating 


the regiments engaged, in the Civil war. These four reg- 
iments were followed by the One Hundred and Sixty-first 
under the second call, and in addition to these five reg- 
iments, all of which were volunteer, there were two com- 
panies of colored troops, two batteries of artillery, and 
one company of engineers from the state. The One Hun- 
dred and Fifty-seventh, under Colonel Studebaker, was 
sent to Tampa to join General Shafter's expedition, but 
after being loaded and unloaded on transports, failed to 
get across to Cuba. The One Hundred and Fifty-eighth, 
under Colonel Smith, was sent to Chickamauga, where a 
scourge of typhoid fever decimated its ranks. The One 
Hundred and Fifty-ninth, under Colonel Barnett, was at 
Camp Meade until ordered home, and, together with the 
One Hundred and Fifty-seventh and One Hundred and 
Fifty-ninth regiments, was mustered out at Indianapo- 
lis in November, 1898. The One Hundred and Sixtieth, 
under Colonel Gunder, was sent across to Mantanzas, 
Cuba, where they saw much hard service. The One Hun- 
dred and Sixty-first, under Colonel Durbin, was camped 
at the Indiana state fair grounds until August, 1898, when 
it was sent to Camp Cuba Libre, near Jacksonville, Fla., 
and was assigned to the Third brigade, Third division, 
Seventh army corps, under Gen. Fitzhugh Lee. Thence 
it was sent to Camp Onward, near Savannah, Ga., and 
thence to Camp Columbia, near Havana, Cuba. Return- 
ing to Savannah on April 1, 1899, the regiment was thei-e 
mustered out of the service on April 30, 1899. In Rush, 
as in every county in the state and in every community 
of the country, the sentiment was for war, and there was 
keen disappointment on the part of many men of military 
age in the county, who offered their services, but were 
refused because of quotas in their state being already 
filled. It was in the One Hundred and Sixty-first regi- 
ment that Company H of Rush county served under Cap- 
tain Gwinn and Lieutenants Joyce, Patton and Caldwell 
(deceased). The regiment lost seventy-two men by dis- 


ease, one of whom was a Company H man. Rush county 
fuinishi'd 102 ])ri\-ates fo]- this company and thirty-four 
for service in the Phili])pines and for hospital service. 

Few p(M)p]e com])rehend the results of the Spanish- 
American wai'. hccause of its absence of slaughter, nor 
stop to reflect how near was the World war at that time. 
Germany's action at .Manila and the attitude of the great 
powers was such that oiie unconsidered step might have 
started wliat came sixteen years latei*. The ])rotocol was 
signed in August, 1898, and the treaty of j^eace in De- 
cember following. 

Roster of Company II, One Hundred and Sixty-first Eegivxent (Spanish 
American War) — Captain, James M. Gwinn; lieutenants, John F. Joyce, George 
H. Caldwell, Henry B. Patton; (niarterinaster sergeant, Joseph J. Caldwell; ser- 
geants, Charles E. Conistoek, Charles E. Wolfe, Gestou P. Hunt, Edgar Rtiers; 
corporals, Jacob D. Felts, Wni. T. Mitchell, Ijeven E. Wallace, Riley Johnson, 
Fred Gross, Chas. A. Newhro, Wm. H. Robertson, John W. Innis, Harrison E. 
Wertz, Chas. F. Lindsay, Greely Perkins, Jesse F. Perkins; nuisicians, Edward 
Huffman, Basil Middleton; artificer, Jesse K. Jamison; wagoner, Charles W. 
Miller; privates, Heber H. Allen, James F. Adams, Jesse W. Ailes, Fred Alexan- 
der, Ira Allenthorp, J. II. Armstrong, J. A. Armstrong, Frank C. Bavlor, Arthur 
Baker, William II. Ball, Orville Bartlett, Fred Beale, R. G. Caldwell, Rue Cas- 
aady, A. B. Cauley, Thomas A. Dill, H. W. Davis, Bert L. Devers, H. E. Emmons, 
Bert Fox, Fred C. Francis, Clyde Gable, William E. Gardner, Ira E. Geiger, 
James Gilson, John Glass, Will Glisson, Fred Graves, Earl Greenlee, .Jesse W. 
Guire, Harry Hall, C. E. Hambrock, Vern Harry, J. W. Hatfield, Clarence Hea- 
ton, O. R. Hilligoss, C. S. Iloffner, George Holder, C. F. Jester, Geo. B. Jones, 
R. H. Kenner, Wm. Klingsworth, W. Lohrman, Harrv C. Levi, Clint McCain, 
Michael P. McCoy, Fred McCrory, Buford Marvin, C. M. Matthews, Clint M. Mil- 
ler, Thomas C. .Moore, Fred Mootz, Irvin Morford, Will Myers, W. G. Newman, 
Frank Norris, Jam(\s O'Dav, C. W. Owslev, Ira II. Palmes, Ralph C. Parker, 
Chase Pearaev, Joe Phillips," G. A. Plummeri Edward Pollett, E. L. Ragan, H. V. 
Rucker, Jacob J. Runk, Henry Seibel, Robt. H. Shields, C. R. Smith, Lewis 
Smitli, Wm. .M. Stiers, L. M. Stratton, Charles Vest, Dudley Wells, Wm. T. \Vlia- 
len, H. E. Wilson, Monroe Young. 

Philippive Service — The following Rush county men served in the Philip])ines: 
Forty-Fifth Volunteer Infantry, Company A — Voorhees Cavitt, "Harry Emmons, 
Richard O'.Xeil, *.Tam('s O'Day, John Ernest, 'Greely Perkins, Harry Riden- 
baugh, Will Mansfield, Thomas I'air, C.-irl P.uckner, Lon Sexton, *Edwar(l Pollett, 
*llarry Levi, Fred Linton, Amlirose Culhertson, James W. Sweetman. 

Attaehcfl to Olhrr Com/ianics and h'rfiinu ntx — •Lieutenant, George Caldwell; 
•Anthony Cauley, William Hendricks, Cliarles Hurst, E. M. Jones, *Geo. B. Jones, 
Stanley Ivemp, *Cliarles Lindaey, *IIarry Levi, Fr.-uik .Moor, Commodore Moorlock, 
•Fred McCrory, "Guy Nenman, *Jesse I'erkins, Ed Perkins, *.Iacob J. Runk. 

"Served in ('omp;iny H, and lat(^r in the Phili])pines. 

The following K'usii county mrn served in the Hospital Corps: Charles J. 
Brooks and William Leming. 


War iiad been raging witli unj)recedented intensity 
and barbarous cruelty for nearly three years, and the 


United States had suffered insults and criminal wrongs 
innumerable when, on April 6, 1917, Congress declared 
war on Grermany. All Europe was ablaze, every nation of 
importance was an armed camp. Immediately after the 
declaration of war, this country forgot everything but 
how soonest to drive the Hun from bleeding France and 
Belgium. Soon millions of men were in camp. Thou- 
sands already were in the field, having joined the Cana- 
dian, English or French forces. Transportation was the 
great problem, for the ocean was alive with submarines 
and the seas scoured by German raiders. But this prob- 
lem, like all others, was solved, and two million soldiers 
under the Stars and Stripes were soon in Europe, and 
among them hundreds from Rush county. Only two units 
were organized in this county, but the miscellaneous en- 
listment was large. Company B, Fourth regiment, Indi- 
ana National Guard, under Capt. John H. Kiplinger and 
Lieutenants Blacklidge, Kreber and Gartin, with 132 
enlisted men left on August 19, 1917, for Camp Shelby, 
near Hattiesburg, Miss. Here, as everywhere, state 
troops lost their identity and became United States 
troops, so that tracing Rush county men is made most 
difficult. This company from Rush county, with few 
exceptions, reached France, many of them seeing hard 

Roster of Company B — Captain, John H. Kiplinger; first lieutenant, Allan 
H. Blacklidge; second lieutenant, William A. Kreber; Aaron O. Adams, Garret J. 
Alford, Harold J. Alford, Anthony G. Amrheim, Corporal H. T. Armstrong, Cook 
Harry Barrett, Vannie Beard, Corporal Henry H. Ball, Howard Bankert, Milton 
F. Barnard, Walter G. Becraft, Eoy Beeler, Paul Bennington, Harry L. Beaver, 
Ed. L. Black, Sergeant Wm. B. Brann, Sergeant Jesse O. Bridge, E. R. Bracken- 
ridge, Henry E. Brown, Lewis Brown, James E. Buchannon, Willard Buell, H. L. 
Burdoefer, Ralph W. Clark, Corporal Lawrence Cameron, Glen H. Calpha, Wm. L. 
Christopher, Thorn. F. Christopher, Charles Clevenger, Wilbur H. Clevenger, 
Jesse M. Cline, Robert R. Conway, Corporal Lester Coons, John D. Colter, 
Charles J. Cortelyou, Floyd Cox, Jesse W. Cummins, Patrick J. Devaney, Carl R. 
Dudgeon, Clarence E. Dougoud, Corporal Glen F. Edwards, Corporal Cleo Ems- 
weller. Cook Walter D. English, Frank Farley, Sam H. Feeback, Lawrence A. 
Fisher, Harry R. Fritter, Ira A. Fultz, Leland C. Gardner, Sam Gardner, Edward 
E. Green, John W. Green, Glen Grosse, Gilbert P. Hamilton, Elmer E. Hendricks, 
Raymond F. Higgins, Charles Hokey, Hollis G. Holmes, Ernest Johnson, Love1 
Keith, Herbert Kingery, Corporal Paul C. Koons, Earl M. Krause, Ray C. Land, 
Jesse M. Lanning, Robert G. Lanning, Irvin A. Lloyd, Sergeant Telles LaLonde, 
Herbert L. Maple, Paul B. Manning, John C. McNally, Sergeant Fred McCarty, 


Sergeant Mich. P. McCov, Clicster A Meal, Howard Miller, Raymond Miner, Roy 
Lee Montgojnery, Donald Dean Moore, Frank W. Morgan, Frank Motts, Sergeant 
G'.'ci. \V. flyers, William C. Myers, \'ergil Myers, Julius Myers, Frank Nicholson, 
Herbert Nash, Oreii E. P. Newland, Corporal Donald Newman, Sergeant Guy 
Newman, (Pr()mot('<l to lieutenant), Merrill ^^. Nortliani, Roy J. Oakley, Cor- 
poral Charley Pea, Corporal Ralph Pea, Corjioral Howard Pea, Onier Pea, Donald 
R. Pease, Fred H. Perkins, Louis Perkins, Coq)oral Carl Peters, Henry Peters, 
William A. F. Peters, Cliarles R. Phenis, Charles R. Pindell, Lecher Allen Pope, 
Thomas V. Price, John W. Rawlins, C'lifford T. Reese, Clarence E. Riley, Lytle 
ivoherts, Willie L. Rolieson, Erwin C. Rogers, George M. Ruble, Jesse Ruble, Cor- 
poral Hartford Saljee, Joseph Saunders, James L. Scott, Wallace S. Scott, Fred 
Smith, Fdward A. Snider, Walter M. Snyder, Earl D. Spillman, Sergeant Philip R. 
Stapp, fcivmond E. Stiers, George W. Stites, Carl Switzer, Elmer E. Tavlor, Jess 
J. Taylorj Jacob W. Theobold, Charles J. Theobold, Elmer E. Thorp'e, Edgar 
Troxell, Gordon Vannata, Alva H. Vansickle, Ralph Wagoner, Kenneth O. Walker, 
Grover W. Wallace, Charles R. Weed, P]dward B. West, Grover I. Wheeldon. How- 
ard C. Whiteman, Frank P. Whitton, Colonel J. Wiley, John W. Wilkinson, Fay H. 
Wylie, John Wrigley. 

Rush Count tj J-Io.s])it((l Ciiit — Tlie second military 
organization formed in Rush county after the declaration 
of war, was a sanit?irv corps, which was recruited by Dr. 
Lowell M. Green, of Rushville, in July, 1917. The* unit, 
consisting of thirty-three men, thirty-one of whom were 
T'esidents of this county, was mustered int(t the Federal 
service on August 5, as the Infirmary of the One Hun- 
dred and Thirty-ninth Field Artillery. After a month's 
ti'aining at Cam]) Wolfe, in Rushville, the com}>auy was 
oj'deicd to P^ort BenjaTnin Harrisdii, at Indianapolis, and 
on September 28, was transferrin! to Camp Shelby. Hat- 
tiesburg. Miss. Prior to their de])aiture from Rushville. 
a mess fund, raised by po])ular subscription, and aggre- 
gating $725, was presented to the officers and members 
(tf the com])any as a ])atri(>tic offering of the citizens of 
th(! county. 

Following is the I'dstcr of the hifiiniary of the One 
Hundred and Tliirty-ninth Field Artillery: 

Major, N. A. Carey; captain, Donald C. McClelland; first lieutenant, Lowell 

M. Green; second lieutenant, Samuel Murphy; Raymond Benning, Scrgt. Robert 
Oaig, Edward M. Cooning, Clements J. Conrad, Scott Conde, Jr., Berlin T. 
Caldwell, Clavton B. Dagler, Marion T. Finn<'v, Osro Farthing, Thomas S. Fos- 
ter, Harry K' Green, William E. Glover. S:ii.uiel W. Gathiiian, Scrgt. C. W. Gott- 
man, J. F. Hermansdorfer, Geoige V. Hogsett, Lon \. Havens, Jr., Forrest E. 
Joyce, Russell H. King, Ix>o IL King, William T. Kellar, Krnest M. Mitchell, 
Scrgt. J. S. Mci'.ride, Robert F. McNeely, Fred Osborne, Wilbur R. Spivey, Errol 
J. Stoops, Alfreil Sharj", Jr., <'harles A. Schrichte, Jerry Sullivan, James F. 

Walker, William .M. Worth. 


RUSH county's "gold STAR" ROSTER 

During the time of America's participation in the 
World war 3,318 men and fourteen nurses from Indiana 
paid the supreme sacrifice. This number inchides all 
those who were killed in action, who died from wounds, 
of disease, and those who died from accidents or other' 
causes. Of this number seventeen were from Rush 
count}^ as follows, the name of the deceased soldier, with 
next of kin and postoffice address being given: John 
Frederick Beale, Mrs. Hattie J. Beale (mother), Rush- 
ville. Ind. ; Ravmond T. Boring, Mrs. Mary Boring 
(mother), R. F. D. No. 3, Rushville, Ind. ; Elbert H. Cox, 
Mr. and Mrs. Ambrose Cox (parents), Rushville, Ind.; 
John W. Deerin, I\lr. and Mrs. George Deerin (parents), 
R. F. D. No. 6, Rushville, Ind. ; Charles E. Garrison, Mrs 
Flora Pea (sister), Rushville, Ind.; Walter Gartin, Mr. 
and Mrs. James W. Gartin (parents), Rushville, Ind., 
(R. R.) now living at Whittier, Calif.; Oval Harlan 
Green, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Green (parents), Milro}^, 
Ind. ; Raymond Hamilton, JMrs. Edith Hamilton McKee 
(mother), Rushville, Ind.; Iviarshall Ney Innis, Mr. and 
Mrs. Wade H. Innis (parents), Milroy, Ind.; AVilliam C. 
Jackson, Mrs. Flora Jackson (mother), Rushville, Ind.; 
Ross V. Kennedy, Mrs. Katherine V. Kennedy (mother) , 
Carthage, Ind.; Frederick Kessler, Fred Kessler 
(father), R. F. D., No. 2, Manilla, Ind.; Lewis M. Kirk- 
patrick, Mr. and Mrs. John E. Kirkpatrick (parents), 
R. F. D. No. 9, Rushville, Ind. ; Cyrus E. Patterson, Mrs. 
Myrtle Hittle (sister), Manilla, Ind.; George Lewis 
Posey, Mrs. Alta Posey (widow) , Rushville, Ind. ; Ray- 
mond B. Rardin, ^Ir. and Mrs. Frank M. Rardin (par- 
ents), Milro3% Ind., and James Joseph Shanahan, James 
Shannahan (father), R. F. D. No. 8, Rushville, Ind. 


When the general records of the local draft board 
were sent to Washington in response to the demand of 



the War Department tor all data coveriiiu' the draft 
hoard's operations, followiuj;- the close of the Ys'orld war, 
a definite and authoritative list of the men who w^eut into 
service fi'om Rnsli county was lost to local record. How- 
ever, a j2;eneral list, covering those from this county 
(nearly eight hundred in number) w'ho, in addition to the 
units al)ove given, served either as volunteers or under 
the selective service system has been compiled under the 
auspices of the local Red Cross, the local post of the 
American Legicm and such other local service units as be- 
came interested in tlie matter following the i'oiwai'ding 
of the draft board's records, and this roster is here sub- 
mitted in the belief of all concerned that it is practically 
complete. There probal)ly are some few omissions. It 
would ))e remarka])]e, under the circmnstances, if there 
were not; but the agencies that have acted in this behalf 
have exercised the best possible care to insure the accu- 
racy of the roster so far as c(mld be insured from the files 
at hand, and it is here set out as Rush county's honor roll, 
sui^plementing the roster of B Company and the medical 
unit already given, a grand total of more than nine 

AnHberrv, Michael C. 
Allen, n. D. 
Acldison, Mvroii 
AI.els, Robert 
Alixander, Hubert R. 
Alirinathy, G. J. 
Arnold, Frank 
Aikins, (Harence 
Arhiickle, Joseph 11. 
AmoH, Kdward Thoinaa 
Alter, Clarence Lowell 
Alter, Wayne 
ALsman, .James A. 
Archey, William 
Arnlersoii, Laurence L. 
Aisnian, .John M. 
Addison, Sherman 
Arbuckle, Cyril 


— B— 

James Calvin 
John Frederick 

Brock, Guy 
Barlow, Fred 
Bailey, .Tesse C. 
Baker, George 
Boden, Chas. Dallas 
Brooks, Ralph Waldo 
Beckner, Thomas Andrew 
T',erry, Edward P. 
Bariiett, John F. 
Brooks, Chase S. 
Berry, Charles R. 
Bever, Chase 
I'.celer, Lisa Ivan 
Brann, Donald \V. 
Brooks, Roy 
Benniiif,', Raymond 
Breckenridf^e', Hob.Tt R. 
llri'idiiisiii, Jolin Howard 
Biiiidy, Tjoreii Clayton 
Ball, Henry Harrison 
Brann, William Ballard 
Berler, Roy John 
Borem, Clyde Cloe 
Buell, Scott 
Blacklidge, Allan H. 

Bates, Edgar Richard 
Bever, Roy 
Burrows, Vernal 
Bailey, William T. 
Brown, Halbert 
Banta, Roy L. 
Bennett, Rhuel 
Benner, Donald W. 
Brown, Paul T. 
Becraft, .James 
Bailey, Oscar C. 
Boring, Kavmond T. 
Ball, Thoniiis Fletcher 
Bogue, Nolan 
Brown, Ross V. 
P.orem, Clarence James 
Burton, William Fleming 
i'.ell, Veni \V. 
Byard, Edward 
B-irtlett, Charles 
I'.arry, Edmund 
Barlow, Leonard 
Bennett, George 
liundy, Ora 
Brooks, D wight 



Bramel, Vaughn A. 
Bramel, Gilbert 
Baker, George 
Benner, George 
Becraft, Kobert L. 
Bebout, Verl A. 
Boyer, Eeko 
Bingiman, Walter 
Barlow, Jess E. 
Burton, Bertha 
Blank, Ealph 
Bennett, Gordon 
Beaver, Harold C. 
Becraft, Harley 
Beam, Earl 
Beam, Paul 

Brown, James Edward 
Burt, Leslie 
Bennett, Hazel Fern 
Blessinger, John T. 
Burrell, James J. 
Beaver, Ivan 
Brown, Halbert 

— C— 

Cregar, Arthur 
Cloud, Lowell 
Colvin, John W. 
Carter, William M. 
Combs, Edward Sherman 
Cecil, Charles Walter 
Cripe, Harry Orval 
Crull, Edgar Earl 
Coon, Omer Clarence 
Cox, Elbert H. 
Cram, Stanton V. 
Craig, Wernie 
Colestock, iirie Delorice 
Cook, Gifford 
Carroll, Martin F. 
Camerin, Frank 
Casey, William C. 
Cooning, Thomas 
Chappell, David 
Colter, William Watson 
Clark, Judson Anderson 
Cox, Leslie Earl 
Carr, Ermston Ealph 
Cregar, James 
Cameron, Lawrence E. 
Chadwell, Leonard S. 
Cooning, Edward 
Cramm, Eexford Martin 
Christopher, Thomas F, 
Caldwell, Berlin T. 
Carson, William Gary 
Clifford, Gale T. 
Clevenger, Charles 
Conrod, Clements Joseph 
Christopher, William L. 

Coon, William Jenning 
Clark, Lawrence L. 
Coleman, Dr. W. S. 
Chadwick, Dr. P. H. 
Garfield, Eussell F. 
Cassady, Frank J. 
Cox, Benjamin B. 
Craig, Eobert 
Cox, Wilbur 
Campbell, Edward 
Cauley, Lawrence J. 
Coyne, Ivan F. 
Connelly, James 
Carr, Frank H. 
Caron, Jerome A. 
Cowing, Byron S. 
Caron, Lester C. 
Cox, Albert 
Creek, Charles E. 
Clarkson, Ealph 
Chew, Alfred I., Jr. 
Crawford, Nettie 
Crum, Verney Gray 
Cale, Howard L. 
Clifton, Eugene 
Cottrill, B. H. 
Chance, George 
Coppick, Orville 
Crull, Levi Irvin 
Carney, James D. 
Crawford, W. H. 
Cullipher, E. J. 
Coffin, Orfus 
Conover, L. G. 
Carr, Eobert B. 
Colestock, Eay Lee 
Culbertson, Eoy 
Clark, Lind. H. 
Clingman, Lester V. 
Coyne, Francis 

— D— 

Dearinger, Eussell J. 
Deerin, John W. 
Dillon, Euth E. 
Downey, O. F. 
Duskey, John Loman 
DeMumbrum, Charles M. 
Darnell, Elmer 
Duskey, Charles Edward 
Dagler, Clayton D. 
Denning, Posey B. 
Dragoo, Dr. D. D. 
Davis, Lucius 
Dearinger, Chester D. 
DeHart, O. H. 
Downs, Thurman 
Dearinger, Chester V. 

— E— 

Edwards, Albert 
Elder, Eoy Lavon 
English, Frank E. 
English, Walter B. 
Emsweller, Cleo 
Edwards, Glen T. 
Evans, Eoy 
Ewing, Eue 
Estell, Herman 

— F— 

French, Floyd 
Farlow, Mert. A. 
Fischer, Jesse C. 
Fitzgerald, William 
Friend, Eoydon 
Faull, Eussell 
Florea, Olin 
Feaster, George L. 
Frazier, Harley 
Fox, Ealph N.' 
Fleener, George D. 
Feeback, Samuel H. 
Farthing, Ozro Lewis 
Foster, Herman A. 
Foster, Thomas S. 
Finney, ^Marion Teeumseh 
Finlaw, Dr. Fred H. 
French, Orval W. 
Foster, Donald H. 
Frazee, John P., Jr, 
Fleehart, John 

— G— 

Gartin, Walter E. 
Garrison, Charles E. 
Gilson, Clifford 
Glendenning, Eussell 
Galimore, Harry 
Gardner, Thomas F., Jr. 
Gurley, Fred Orvall 
Gwinnup, Dora 
Gowdy, Lewis J. 
Gordon, Ealph Eiley 
Goode, John E. 
Glass, James William 
Gordon, Paul 
Grigsby, Benjamin Hill 
Gates, John V. 
jlore, Hugh V. 
Gardner, Leland 
Gottman, Clifford 
Garrison, Walter 
Gregory, Franklin Earl 
Green, Oval H. 
Green, Harry K. 
Green, Dr. Frank H. 



Gosiifll, Paul D. 
Green, Dr. L. M. 
Garrison, Oliver M. 
Georj^c, Rex A. 
Gray, Russel A. 
George, Orpha M. 
Grigsby, Arthur 
Gray, Ora M. 
Guffin, Chase 
Goode, John E. 
Galliniore, Fred 
Glover, Lennie B. 
Goodwin, John F. 
Goodwin, Wm. Daily 
Gebhart, Louis Curtis 
Grigsby, Benj. H. 
Grigsbv, Jesse 
Griffin, Frank C. 
Gebhart, John Alfred 
Greely, Irvin H. 

— H— 

Hardin, William H. 
Hughes, Dan Kinney 
Hebler, John D. 
Hardwick, Clifford A. 
Hall, Wilmer S. 
Hogsctt, Herbert H. 
Humes, Robert P. 
Havens, Denning 
Hardwick, Dallas 
Hall, Ernest B. 
Hyatt, James L. 
Havens, Lon A., Jr. 
Howell, Morris 
Howell, Harry C. 
Hobbs, James C. 
Henley, Lowell H. 
Henley, W. J. 
Hogsi'tt, George Yates 
Hermensdorfer, John F. 
Hamilton, Gilbert P. 
Heiidrioks, Elmer E. 
Higgins, Raymond F. 
Ho key, Charle» 
Holmes, Hollis G. 
Harrigan, Roy J. 
]Ien(lri<'ks, Harry 
Harris, Raymond ii. 
Hurst, Albert H. 
Hite, Lawrence! 
Harton, Russell 
Hinshaw, Robert 
Havens, Clav 
Hall, Carl 
Honlcy, Daniel M. 
Hood, .\olan G. 
H inkle, Ktacey C. 
llorr, Frank 
Hamilton, liaymuud 

Heckman, John 
Higgs, Fred C. 
Hageney, Frank J. 
Harrison, Claude C. 
Hackleman, W. C. 
Ilacklcmaii. Ralph 
Hachl, Clifford 
Hilligoss, William M. 
Halternian, Earl 
Hutchinson, Ross 
Hitt, Joe 
Hendy, Earl P. 
Helm, Eugene J. 
Higgs, Carlos E. 
Harbert, Roy C. 
Hendi rson, Harry 
Hoff, Talma A. 
Hungerford, Paul 
Harper, Nelson 
Hobbs, James A. 
Hoff, Earl 
Huiitsinger, Ray 
Heiidlee, Harry Herbert 
Hill, Fred William 
Hall, Wallace 
Helmnn, Kenneth G. 
Ihirst, Virgil H. 
Hendricks, Henry L. 
Hill, Earl O. 
Hilligoss, Clifford 
Herbert, William 
Holbrook, Virgil 
Harbert, Jesse F. 
Hester, Everett W. 
Hardwick, William 

— I— 

Israel, Otto 
lunis, Marshall Ney 
Inlow, Donald L. 
Inlow, Deprc/, 
Irvin, Ried 
Irvine, Joseph F. 
Imlay, Paul S. 
Irvin, Rica 
Inlow, William D. 

— J— 

.Johnson, James E. 
Johnscm, Harold D. 
Johnson, Krnest 
Johnson, Arley Lee 
•lolinson, Hruce 
.Joyce, Austin 
.Jackson, William Carl 
.larrett, George W. 
.lolley, Ora C. 
.Joyce, .John F. 
Joyce, Forrest E. 

.Jones, George B. 
.Jordon, James J. 
.lordon, Yazel 
Jones, Charlie H. 
.Jones, Horace 
.Jones, William E. 
Jackson, Coleman Ward 
Jordon, Bruce 

— K— 

Karr, Harry 
Katsoras, Michael 
Keller, William 
King, Leo 
King, Russell 
Keith, Lowell 
Kingery, Herbert 
Koons, Paul C. 
Krause, Earl M. 
Kinnev, Eli Allin 
Kirkpatrick, Russell B. 
Kemper, Herbert 
iveiinedy, .John W. 
Kennedy, Carl A. 
Kennedy, Ross V. 
Kommir, Eugene S. 
Kinnett, David IT. 
Kii>linger, John H. 
Kcssler, Mike 
Kline, John Edwin 
Kissler, Fre<l, Jr. 
Kirkham, Orval R. 
Kid well, Jesse Oral 
King, Lawrence 
King, Forrest 
King, Ermston 
Kirkpatrick, Lewis M. 
Kamper, Hubert E. 

Land, Ray C. 
Lanning, .Jesse M. 
Lanning, Robert G. 
Llovd, Irvin A. 
LaLonde, Telles 
Lee, Roy E. 
Lee, Everett E. 
Linville, Claude 
Linscott, Weldon 
Linseott, Wayne 
Linscott, Roy 
Long, Guy 
Lcmg, Owen 
Long, Rex 

Lewis, William David 
Larrison, Bert 
Leonard, M. B. 
Long, Henry, Jr. 
Legg, Carlton 



Lyons, Clarence 
Land, Roy C. 
Land, Albert Smith 
Lamb, Paul J. 
Lechner, Charles M. 
Laughlin, John R. 
Loyd, Clarence O. 
Lindale, James Wesley 
Ludington, Roy 
Lewark, Van R. 
Lower, Laverre H. 
Logan, Henry V. 
Lytle, Lewis 
Lewis, John W. 
Laughlin, Charles 

— M— 

Malott, Orus 
Maple, Herbert L. 
Manning, Paul B. 
Meal, Chester A. 
Miller, Howard 
Miller, Earl 
Miller, Carl 
Miner, Raymond 
Montgomery, Roy Lee 
Moore, Donald Dean 
Moore, James D. 
Moore, Ralph 
Morgan, Frank W. 
Motts, Frank 
Myers, George W. 
Myers, William M. 
Myers, Virgil 
Myers, Julius 
Mitchell, Ernest 
Marshall, Lee 
Motts, Frank 
Metzker, Robert 
Marshall, Commodore R. 
Morcland, Walter 
Mullins, Leo 
Marlow, Fred 
Moore, James 
Muire, Frank B. 
Monjar, Chase 
Morris, Horatio 
Marlatt, Earl B. 
Marlatt, Ernest F. 
Marsh, Guy D. 
Miles, John E. 
Morris, Clyde Robert 
Murdock, James W. 
May, Walter 
Maffett, Virgil 
Morris, Roland L. 
Morris, William H. 
Musick, Don C. 
Muire, Frank B. 
Meyers, Clarence E. 
Metcalf, Henry C. 

Merriwether, Edward S. 
Munden, Roy 
Moore, Otto 

— Mc— 

McClelland, D. C. 
McBride, James Stanton 
MeBride, Guy 
McNealy, Robert F. 
McNally, John C. 
McCarty, Fred 
McCoy, Michael P. 
McGuire, William C. 
McClanahan, Richard 

McFarland, Ralph S. 
McDaniel, William 
McDaniel, Charles 
McDaniel, Paul C. 
McKee, Carlos 
McDonald, Glen 
Mcintosh, Horace Paul 
McCorkle, Ralph Earl 
McKinney, Carmel B. 
McKee, James C. 
McHenrv, Everett Lee 
McFall,"Earl D. 
McPherson, Layton 
McBride, Marion 
McDaniel, Roscoe 
McCullough, Samuel 

— N— 

Newsom, William E. 
Nicholson, Frank 
Nash, Herbert 
Newland, Oren E. P. 
Newman, Donald 
Newman, Guy 
Northam, Chester D. 
Northam, Merrill M. 
Newhouse, Harry 
Newhousc, Charles Ernest 
Neary, Ross 
Noble, Gordon Paul 
Neinstedt, Walter F. 
Nesbit, Raymond W. 
Newsom, Howard A. 
Nordloh, John Frederick 
Naden, Charles 
Nelson, Thomas B. 
Nichol, Donald 
Noble, Merrill J. 
Newhouse, Byron 
Newhouse, Paul 
Nelson, Davis 

— O— 

Oakley, Roy J. 
Osborn, Fred 
Oneal, Perry E. 

Oncal, Henry 
Oneal, Thomas Edwin 
Osborn, Clyde E. 
Owen, Andrew A. 
Owen, Frank 
Oldham, Clarence E. 
Osborne, Herman J. 
Osterling, Benjamin 

Pearce, Harold W. 
Payne, William Wallace 
Pctry, Harry R. 
Peters, Herschel H. 
Peck, Chester 
Perkins, Greeley 
Pea, Ralph 
Pea, Charlie 
Pea, Howard 
Pea, Omer 
Peace, Donald E. 
Perkins, Fred H. 
Perkins, Lewis 
Peters, Carl 
Peters, Henry 
Peters, William A. F. 
Phenis, Charles R. 
Pindell, Charles R. 
Pope, Lecher 
Price, Thomas V. 
Pea, Albert 
Pulliam, Arthur 
Perrin, Chester 
Pearsey, Hale H. 
P rather, Charles R. 
Palmer, Millard 
Passmore, John 
Passmore, Oren 
Prill, Thomas J. 
Price, Orlie M. 
Phillips, William R. 
Porter, Raymond D. 
Pierce, Paul 
Parrish, Forrest 
Petro, James Donald 
Perry, Claj'ton 
Phillips, Alfred 
Power, Richard L. 
Pitts, Jesse W. 
Patterson, Cyrus E. 
Perkins, Harold 
Posey, George Lewis 
Price, Stewart 

— R— 

Rardin, Raymond B. 
Rawlings, John W. 
Eeese, Clifford T. 
Riley, Clarence T. 
Robert, Lytle 



Kobeson, Willie L. 
Ro^jiTS, Irt'in C. 
Ruble, GcorRC M. 
Kublo, Jesse 
Kobb, Sidney R. 
R<'e(l, Diiane F. 
Roam, Archey S. 
Renaeii, William Logan 
Robbiiis, Alva 
Richter, William A. 
Ray, Robert Oliver 
Rosencrance, John L. 
Reese, Clifford T. 
Ricketts, Forrest 
Roam, Robert L. 
Ropers, Clyde E. 
Kufenaclit, Jesse Lea 
Rider, Earl 
Ruby, Clarence L. 
Reber, Charles E. 
Rawla, P''orrest Jesse 
R-otan, Owen 
Reed, Xorman J. 
Reddick, C. R. 
Remington, Charles M. 
Root, Lawrence M. 
Root, Paul 
Roberts, Homer 
Readle, Rex R., I-]lmcr 
Ridenbaugli, Benjamin 
Readle, John 
Risk, Richard 
Reese, Walter H. 
Rate! iff, Russell M. 
Rice, Fred 
Razzell, Harry 
Reeves, Harold 

Saunders, Joseph 
Saunders, Thomas H. 
Scott, Jami's T^. 
Scott, Wallace S. 
Smith, Fred 
Snider, Edward A. 
SnydrT, Walter M. 
S[iillman, Earl B. 
Wtapii, Philip B. 
Stier, Raymond E. 
Stites, George W. 
Switzer, Carl 
Sullivan, Jerry 
Spivey, Wilbur 
Sharp, Alfred, Jr. 
Sclirichte, Charles A. 
Stoops, Errol 
8wartz, Marion 
Smelser, filen 
Sexton, William L. 

Suodgrass, Wilbur C. 
Sinister, Israel 
Shultz, Joseph D. 
Shinu, Paul W. 
Sumiiierville, Jerry O. 
Stuttle, Dora D. 
Smiiev, Clifford 
Stifffcr, Charles B. 
Sam])le, Clarence 
Stewart, Price 
Shaiiahan, James J. 
Skipton, Russ<'ll 
Spencer, Ernest 
Sherwood, Harlcy 
Sjiacy, Fred O. 
Swisher, Harry 
Sunimerman, Virgil E. 
Shatz, Harry X. 
Stiers, William H. 
Salle, Hartford 
Smith, Henrv 
Shelton, Fred C. 
Simpson, Clarence 
Stevens, William S. 
Smith, John 
Schultz, Paul 
Stewart, Joseph 
Seright, Paul O. 
Scott, Samuel 
Sexton, M. Cullen 
Stuttle, Don B. 
Stoten, Marion 
Smith, Samuel 
Simpson, Hilton N. 
Sagesar, Albert L. 
Stewart, Homer 
Sage, James R. 
Shockley, Walter 
Sclirichte, John J. 
Smiley, Clarence E. 
Smiiev, Dale 
Sharj), Laverne 
Smith, Li'diice H. 
Schmall, William H. 
Stewart, Paul 
Schetgen, Anthony Leo 
Schaeffer, Frank J. 
Sampson, Oakley 
Schultz, Joseph "D. 
Sherman, Charles B. 
Sweet, Albert J. 
Smith, Cassius C. 
Schultz, Carl 
Samjison, J. Herman 
Schaeffer, Charles O. 

— T— 

Tarplei', Frank 
Taylor, Elmer E. 
Tavlor, Jesse J. 

Theobold, Jacob W. 
Theobold, Charles J. 
Thoq), Elmer E. 
Troxell, Edgar 
Tarplee, Arnold G. 
Taylor, Theo N. 
Tavlor, Chase 
Tuerff, Joseph L., Jr. 
Trobaugh, Leslie E. 
Tucker, Carroll J. 
Thomas, Howard 
Trennepohl, Clarence 
Trobaugh, William W. 
Tamsett, William 
Theobold, Walter E. 
Tilley, Harry 
Todd, George 
Trabue, Samuel L. 
Thorp, Paul E. 
Tutle, Harlan 

Vannatta, Gordon 
Vansickle, Alva 
Vansickle, Aubrey C. 
Vaughn, Seigle E. 
Vandament, Walter 
Vansickle, Dora C. 
X'redeuburg, Robert F. 
Vannatta, Carl 
VanOsdol, Dwight 

— W— 

Wagoner, Ralph 
Walker, Kenneth O. 
Wallace, GrovtT W. 
AVeed, Charles R. 
West, Edward D. 
Whe(>ldon, Grover I. 
Whiteman. Howard Conde 
Whit ton, Frank P. 
Wyley, Colonel J. 
Wilkinson, John W. 
Wylie, Pay H. 
Wrigley, John 
Walker, James 
Worth. William 
Wallace, Maxwell E. 
Wolcott, Harold 
W.atson, .Tames E., Jr. 
Wagoner, Everett Roscoe 
Winslow, William 
Wright, J;unes 
White, Lawrence H. 
Woolen, Wilbur Van 
Willie, John A. 
Winslow, Edwin Fay 
Watson, Edwin Gowdv 
White, Henry 


Walker, Nolen White, Henry Worth, Cecil 

Walker, Emil Weaver, Russell Wills, Roy 

Williams, Augustus N. Warrick, Jesse Walker, Emil 

Weidner, John William Wills, Nathan Wiley, William C. 

Wysong, George Walker, James F. White, Clyde 

Warrick, Orbie Nathan West, Edward Bert Wevie, Jack 

Wright, William Walter Wendling, Russell Wilkinson, William L. 

Walker, Herbert E. Willis, John A. Wervce, Howard J. 

Wood, Clarence C. Whittset, Vincent P. Wills, Clayton 

Woods, William Herbert Wagner, Grover Winslow, Cliarles D. 

Walker, Leslie Willey, Harry Earl — Y — 

Walker, Irvin Wright, Warren C. Yankuner, Samuel 

Faretvell to Compaii/j B — Soon after the formation 
of the company, M^hich was mustered into the service as 
Company B of the One Hundred and Thirty-ninth reg- 
iment, United States Volnnteer Infantry, movements 
were started which had for their purpose the supplying 
of the men with various articles for their comfort and 
convenience. The interest manifested in plans for look- 
ing after the welfare of the soldiers was one of the many 
proofs of the patriotic pride the people felt in the local 
military unit. 

One of the happiest movements to honor the new 
company, was the raising of funds for the purchase of a 
company flag. The first contribution was made by Ar- 
thur B. Irvin, who conceived the idea, and the requisite 
sum was soon obtained. 

The formal presentation of the flag was made the 
occasion for the largest, the most inspiring, local demon- 
stration of the 3^ear's war period. The ceremony, which 
took place in the Coliseum, in Rushville, on Sunday after- 
noon, July 29, was attended by 3,000 people representing 
every part of the county. The program consisted of 
musical numbers, including the "Marseillaise," sung in 
French by Paul Lagrange, the presentation address by 
Rev. C. M. Yocum and the acceptance by Capt. John H. 
Kiplinger, on behalf of the company. Another contribu- 
tion to Company B was a mess fund of $1,000 raised by 
popular subscription, for the purpose of providing the 
officers and members of the company with some com- 
forts and luxuries not ordinarily included in the camp 


Oil Sunday. August 19, Company B received tele- 
,ura]»liic' orders to proceed to Camp Shelby, at Hatties- 
hni-'j;, Miss., ou the tV^llo^Yillg• day. Y\'hen it became known 
that the military unit was to start for the training camp, 
a mass meeting- was called in rvushville. and arrange- 
ments hurriedly made for a connnunity dinner to be 
served in the Knights of Pythias hall at noon on the day 
of the company's departure. Delegations were sent into 
every town and community to solicit contributions, and to 
invite the people to partici])ate in the farewell demonstra- 
tion in hoMo]- of the men who were the first in the county 
to answer the call to the colors. The result was a pop- 
ular outpouring, and the soldiers were served with a 
ty])i('al home dinner. Speeches were made and the occa- 
sion was an ai)pr()piiate and impressive expression f)f the 
])re vailing s])irit of i>at]'iotism. 

After tlie dinner the company mai'ched to the court 
house gron.nds, where fai'ewell addresses WTre delivered 
by Judge \Vill M. Sparks and Rev. M. AY. Lyons. The 
officers and members were each presented with a comfort 
kit made by the ladies of the Rush County Chapter of the 
Red Cross. Later the company entrained and a great 
crowd witnessed its de])artuie. After long delay and 
nnicli hard the organizati(m finally landed in 
J'' ranee, but was de])rived of participaticm in active front 
area service l)y the signing of the armistice. It was re- 
turned to llie I'nited States and nuistered out in Januarv 

Tlie !\ush cMu.nty fair grounds at Rushville were used 
as a militai-y camp by Ihe soldiers recruited from the 
county during the Civil war. the Spanish-American war 
and during the Woi-ld war. In 1S9S, it was designated as 
(\ini|i llacklenian. in !M»nor of (icn. Pleasant A. Hackle- 
man, a citizen of Rush county, and the only Indiana gen- 
eral l^illed in battle during the Civil war. "When occupied 
l>y ('ouipaiiy 15, in 1917, the name was changed to (^amp 
\\'(»ire. in lio]'(>r of Col. K. H. Wolfe, a resident of Rush 


county, who also rendered distinguished service for the 
Union during the Civil war. 

American Legion — An immediate outgrowth of the 
war was the organization of the American Legion, which 
is similar in its characteristics and purposes to the Grand 
Army of the Republic. Its membership, which now num- 
bers upward of 1,000,000, is open to any person who saw 
service in the armed forces of the United States during 
the war, and while the organization is yet young, much 
work of a constructive nature has already been accom- 
Xjlished. Among its many objects are the safeguarding 
of the interests of ex-service men, the perpetuation of the 
heroic sacrifices and deeds of the war, the protection of 
national interests, and the stimulation of patriotism. 
Rush Post No. 150, State of Indiana, American Legion, 
was organized in the spring of 1919, with Perry O'Neal 
commander; Robert T. Humes, vice-commander; Clif- 
ford Gottman, adjutant; Thomas Saunders, treasurer, 
and an executive committee of five ; Dr. Lowell j\L Green, 
chairman; Prank Owens, Michael McCoy, Dr. P. H. 
Chadwick, and Carl Kennedy. The executive and finan- 
cial year ends on the last day of the year, and beginning 
with January 1, 1921, the following officers and execu- 
tive committee were elected: Joseph E. Cannon, com- 
mander ; Frank Owens, vice-commander ; John Kennedy, 
second vice-commander; Paul Thorpe, adjutant; Albert 
J. Sweet, treasurer; Hubert Alexander, service officer; 
Robert, Conaway, employment officer; Wilbur Gray, 
chaplain ; Clifford Gottman, historian ; Harry Petry, ath- 
letic officer, and George H. Hogsett, sergeant-at-arms. 
The executive committee is : Dr. Lowell M. Green, chair- 
man; Carl Kennedy, Clarence Meyers, Jerome Caron, 
and Dr. D. D. Dragoo. 

The membership of the post numbers 238, and an 
active interest in both legion and public affairs is being 
taken by the organization. 

There also are vigorous posts of the American Legion 
at Carthage and Milroy, in Rush county. 




Rush foiiiity was one of the first counties in In- 
diana to estahlisli a Red Cross chapter. On April 9, 
1917, three days aftei- war had l)een (h'clai'ed n])on the 
Oei'inan eni]>i]'e. a ])etition was mailed to division head- 
(juartcrs at Cliicauo. which had jui'isdiction over tliis ter- 
ritory, asking' that a ciiarter l)e L!,ra]ited foi- a Rnsh county 
chapter and the charter was issued nine days later. 
Chapter headquarters were opened April 21, at 111 West 
Tliiid street, Rushville. The work room for hospital gar- 
ments and supi)]ies het^an its activities the first week in 
May and the initial meeting- of the first class in surgical 
dressings was held cm May 19, 1917. 

The response by the women of the county to the call 
for workers was generous and enthusiastic, and yielding 
to the ra]>idly growing need for greater floor space, the 
first week in June saw headquarters moved to the more 
conunodious rooms of the Social (^lub at the northeast 
corner of Morgan and Second streets. The executive 
conmiittee later acce])ted an invitation to occu])y the sec- 
ond fh)oi- of the Masonic Temple, and during the last week 
of duly Ik ad(|iiartei's were moved to the new location. 
The exticme cold weather of the winter, and the abnor- 
mal demand foi- fuel, made necessary drastic fuel regula- 
tions tlnoughoul the count ry. Ever^n^vhere fuel conser- 
vation was oi-dered hy the national fuel administrator. 
These conditions suggested the wisdom of again moving 
headquai-teis, and in iJecemher. 1917. the chapter was 
lioused in the court house, wheic no additional fuel was 
needed to heat the rooms occu]tie(l. The Assembly ro(>m 
on the I'iist riooi- was used as head(|iiarters for making 
lutspital gai-ments and su])plies; the counnissioners' court 
room (HI the second fjooi- was opened to the classes in 
suruical di-essiiigs, and the secretary's office was located 
ill the i-ecoi-de)''s office on the second floor. Kach head- 
(|uai-ters locati(»n was used without any rental l)eing 


As soon as the chapter charter was received and the 
central organization completed, requests became numer- 
ous for the organization of auxiliaries throughout the 
county. In response to these requests auxiliaries were in 
operation in all parts of the county within a few weeks. 
The immediate result was the rapid growth in member- 
ship, and a large increase in the output of hospital 

After the organization of the chapter, and the estab- 
lishment of the various auxiliaries, the activities of the 
women of the county did not slacken, their enthusiasm in 
Red Cross work did not abate, and their fidelity to the 
cause made a record for which they deserve the highest 
commendation and praise. A worthy spirit of service 
characterized the auxiliaries and stimulated community 
competition. They vied with each other in the output of 
their workshops and in membership drives and were 
active in raising war funds. In all their endeavors there 
was close co-operation with the central organization, and 
the work of the Red Cross in Rush. county was a most 
gratifying success. 

The workers in some of the townships were especially 
active along certain lines in which they excelled. Ripley 
was the first to organize an auxiliary, a membership of 
over 200 having been reported from that township soon 
after the county chapter was organized. At the end of the 
first year the Washington township auxiliary had a mem- 
bership of 622, which represented seventy-two per cent, of 
the population, eighty-six per cent, of the families, and 
ninety-five per cent, of the resident property ovmers. 
Walker, Union and Noble each had more than one aux- 
iliary, those townships having been subdivided for the 
purpose of facilitating the work. 

At the end of the first year of the Red Cross work in 
the county there were fifteen auxiliaries contributing to 
the output of hospital supplies and knitted articles. The 
production of the workshops of the auxiliaries included 


the following: Shoulder ^Y^aps, bed socks, pajaina suits, 
convalescent cjow^is, knitted sweaters, scarfs, socks, wrist- 
lets, helmets, hemmed sheets, towels, handkerchiefs, pil- 
low cases and comfort kits. 

Activities of Rush County Women — The initiative in 
war activities in Rush county was taken by the women. 
In the organization of the chapter of the American Red 
Gross, and in all subsequent movements they played a 
leading ])art. Before the organization of a military unit 
was completed in the county, the women were engaged in 
the production of hospital supplies, and other articles for 
the comfort and protection of the soldiers, and long before 
an American contingent was sent overseas, the Red Cross 
woi-kshops in the county were tui'uiug out large quanti- 
ties of knitted goods and garments of vai'ious kinds for 
the allied armies iu France. 

As the war jn-ogrcssi'd, and t1ie Amei'ican soldiers 
took their ])la(*cs iu the trenches, the activities of the 
woiueu increased, and the Red Cross worksho])s consti- 
tuted the most imi)ortant industry in the county. They 
produced daily thousands of articles for the comfort of 
the men i]i the cam])s and in the trenches, and in this work 
all of the efficient labor and the executive ability were 
voluntary. No words can fitly describe and adequately 
a])i)raise the value of the woi-k of the women of Rush 
county in the Red Cross, They gave their time day after 
day, regardless of weather conditions, and not counting 
the personal sacrifice. To prepare garments for hos]ntal 
use and bandages and dressings for wounded soldiers was 
a work of su])reme devotion to the cause of humanity, and 
a coutiibiilidii of exalted service to the Government in 
this ciisis. With no thought of money reward but with a 
desire to hel]) the forces of democi'acy in its life and death 
struggle with autocracy, this work was faithfully and 
efficiently carried on by the ])ati-iotic women of Rush 

Women's activities included every movement that 


had for its object the winning of war. In the Liberty 
Loan, in the Y. M. C. A., in the Knights of Columbus, in 
the Red Cross and in the Salvation Army drives for rais- 
ing money, the women participated, and the campaigns 
for greater food production and conservation had the 
active support of the women of Rush county. They 
banded together for effective, concentrated service, and 
the splendid record of the county in war activities was 
due largely to the loyalty, and the industry of the women. 

War Fund Campaigns — Scarcely had the county or- 
ganization been effected when the first campaign for war 
funds was begun. One hundred million dollars was to be 
raised by our Nation for war relief purposes, and of that 
amount Rush county was asked to raise $10,500 during 
the week of June 20 to June 27. The campaign was con- 
ducted with vigor and everjnvhere the appeal for funds 
met with enthusiastic and generous response. Each 
township in the county raised more than its allotment, 
and the total amount for the county reached $22,000, or 
more than double the apportionment. Notable in this 
campaign was the work of Anderson township. Eight 
hundred dollars was asked of this township, but under 
the enthusiastic leadership of its workers, more than 
$4,000 was subscribed, which gave the township first rank 
in the entire state, as the percentage of subscription to 
the allotment exceeded that of any other township in 

A second campaign for war funds was made during 
the week of May 20 to May 27, 1918. Again the people 
of the Nation were asked to' contribute $100,000,000 to the 
American Red Cross, to be used in its work of mercy and 
relief in the camps and cantonments of the United States 
and in the war-torn countries of Europe. The allotment 
of Rush countj^ was $16,000. The quota given to Indiana 
was fifty-four per cent, higher than in the first campaign 
and this fact required a corresponding increase in the 
county quotas. The entire quota for the county was fully 


siibsciil)C(l l»y Tuesday evoiiiug, May 21, the second day 
of the canipaiuii. The solicitors continued the canvass 
and when tlieii* work was completed the total subscrip- 
tions again i-oached the splendid sum of $22,000. 

A part of the war fund was used by the local chapter 
to purchase material for hospital garments, surgical 
dressings and yarn for knitted articles, but the larger 
part was turned over to the national organization, to aid 
in carrying out its colossal ])rogram among our soldiers at 
home and a])road and among the soldiers and civil pop- 
ulation of our allies in this war. Hospital supplies, sur- 
gical dressings, medicines, surgical instruments and all 
needed materials were furnished in almost unlimited 
quantities to the hospitals of our allies. 

The invading German army had driven from their 
homes in Belgium, Northern Fi'ance and Italy many hun- 
dreds of thousands of refugees. To care for these ref- 
ugees — homeless and helpless — became a great problem 
to those countries already overburdened by war. The 
work of the American Red Cross among the civil popula- 
tions was a service beyond any money computation. 

The aid given in reconstructing devastated districts, 
the care of the children, the provisions made for ref- 
ugees, the attention to the sick, brought heart and courage 
to those wai--stricken peoples. Such an expression of 
the American heart to the civil j)o))ulations as well as to 
the soldiers of our alliens renewed the spirit of the nations 
and restoi"ed a s]jlendid morale among the soldiers, more 
than the coming of an American army of many hundreds 
of tlioiisands of men could liave (l(»ne. The wSoldiers of our 
allies needed assurance that their own families would be 
pi'ovided for oi- the vei'V cause for which they were offer- 
ing their own lives would no lougei' exist. And thus the 
(l(»llais given in these campaigns were multi])lied and 
ti'anslate(l into acts of mercy and humanity, and became 
a vasi ront iil)ut ion of material and moral forces to our 


Membership Drive — In December, 1917, a nation- 
wide membership drive was conducted. The time fixed 
was the last week of the month, and was generally called 
the Christmas membership drive. The goal fixed for the 
chapters of the entire nation was 21 per cent, of their re- 
spective populations. Each chapter whose membership 
reached double the quota asked, or 42 per cent, of pop- 
ulation was to be placed on the honor roll. When the 
campaign began, the Red Cross membership of Rush 
county was 3,908, and within a short time after the drive 
more than 9,000 persons were enrolled as members, or 
about 47 per cent, of the county. The success of this mem- 
bershiij campaign entitled the chapter to a certificate of 
honor which certificate was duly issued and now hangs 
on the wall of the office of the secretary. 

Again the townshij^s of the county showed their loy- 
alty to the cause, and by their unity of purpose brought 
great credit to Rush county throughout the state. But 
one county reported a higher percentage of membership. 
Mention should be made of the splendid result of the cam- 
paign in Washington township, where 72 per cent, of the 
population were enrolled as members, the highest record 
of any township in the county. 

Surgical Dressings — On May 19, 1917, eight women 
met to receive instruction in surgical dressings. Three 
members of that first class later became instructors in the 
department. Other teachers were trained and many 
workers volunteered, until at the close of the first year's 
work, the average weekly attendance was 125, and the 
average weekly output 1,200 articles. The total product 
for the year was 26,000 pieces, and tlie quality of the work 
was always high. The Rushville workroom received the 
hearty approval of the state inspector, the quantity of 
work was enormous, the spirit of the workers was excel- 
lent and the directors were capable and devoted. 

Output of Rush County Chapter — The output of the 
Rush county chapter, including the auxiliaries, from the 


tiiiic of tlio or^aiiizatidii in May, 1917, to ^lay 1, 1919, was 
as follows: 

Surgical dressins>:s. 29,936; bed shirts, 2.650; paja- 
mas, 4,112; bath robes, 820; handkerchiefs, 802; bed 
socks, 480; sheets, 818; pillow cases, 2,294; towels, 4,569; 
comfort kits, 300; pro])('rty ])ac:s. 404; pinafores, 423; 
filh'd kits. 250; shirts, 2()0; iindei'vests, 645; iinderdraw- 
ers, 1,(>4(): petticoats, 350; nightgowns, 300; stockings, 
800; comforts, 170; pillows. 175; knitted wash rags, 800; 
shoulder wraps, 195; rag rugs, 155; trench candles, 700; 
sweaters, 1,277; socks. 7,930; helmets, 35; scarfs, 300; 
wristlets, 312 ; total articles, 73,902. 

In addition to the above 6,715 worn garments for 
Belgian and other relief; 1,185 pieces of linen for over- 
seas hospitals and 250 Christmas boxes for Rush county 
soldiers in foreign service were assembled and shipped, 
and later three cases containing 106 complete layettes and 
nine dozen extra undershirts were shipped. The chapter 
registered five Red Cross mirses, fifty -one student nui'ses 
for hospital relief, and fifty nurses for war service, sub- 
ject to call. Ill .Inimary. 1921. a donation of $500 was 
made t(» tlic iMiropean war relief fund. 

Financial utaiemeni of the Rush county Red Cross. 

Oct. 24, 1917 Nov. 10, 1918 Oct. 20, 1919 
to to to 

Nov. 16, 1918 Oct. 20, 1919 Nov. 18, 1920 

Total Rco.ipts iinfl Balance .$20,640.9.'i $16,302.12 $16,184.83 

Materials Purchased 10,045.42 99r).05 596.26 

I'ai.l Wasliiiifxton (Dues) .3,948.00 4,805.3.5 1,627.50 

donation to Natl. Red Cross 5,000.00 

Relief (Flu) 546.50 277.32 

.Miscellaneous, etc 618.67 362.10 

Balance on Hand at End of Period. . 6,028.86 4,,593.12 5,897.83 

War Fund 

Balance October 24, 1917 $ 3,229.80 

First War Fund 6,545.94 

Second \V;ir Fund 20,103.13 

Paid Local Chapter: 

As Donations $3,103.13 

As War Fund 7,050.65 10,153.78 

Paid W. G. McAdoo, Treasurer 19,725.09 



The officers of the Eush county chapter of the American Red Cross are: 
Ernest B. Thomas, chairman; Henrietta Coleman, vice chairman; Lewis M. Sex- 
ton, treasurer, and Mrs. Marian Mauzy Jones, secretary, these being assisted by 
a competent executive board and a board of directors. 

Home Service Committee — The function of the home 
service committee of the Red Cross was to render all 
needed service in the homes and families from which sol- 
diers had gone. The importance of this service continued 
to increase with the progress of the war, as the duties of 
the committee included the providing of employment for 
disabled soldiers, and also embraced reconstruction work 
in the way of vocational training. The opportunity for 
good lay not only in reconstruction work, during and after 
the war, but in the moral support and encouragement 
given to the soldiers through the assurance that their 
families and their personal interests at home have the 
sympathetic, and if need be, the material support of the 
people in the communities from which they had gone. 

Junior Red Cross — During the second year of the 
war, it became the plan to establish Junior Red Cross or- 
ganizations in the schools of the count}^ The purpose, 
briefl^y stated, was to mobilize and utilize the talents of 
the boys and girls, of the young men and women in war 
activities in every practical way. In the sale of Thrift 
Stamps, War Savings Stamps, and Liberty bonds the 
young people of our country, in their total energies, were 
a great power. The school girls received instructions in 
Red Cross sewing and in knitting. Thus the jimior or- 
ganization accomplished a double purj^ose. Through it 
the nation received a direct contribution in the services of 
tlie school children, and a richly compensating return 
came to those engaging in the work, in lessons of practical 

Churches — The church is the foundation upon which 
rests the social structure of the state. It represents spir- 
itual, moral, patriotic and conservative forces, without 
which no nation can long endure. The church is, at all 
times, the most potent factor for good in the community, 


and ill urcat crises, it is a means <>f awakening the national 
eonseieiiee and a.ntusinu- tlie jtatriotie spirit of tlie ]>eo]»le. 
So when the United States entered the AVorhl war, the 
clnnclies of Rnsh county immediately became schools for 
iiisti-iictinii of loyalty, and i-allyini;' centers for patriotic 
L; l-*astors ]n'eached the necessity of jn'ompt 
and concerted action, and their ])ulpits were the forums 
for ])atriotic appeal in questions pertaining to the war. 

}'. M. C. A. — Like many other movements the Y. M. 
C A. organization has ex])anded far beyond the designs 
of those who originated it. New emergencies have cre- 
ated new demands, and so along many lines of activity the 
work has broadened. The coming of the great war pre- 
sented a field of almost limitless opportunity, and a need 
such as had never befoi-e been known. The most expen- 
sive single item in an army is the individual soldier, 
trained and ('(|iu])])ed. and the great problem that every 
coninijinder sought to solve most completely was to bring 
his command to the highest state of efficiency, and then 
1o conserve that efficiency until it couhl he ein])loyed 
against the enemy. There were influences and tendencies 
in army life that tended tremendously towai'd demoraliza- 
tion and the disintegration and destruction of the moral 
qualities which were essential to the greatest efficiency. 
With its specialized equi])ment and highly trained and 
experienced leaders, this great organization, the Y. M. C. 
A., togther with the Knights of Columbus, the Salvation 
Aiiiiy and the Jewish Relief, which co-o])erated and 
shai"ed in llie welfaic W(»ik. was rihle to meet the emer- 
gency, and (lid all that was humanly possible to keep the 
f igiiting men clean and fit. All commanders in the allied 
armies, chief and suboi'dinale, hear strong and willing 
testimony to the inestimable value of the Y. M. C. A. war 
service. Huts bearing on their fronts the sign of the red 
triangle dotted every cantonment and cam}) of the allied 
forces at home and acioss the seas. Almost every regi- 
ment had its \. M. C. A. headiiuartei s wIkm'c writing 


material, books and newspapers were furnished free; 
where music by |)iano and victrola, games, lecture classes 
in different branches, including Bible study, were organ- 
ized and carried on under competent instructors, and 
where entertainments, some got up by the men themselves, 
others by professionals, and religious meetings were held. 
Canteens were provided where articles needed by the men 
and not furnished by the government were on sale at 
cost, and in many other ways the interests of the men 
were cared for. 

Two campaigns were made in Rush county in 1917 
for raising funds by popular subscription for the Y. M. 
C. A. In the first drive the amount subscribed was 
approximately $1,000. In the second. Rush county's 
quota was $7,550, which was exceeded by $1,201, the sub- 
scription amounting to $8,381 to which was added $370, 
earned by the high school boys, making a total of $8,751. 

Knights of Colum bus — In common with other organi- 
zations, Rushville Council, Knights of Columbus, 
responded to the various local calls for patriotic service. 
The members of the order joined with other citizens in 
forgetting fraternal and sectarian lines when the welfare 
of the country was at stake, and took special pride in 
having some small part in every avenue of wartime 
endeavor. But in addition to the varied activities open to 
every loyal organization, the government offered a dis- 
tinct field for splendid opi3ortunity to the Knights of 
Columbus. Indeed this new trust carried such tremen- 
dous responsibilities that it removed this particular 
society from the restricted sphere of fraternalism, and 
constituted it a recognized national welfare association. 
Unfortunately, the constitution of the Y. M. C. A., 
adopted many years ago, denying a voice in its conduct 
of affairs to Catholics and Jews, precluded hope of 
entirely satisfactory ministrations to the essential reli- 
gious needs of a considerable proportion of the young 
men in the camps. None were quicker to observe this dis- 


tressiiiji' situatidii tliaii tlie officials of the Y. ^l. C. A,, 
and tlicy })roniptly amccd to the a])pointiiig of other 
bodies to take onn- the work anion,"- non-Protestant nieii. 
For the Catholies. Seerctary of Wai* Baker sek'cted the 
Kniiihts of Colnnibus. Tlie proportions which this work 
assumed may l)e measni-ed hy tlie statement that tlie 
hud<;('t of the Knights of Colnmhns ( ^amp Fund called for 
an expenditure during the years 1918 and 1919 of 
$30,000,000. In Rush county, a canvass to obtain a quota 
of *;5,000 for the fund was made durinj;- the week of May 
5-12, 1918. Though it was not found possible to visit all 
]iarts of the comity, the sum of $3,750 was secured, and 
the list of subscribers included more than 1,000 names. 

War Activities of the Friends — The Friends church, 
as an organization, has always been opposed to war. but 
as individuals the Friends are intensely loyal. In the 
last, as in jjrevious w^ars, they participated in various 
activities, especially in the Red Cross, Y. ]\[. C. A., K. of 
( '. and other movements for the relief of suffering and the 
uplift (»f humanity. In addition to extensive reconstruc- 
tion work, the Friends estal)lislied hospitals for the bene- 
fit of the civilian population in France, wiiich in many 
places had no otlier means of obtaining medical su])})lies 
or treatment. The I'iiciids in Rush county contributed 
$130 ])er month for this reconstruction work, and Walnut 
Ridge Quai'terly Meeting fui'iiished one volunteer for 
lios|iital service, [n addition to the financial assistance 
given, tlie W(nneii of the chinch engaged in sewing for the 
needy women and childi'eii of Fi-ance, and several hun- 
dred gainients were sent from Rush county to the Friends 
committee store house in IMiiladel])hia, the headcjuarters 
of the American Friends service committee, whence they 
were fc.iwarded in the representative of the committee in 
Ihe war Z(»ne. This conflict again denifmstrated the will- 
ingness of the Fi-iends to engage in war activities along 
humjuiitarian lines, jind to do their ])art in contributing 
to th.e wctrld's iiee<ls in time (d' crisis. 


The Salvation Army — Another organization engaged 
in special relief and welfare work in the army canton- 
ments in the United States and in the war zone in Europe 
was the Salvation Army, which supplemented but did not 
duplicate the work of the Y. M. C. A. and the Knights of 
Columbus. In fact, it rendered service for the soldiers 
that no other society performed, and like those two great 
organizations, the Salvation Army had the endorsement 
of the government. Of the $1,000,000 raised in the Salva- 
tion Army war fund campaign in April, 1918, the sum of 
$320,000 was apportioned for the erection of huts adjacent 
to the cantonments and training centers in the United 
States. The remaining $680,000 was for the building of 
huts at the front, with the American troops, providing 
additional equipment, maintenance, etc., for those in 
charge of the work. A special feature of the service ren- 
dered by this organization was the establishing of 
exchanges where soldiers could exchange soiled and worn 
socks for clean and repaired ones. Rush county's allot- 
ment in the $1,000,000 war fimd drive was $500, which 
was raised by subscription by the officers and members of 
the local Salvation Army corps, assisted by a committee 
appointed by the County Council of Defense. 

Boy Scouts — The activities of the Boy Scouts in the 
World war justified most emphatically the hope and the 
faith of the founders of the organization. In all war 
movements in this county, the Scouts had no small part. 
The khaki-clad figures with manly traits and soldierly 
bearing became familiar indeed in every patriotic parade, 
in escorting departing soldiers, in the distribution of 
important war literature, and especially in the sale of the 
Liberty Loan bonds. There were in Rushville three 
troops of Boy Scouts with an aggregate membership of 
sixty, which were designated as 1, 2 and 3 and were 
identified with Main Street Christian Church, St. Paul 's 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and the First Presbyterian 
Church, respectively. 


FrdtftiKiI Or(/(itiiz(i(iou.s — The Woi-ld war furnished 
a peculiarly a]»])r(>]>riato opportunity for service to the 
mnnerous fi-atcnial oruanizations, which have sjrown to 
i'oini so c<nis}>i('U()Us a feature of Auierican society. To 
the credit of the l(»dues of liusli county, it uuist be said 
that they li rasped the situation clearly, they rose fully to 
the nionieiitous o])])ortuiiity, they remembered tliat their 
rituals are founded (»n ideals of loyalty and heroic sacri- 
fice, and that they liave ample justification for the rii!:ht 
to existence in a Rejtublic. In the lodge room the service 
fla.u" was hun,n" in the ])lace of honor beside the Star 
Spangled Banner and the revered emblem of the organiza- 
tion; in the window the great Red Cross banner with the 
white star in the center proudly proclaimed 100 per cent 
membership in that blessed legion of humanity; Liberty 
l)onds were freely x>^^i'^'li<^i«<^'d; and the various public 
patriotic demonstrations were made possible largely 
through the co-o]jeration of the lodges. The fraternal 
organizations in general deserve a bright page in the story 
<»f Rush county's war activities. 

The number of lodges in the county is so large that 
the limits of this work will not admit individual mention 
of their activities, and it is equally to be regi-etted that 
special notice nia>' not be given to a few of the organiza- 
lioiis whose ])atriotic work was i)ota))ly conspicuous and 
whose unselfish spirit made their endeavoi's doubly grati- 
fviug. 'i'lic lollowing ordeis ni'e represented in the 
c(»unty. some of them having lodge rooms in most of the 
towns in the county: Masonic, Odd Fellows, Knights of 
I'yihias, I'dks, ]^c(\ Men. Maccabees, Modern Woodmen, 
and Ivagles. T\u' Y. M. C. A. and the Knights (»f Colum- 
bus, whicji i-eceived the official endorsement of the gov- 
cniiiient as iclief and welfare organizations, are noticed 
sep.iiately elsewhere. 

PdKf/lih rs of flic Aincrircni Revolution— h\ conmion 
with the other patriotic societies the Rushville chapter 
of the l)aughters of the Ameiican Revolution engaged in 


various war activities. Quantities of knitted goods were 
made by the society, part being sent direct to soldiers in 
the cantonments, the remainder being turned over to the 
Red Cross. A naval auxiliary was organized and a con- 
siderable quantity of knit goods was sent to men on the 
battleship ''Indiana." The chapter supported two 
French orphans, subscribed to the D. A. R. Liberty Loan 
fund and to restoration work, and in general co-operated 
in every way possible with the Red Cross. 

ScJwols — The schools of the county were organized, 
and the interest of the pupils, encouraged and directed 
by the teachers, was shown in their enthusiastic participa- 
tion in all war activities. From the time the United 
States entered the war, the spirit of loyalty was fostered 
by the holding of special meetings in the various grades, 
at which teachers and citizens appealed to the patriotism 
of the pupils, and instructions on the duties and responsi- 
bilities of citizenship were made a part of the regular 
course. Among the special activities in the schools was 
the thrift campaign, in which the teachers emphasized the 
value of saving, explaining the means by which pupils 
might assist in financing the war and directing them 
particularly to invest in thrift stamps. The girls learned 
to sew, and studied methods of meeting the government's 
food regulations, while the bo3^s interested themselves in 
useful occupations, in studying the agricultural and 
industrial needs of the community, and in raising money 
for war funds and charitable purposes. 

Government Control— One of the results of the war 
was the radical change in the policy of the government in 
regard to the administration of railways, and the control 
of prices of fuel and food supplies. The advance in price 
of raw materials, general increase in wages, difficulties in 
the maintenance of adequate transportation facilities, 
lack of proper distribution, the abnormal demand for 
certain classes of goods, and the competition of the gov- 
ernment with manufacturers and merchants in the 


markets of llic country, created a disturbed condition of 
trade, resulting- in a material advance in the price of 
almost vxvvy connnodity. This increase in the cost of 
practically cNcrythin^ that entered into the life of the 
people, encouraged profiteering and impositions on the 
])nrt of some manufacturers and dealei'S. By combina- 
tions in trade, i-estrictions in production, and the hoai'ding 
of supplies, prices advanced to a point where it was diffi- 
cult for ]iersons of limited income to secui-e the necessities 
of life. 

To prevent impositions by unscrupidous and unpa- 
triotic individuals, to regulate pi'ices better, and in order 
to control the distril)ution of fuel and food prices, legisla- 
tion was enacted giving the President power to take over 
and o])erate the I'ailways of the country, and also to estab- 
lish the i)rices of coal and wheat, and, as a means of con- 
serving the food supplies, to restrict the sale, and limit 
tlic (M)nsum])tion of many articles required for ex])ort. 

Wlieatless and meatless days were established by 
Older of the national food administrator prohibiting the 
use of those articles (m certain days. The restricti(m thus 
imposed was genej-ally observed, and with little com])laint 
from a people who have always enjoyed unusual liberties, 
and who have been prone to resent interference with 
their })ersonal affairs. These Government regulations 
resulted in i-adical changes in the custcmis, habits and 
ideas of the people. S(»lfishness was less apparent, 
patriotism was revived, the national conscience was 
awakened, economy was pi'acticed, industry was stinui- 
lated, and the moial courage of the people thoroughly 

Food A<lniinis/rafi(>n—'rhv food conti'ol law, enacted 
by Congi-ess on August 10, 1917, was a war measure 
designed to add to the secui'ity and (hd'ense of the nation 
by encouraging the ])i(>du<'tion, conserving tlie supply 
and (listiihution of food stuffs. Under the authority of 
this law, Ileihert Hoover was appointed national food 


administrator with almost unlimited power. Mr. Hoover 
called to his assistance food experts from different parts 
of the country, and through them effected an organization 
extending into ever}^ state and county in the Union. 

The food administration was chiefly a volunteer 
organization, created at a time of national stress, to aid 
in solving one of the greatest problems confronting the 
Nation in this world crisis. The aim was to eliminate 
speculation, extortion and wasteful practices ; to stabilize 
prices and to stimulate in every i^ossible manner the 
production and saving of food. On recommendation of 
the County Council of Defense, M. F. Lovett, of Carthage, 
was appointed food administrator of Rush county on 
November 22, 1917. He was charged with the enforce- 
ment and the regulations of the national food administra- 
tion, within the county. Five deputy food administrators 
were appointed in the county. There was very general 
co-operation with the requirements of the food adminis- 
tration, many families doing much more than was asked. 
There was actual saving of food over prewar times in 
every home in Rush county, the citizens thus showing 
their loyalty to the country, their devotion to its institu- 
tions and proper regard for the observance of the law. 

Fuel Administration — Was inaugurated in the 
winter of 1917-18, for the purpose of obviating a "buyer's 
market" in which buyers bid against each other to get 
coal from an insufficient supply. This condition resulted 
from the failure of consumers, who followed the recom- 
mendation of the national fuel administrator, to lay in 
supplies for the winter, during the previous summer 
period. On August 23, 1917, President Wilson appointed 
Dr. Harry A. Garfield United States fuel administra- 
tor. In October, Evans Woollen, of Indianapolis, was 
appointed administrator for Indiana, and on November 
1, 1917, upon the recommendation of the County Council 
of Defense, Samuel L. Trabue was appointed fuel admin- 
istrator of Rush county. 



The ]nt»1)l('iH was to deal cqiiitahly with a shortage of 
coal. Tlio local coiulitions were met by co-operation 
between the fuel administrator, the dealers, and the 
eitizeiis of the eoniity. This, togethei- with thonghtful 
conservation, rcduc-ed the snffering and inconvenience to 
the miitimnm. For sixty days the thei'mometer remained 
below zero most of the time, the eoklest pei'iod being on 
Jannary 20, 191 S, wheii the mercury fell to 21 degrees 
below zero, the lowest temperature recorded in the county 
for tliirty-four years. I'he snow Avas ai>proximately 
twenty inches deep iii Jannary, and railroad traffic was 
sei-iou.sly crippk^d for prolonged ])eriods. It became 
necessary to confiscate coal in Rusln-ille, to relieve suffer- 
ing in several hundred families who WTre unable to 
procure fuel. 

Because of the serious shortage and the severe cold 
weather, Fuel Administrator Trabue promulgated orders 
limiting the hours of heating business houses and public 
lighting. The business men and citizens submitted to the 
strict orders without serious complaint, each inspired by 
the spirit of loyalty and patriotism which prompted them 
to place the good of the conununity and of the country 
above individual interests. 

Count)! Council of Defense — That the country might 
be thoroughly organized for defensive war pur]ioses, a 
national Council of Defense was created with headquai'- 
tersat \Vashington. Sidisidiai-y lo tliis. each state formed 
its own (\iuneil of ]>etense, and Indiana was the first to 
extend this organization to the counties until evei'y countv 
ill the sta.te had its se))aiate council. Roland B. Hill. 
Klmei' Hutchinson, Mrs. (\na Stewart, A. L. (rary, Bert 
F>. Feimer, ImIsou L. .Aiken and Charles T. Havis were 
a|i])">ii;l('(l by the judge of the circuit court to be known 
as the Rush ( 'ounty < 'ouiicij of Defense. The council 
organized by electing A. L. (hiry. of Uushville, chairman, 
and Mrs. Cora M. Stewart, secretaiy. The organization 
was completed by the a])])oi7itn!ent of committees and 


heads of departments for the local war service. Mr. Gary 
resigned the chairmanship in February, 1918, and Thomas 
M. Green, of Rnshville, was elected chairman. The pur- 
pose of the county council was to keep the state council 
informed of any pro-German activities in the community, 
to see that the government's orders for dismantling wire- 
less stations were obeyed; to eliminate slackers in all 
industries and to assist in promoting war relief move- 
ments and to participate in all other activities endorsed 
by the state or national Council of Defense. Its further 
dut}^ was to disseminate patriotic ideas and to see that the 
people of the county did not forget that the country was 
at war. 

Permanent County Organization — On March 6, 1918, 
eleven months after the United States entered the w^ar, a 
general meeting of the representative citizens of the 
various townships was held at the court house in Rush- 
ville for the purpose of effecting a permanent county 
organization for war activities. The plan of organization 
adopted, and subsequently put into operation, provided 
for a central executive committee of five members who 
had the direction of, and took the initiative in all war 
endeavors in the county. Each township had an executive 
committee of three, the chairmen of which constituted an 
advisory board to the central committee. The organiza- 
tion in each township was under the direction of its execu- 
tive committee which had charge of all campaigns for the 
raising of funds, and other phases of war work. The 
purpose of the county organization was to secure co-or- 
dination of work, to centralize control, to secure a more 
effective service by conserving the energies of the people 
and the resources of the county, to avoid duplication and 
to prevent the necessity of a new organization for each 
campaign. The organization was a most efficient agency 
of leadership in each war campaign. 

Following are the names of the county executive 
committee: Thomas M. Green, chairman of the County 


Council of Defense ; E. B, Thomas, chairman of the Rush 
county chapter of the Red Cross; ]\L F. Lovett, food 
administrator; Samuel Tj. Trabue, fuel administi'ator ; 
and Airs. Cora ^!. Stewart, head of the women's work 
of the Council of Defense. In addition to this central 
committee thc^-e was one of three members each from 
every township. 

Liberty Bond Sales — In the financing of the war, the 
record of the people of Rush county in buyinc^ liibei'ty 
bonds, as well as in all other branches of war work, was 
enviable. What in ordinary times would have been con- 
sidered amounts almost impossible to raise by any means, 
were cheerfully subscribed and oversubscribed. The first 
Liberty loan allotment for the county was $337,360, and 
this amount was oversubscribed by $25,140, the total being 
$362,500. It was ap])ortioned on a basis of 8 per cent 
bank resources m the (bounty, while the second loaii, called 
for in October, 1917, was allotted on double this basis. 
The amount called for was $994,000, and the amount sub- 
scribed was $1,000,050, or an oversubscription of $56,050. 
In the third Liberty loan there was an oversubscription 
of moi-e than 50 ])er cent, the allotment being $495,000, 
and tlie amount raised, $750,000. In this loan an auxil- 
iary committee composed of women was added to the 
i-egular organization, and this committee sold l)onds to 
the amount of $188,500, The quota for the county in the 
fourth Liberty loan was $1,100,000 and this was oversub- 
scribed, the total raised having ])een $1,184,300. The fifth 
or \'ictory hxin demanded $825,000 fj-om the county, and 
the people lesimnded bv buving bonds in the amount of 

Tn all cases the bonds were handled through the banks 
of the county, bu.t a thorough canvass of the people was 
made in each instance. 

War Snv{)}(/s Sfnw i>s (uul T/iriff Sffitiips Ca)n /ufifjns 
— The l)uyinn- of W'ai- Savings Stamps and Thrift Stamps 
on the pa it (d* tlie people showed that the meaning of the 


war had been brought home to them ; that they realized 
that without economy the best interests of the country at 
war would not be served, and when these stamps were 
placed for sale through the postof fice, they were quickly 
bought up. In the schools the pupils were taught the 
principles and meaning of thrift, and in many of the 
schools the children were 100 per cent buyers of stamps. 
The system of war stamps originated in England, and 
hence the value of the War Savings Stamp was practically 
equivalent to the English pound and that of the Thrift 
Stamp to the shilling. The people realized that these 
stamps offered the best investment in government paper, 
and were not slow to take them up. In Rush county the 
quota of stamps was $386,700, and as was the case with 
the Liberty bonds the quota was oversubscribed, $438,000 
worth, in round figures, being bought. 


County Organization and Government 

After Indiana was admitted to the Union, in 1816, a 
great tide of innHigiation Ix-gan to enter it from tlie south 
and east. The southein part of the state was raj^idly 
setth'd, tlie newcomers ])nshing np the soutlierly flowing 
streams, following the lines of navigation in so far as 
possible. The Whitewater ^•alley was settled quickly, and 
there arose a demand for a new eounty west of Franklin 
a.nd Fayette counties. To satisfy this demand the state 
legislatui'c, in l'-!21, ])assed the enabling act organizing 
Rush cou]ity. Tlicic were four sections to this act, as 
follows : 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of 
the state of Indiana: That from and after the first day 
of April, next, all that part of the county of Delaware 
contained within the following bounds, shall form and 
constitute a new county, viz : Beginning at the southwest 
corner of section 27, in township 12, north of range 8 east, 
of the second principal mei'idian; thence east eighteen 
miles to the southeast corner of section 28, in townshij) 12, 
north of range 11 east; thence north to the line dividing 
townshi])S 15 and K); thence west eighteen miles to the 
northwest corner of section )>, in townshi]) 1"), north of 
laiige S; thence south to the ])lace of beginning. 

Section 2. The said new county shall be known and 
(lesiuiia1e(l hy the name and style of Rush. * * * 

Section ;*). Ikobert ]>uce, of Franklin county, James 
Delaney, of Bartholomew county. Train Caldwell, of 
Fayette county, Samuel Jack, of Washington county, and 
Moses llilecock, of Dearboi'u county, are hereby 
ap])ointed commissioners agreeably to the act entitled, 
"an act for fixing of seats of justice in all new counties 



hereafter to be laid off." The said commissioners shall 
meet at the house of Stephen Sims in the said county of 
Rush, on the first Monday in June next, and shall immed- 
iately proceed to discharge the duties assigned them by 
law. [Note. The Sims house, one of the first to be 
erected in this region, stood on what now long has been 
kno\\m as the Prazee farm, south of the present city of 

Section 4. The circuit courts and all other courts 
of county of Rush, shall be held at the house of Stephen 
Sims aforesaid, until suitable accommodations can be 
had at the seat of justice for said county. 

This act shall he in force from and after the first 
day of April, 1822. 

Samuel Milroy, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, 

Ratliff Boon, 
President of Senate. 
Approved December 31, 1821. 

Jonathan Jennings, Governor. 

The bounds of the county, as specified by the enabling 
act, were surveyed and laid out by Dr. William B. 
Laughlin, at whose suggestion and through whose influ- 
ence the county Avas named in honor of the celebi'ated 
physician of Philadelphia, Dr. Benjamin Rush. Doctor 
Laughlin had been a pupil of Doctor Rush and was his 
devoted friend. He became a Government surveyor b}^ 
choice, liking the freedom of the open spaces, and with 
the assistance of his sons. Cicero and Harmony, and a 
party of engineers "ran the lines" not only of Rush 
county, but of a goodly portion of the territory round 
about. Of Doctor Laughlin it has been said that he was 
a man of fine classical education, of firm religious prin- 
ciples and of delicate and refined moral perceptions. 
These qualities marked him out as a leader in all good 
works, and contributed largely in giving to the community 
he assisted in organizing a high and moral tone and 


coiTcct ctliiccil standards. He was devoted to the cause 
of ediic<ition, and, in 1828, opened a classical academy for 
instruction in the liic'lier branches of education. He 
erected at his own, on his own ground, a two-story 
frame building for this purpose, ^[any men who took an 
important part in the early development of the county 
were greatly benefited by Doctor Laughlin. 


In accordance with the law^ for the formation of the 
county, the commissioners met at the home of Jehu 
Perkins (m April 1, 1822, in accordance with their legal 
appointment. Tlieir first act was to divide the county 
into six townships, Union, Ripley, Noble, Washington, 
Richland, and Orange, with boundaries as follows: 

rnion — Beginning at the northeast corner of section 
4. township 15, range 11 ; running thence west to the 
northwest corner of township 15, range 10; thence south 
to the southwest corner of township 14, range 10; thence 
east to tlie southeast corner of section 33, townshij) 14, 
range 11 ; tlience iioi-tli to tlie place of beginning, making 
this township iiijie miles east and west and twelve miles 
no)-tli and south, in the northwest coi-ner of the county. 

liijiJcil — Beginninu' at llic nortliwest corner of Union 
townslii]); running thence west to the ncnUiwest corner 
of section 3, township 15, range 8; thence south to the 
southwest corner of section 34, township 14, range 8; 
thence east to the southwest coi-ner of Union township; 
thence north to the ])lace of l)eginiiing, this townshi]* tluis 
having been nine miles east and west and twelve miles 
noitli ajid soutli in the nortliwest corner of the county. 

\()h]( — IJeginning at the southeast corner of Union 
townslii]); I'unning thence to llic nortluvest corner of 
section 3,, townsliip 13, i-ange 10; thence south to the south- 
west corner of section 34, township 13, range 10; thence 
east to tlie southeast corner of section 33, township 13. 
I'ange 11 : tiiciicc north to the place of beginning, making 


this township six miles east and west and six miles north 
and south, lying south of Union. 

W asJiington — Beginning at the northwest corner of 
Noble township; running thence west to the southwest 
corner of Ripley township ; thence south to the southwest 
corner of section 34, township 13, range 8 ; thence east to 
the southwest corner of Noble township ; thence north to 
the place of beginning, making this township twelve miles 
east and west and six miles north and south, lying south 
of Ripley. 

Bichland — Beginning at the southeast corner of 
Noble township; running thence west to the northwest 
corner of township 12, range 10 ; thence south to the south- 
west corner of section 30, township 12, range 10 ; thence 
east to the southeast corner of section 28, township 12, 
range 11; thence north to the place of beginning, this 
township thus being nine miles east and west and five 
miles north and south, in the southeast corner of the 

Orange — Beginning at the northwest corner of Rich- 
land township; running thence west to the northwest 
corner of section 3, township 12, range 8 ; thence south to 
the southwest corner of section 27, township 12, range 8 ; 
thence east to the southwest corner of Richland township ; 
thence north to the place of beginning, making this town- 
ship nine miles east and west and five miles north and 
south, in the southwest coi'ner of the county. 


As the population of the county increased, and those 
in charge of its government became more conversant with 
their duties, it became apparent that for the better admin- 
istration of county business more townships than these 
original six were necessary. Seven townships, Green, 
Rushville, Walker, Center, Jackson, Anderson and Posey, 
were added from time to time until 1830, as follows : 

Green — (Organized February 12, 1823) — Beginning 


;it the southwest ('(.riu'r of section 19, range 10, township 
14; thence east to the halt'-niile stake on the line dividing 
sections 22 and 27: tlieiiee south to the half-mile stake on 
ihe line dividing sections 10 and ]•') in range 10, township 
i;>; thence west to tlie county line: thence north on the 
county line to the northwest corner of section 15, range 
8, township 14; thence east to the southwest corner of 
section 7, township 14, range 10 ; thence south to the place 
of begiiuiing. 

7j^/.s7/r///t'— (Oi'ganized August 11, 1823)— Begin- 
ning at the northwest corner of section 15, township 14, 
range 8; thence to the half-mile stake on the line dividing 
se(*tions 10 and 15, township 14, range 10: thence south to 
lie half-mile stake on the line dividing sections 10 and 15- 
in township 13, range 10; thence west one-half mile; 
tlieiice south to the southeast corner of section 33, town- 
shi]) 13, range 10; thence west to the southwest corner of 
section 31, in said town and I'ange; thence 7iorth. one mile 
and half: thence west to the county line, theiice r.orth to 
the ]ilace of hegimiing. 

Wiilker — (Organized March 6, 1826) — Commencing 
at the northwest cornei" of section 15, townshi]) 13, range 
S; thence south to the half mile stake on the west side of 
sectio]) 27 ill said range and townshi]) ; thence east thiougli 
the ceiiter of sections to the half-mile stake on the east 
side of section 28, townshi]) 13, i-ange 9; thence north to 
the corner of s(-ction 1(), township 14, range 9; 
tlicnce west to the jilace of hegimiing. 

Tr/z/rr— (Organized January 4, IS:)!)) — Beginning 
at tlic south line of Rush county, at the nortlieast corner 
of section 4, township 15, range 10; thence south by said 
section line to the soutlieast corner of section 33; thence 
west on s.iid tctwnsliiji line iietween 14 and 15 to the south- 
west coriiei- of section 3)1. townshi]) 15, range 9; thence 
noitli oi« said lijie to the northwest <'()rner of section 3; 
thence on said county line to the ])lace of beginning. 

Jti, ■/:.•<(, II — (Organized August 18, 1830) — Beginning 


at the northeast corner of section 6, township 14, range 
10 ; thence west to the northwest corner of section 5, town- 
ship 14, range 9 ; thence south to the southwest corner of 
section 20, township 14, range 9 ; thence east to the south- 
east corner of section 19, township 14, range 10; thence 
north to the place of beginning. 

Anderson — (Organized >:ovember 9, 1830) — Begin- 
ning at the corner of sections 27 and 28, township 12, 
range 9, on the line of Decatur county ; thence north to the 
line dividing Rushville and Orange townships; thence 
east to the northeast corner of section 32, township 13, 
range 10 ; thence south to the county line ; thence west to 
the place of beginning. 

Posey — Beginning at the west line of Rush county at 
the southwest corner of section 34, township 14, range 8 ; 
thence north along the county line to where said line inter- 
sects the congressional township line dividing congres- 
sional townshii3s 14 and 15 ; thence east along said congres- 
sional township line to the northeast corner of section 4, 
township 14, range 9 ; thence south to the southeast corner 
of section 33, same township and range; thence west to 
where the line intersects the boundary line of said county 
at the place of beginning. 


The county retained the townships in this form until 
March 8, 1859, when the board of county commissioners 
remodeled the civil townships and prescribed their boun- 
daries as follows, to make twelve townships, the thir- 
teenth. Green, being dropped : 

Rushville — Beginning on the northern line of section 
27, township 14, range 10 east in the center of said section ; 
thence south along the half section line dividing sections 
27, 34, 3 and 10 south to the south line of section 10, town- 
ship 13, range 10, in the center between the east and west 
corner of section 10 ; thence west to the northeast corner 
of section 16, township 13. range 10 ; thence south to the 


southeast corner of section 28, township 13, ran^e 10; 
tlience west on a parallel line to the southeast corner of 
Walker township at the southwest corner of section 27, 
to\^^lship l)-. ran.5i:e 9; thence north along the west line of 
Walker township to the northwest corner of section 3, 
township 13, i-anue 9 ; thence north to the northwest corner 
of section 27, township 14, range 9; thence due east to the 

WasJiiuf/fou — Beginning o^i the northerly line of the 
coujity where the section line dividing sections 3 and 4, 
township 15. range 11, intersects said line; thence west 
ah»ng said county line until it intersects with the section 
lin.e dividing sections 3 and 4 in said township and range 
10; thence south along said last named section line to the 
southwest corner of section 34, township 14, range 10 east ; 
tlience east on a parallel line to the boundary line between 
Fayette and Rush counties; thence north along said line 
to the place of beginning. 

Walker — Beginning at the southeast corner of sec- 
tion 28, township 13, range 9, at the sou.thwest corner of 
Rushville t(miiship; thence north along the west line of 
Rushville t(mi]ship to where same intersects the congi'es- 
sional township line dividing townships 13 and 14; thence 
west along the south line of Posey township to where said 
line intersects the line dividing Rush and Shelby counties ; 
tlnnce south along said line to the southwest corner of 
section 27. townshij) 13, range 8; thence east along the 
northern line of Oraimc townshi]i to the place of begin- 

I!ij>l('!) — Beginning on the northern line of the county 
at tile northwest cf>rner of Center towiisliip, the northeast 
corner of scclion 4, township 15, range 9; thence west 
along the (MMiiity line of said county to where same inter- 
sects the line dividing Hush and Hancock counties at the 
nortliwcst corner of Iiush county; thence south to the 
t(twnslii)i line (li\i(liiig sections 14 and 15; thence east 
aloi'g said last named line to the southeast corner of sec- 


tion 33, township 15, range 9; thence north on the west 
line of Center township to the place of beginning. 

BicMand — Beginning on the east line of Rush county 
at the southeast corner of section 28, township 12, range 
11 ; thence north on the line dividing Rush and Franklin 
counties to the congressional township line dividing town- 
ships 12 and 13 ; thence west on said townshii? line to the 
northwest corner of section 3, township 12, range 10; 
thence south on a straight line to where the same inter- 
sects the line dividing Rush and Decatur counties at the 
southwest corner of section 27, township 12, range 10; 
thence east along the count}^ line to the place of beginning. 

Center — Beginning on the northern line of Rush 
county at the northeast corner of section 4, township 15, 
range 10; thence west with the said county line to the 
northwest corner of section 3, township 15, range 9; 
thence south to the line dividing townships 14 and 15; 
thence east along said congressional township line to the 
southeast corner of section 33, township 15, range 10 east ; 
thence north with the line of Washington township to the 
place of beginning. 

Jackson — Beginning on the township line dividing 
townships 14 and 15 at the northeast corner of section 4, 
township 14, range 10; thence west along said township 
line to the northwest corner of section 3, township 14, 
range 9 ; thence south to the southwest corner of section 22 
in said last named township and range ; thence east to the 
southeast corner of section 21, township 14, range 10; 
thence north on a line to the beginning. 

Anderson — Beginning on the southern line of the 
county of Rush where the line dividing sections 27 and 
28, township 12, range 10 south, intersects the same; 
thence west with the county line to the line dividing sec- 
tions 27 and 28, township 12, range 9 ; thence north with 
said line to the northwest corner of section 3, in the same 
township and range-; thence- west to the southwest corner 
of section 34 in township 13, range 9 ; thence north with 


tilt' west liiK' to the iioi'tliwest corner of said section M\ 
thence due east to a ]toint wliere the section line intersects 
the lialfway line dividing- range 10, at the northeast corner 
of section 33, township 13, range 9, north; thence south 
along said lialfway line (iixidiiig range 10 to the plnce of 

(iiioi! — Beginning on the line dividing the counties 
of Rusli and Fayette at a point where the congressional 
township line dividing townships 14 and 15 intersects 
said line; thence west along the southei'n line of A\'ash- 
ington townshij* to the northwest corner of section 3, 
to\A^iship 14, range 10; thence due south to the soutlieast 
coriKi' of section 22, township 14, lange 10; thence east to 
the center of said section: thence south to the congres- 
sitmal townshi]) line dividing congressional townshi])S 13 
and 14; thence east along said townshij) line to where the 
same intersects the line dividing the counties of Rush and 
Fayette; thence .-ilong the county line to the ]>l:u'e of 

Orange — Beginning at the southwest corner of the 
county on the boundary line between Rush and Shelby 
counties; thence north along the said line to the northwest 
corner of section 34, to^\aiship 13, range 8 ; thence east to 
the range line dividing ranges 8 and 9; thence south with 
said range line to the northwest corner of section 31, 
t(twnship 13, range 9; thence east along the northern line 
of sections 31, 32 and 33) to where said line intersects the 
western line of Andei'son township; thence soutli along 
the westei'n line of vVnderson township to the southern 
Hue of said county of Rush ; thence west along the county 
line to the place of beginning. 

Poscji — r>egi]ining on the western line of said county 
at the southwest eornei- of section ;U, townshi]) 14, range 
8; thence north along the county line to where the said 
line intersects the township line dividing townshi])S 14 and 
15: the}'ce east along said townshi]) line to the northeast 
corner of section 4, township 14, range 9; thence south to 


the southeast corner of section 33, same township and 
range, thence west to where the line intersects the bound- 
ary line of said county at the place of beginning. 

To those familiar with the township map of the 
county the "jogs" in the line separating Jackson and 
Union townships and the lines separating Rushville town- 
ship from Union and Nol)le townships may appear inex- 
plicable at this date and no doubt many have been the 
inquiries as to the reasons which actuated the commis- 
sioners in thus apportioning the townships in question. 
These "jogs" were created for purely personal reasons 
to gratify the wishes of certain landowners in Union 
township to have their lands listed in Jackson township 
and of certain landowners in Rushville township to be 
similarly listed in Noble township and it was thus that 
the labors of the mapmakers were increased after the 
apportionment of 1859. 


The first election held in the county w^as on April 
27, 1822, the commissioners having ordered an election to 
be held in each of the six original townships for the pur- 
pose of electing two justices of the peace from each town- 
ship. The polling places were designated, as well as 
inspector for each, as follows: Noble township, at the 
house of Thomas Sailor, Richard Hackleman, inspector; 
Richland township, at the house of Manes Henderson, 
Jesse Morgan, inspector; Orange to^mship, at the house 
of Reuben Farlow, Charles Fullin, inspector; Union 
township, at the house of Richard Blackledge, George 
Hittle, inspector ; Washington township, at the house of 
Richard Thornbury, John Lower, inspector ; Riplej^ town- 
ship, at the house of John Montgomery, i\[ontgomery 
McCalb, inspector. At their first meeting, the commis- 
sioners made further appointments and regulations. 
Superintendents for the school section (section 16) in 
each of the seven original townships, and the men 


appointed to act in tlu'ir respective townships, were Sam- 
uel Dannei', Henry Sadoras, George Taylor, Christian 
riynier, P. H, Patterson. John Parker, and Xathan 
Julian. James McManis was a})pointed to be the first 
county treasurer, and the first allowance out of the treas- 
ury was made at the second meeting when Benjamin 
Sailors was allowed $25 for listing the property of the 
county for the year 1825, he being appointed lister of 
property. The question of roads also came up at the 
first meeting of the commissioners and three road review- 
ers were named, J. I). Conde, Jacob 01 dinger, and John 

The second meeting of the commissioners was held 
at the house of John Lower on May 10, 1822, and property 
assessments were the most important business transacted. 
These were fixed for the year as follows: On each male 
over twenty-one years of age, 50 cents; for every horse, 
mare, mule or ass, over three years old, 371/2 cents; every 
yoke of oxen, over three years old, 25 cents per head; 
every four-wheel pleasure carriage, etc., $1.25; every two- 
wheel carriage, $1.00; every gold watch, 50 cents; every 
silver watch, 20 cents. At this meeting tavern rates were 
fixc^l at what now seem to have been coinparativel}' low 
figui'es, for exam])l(', whisky, half ])int, 121/2 cents; meals, 
25 cents; bed GVi cents: corn or oats, V2V2 cents a gallon; 
horse standing at hay over night, 18';4 cents. 

At a special meeting of the board of commissioners 
held on June IT, 1822, at the house of Dr. William B. 
Ijaughlin, the comiuissioners a])})ointed by the enabling 
act fixed the seat of Justice at Rushville, and Conrad 
Sailors was a])])ointed county agent. He was instructed 
to lay the land donated off into town lots, and to advertise 
their sale in the Indianapolis and Brookville pa])ers for 
July 29, 1S22. The town was named Rusliville in honor 
of Dr. Benjamin Rush, as was the county, and the plan 
of the plat was to be the same as that of (Jonnersville, in 
the neighboi'ing count}^ of Fayette, but with one addi- 



tional street to pass the public square ; this latter clause, 
by the way, ever having been regarded, as quite an 
improvement over the plan of Connersville and as a 
decided advantage in thus giving access to the court house 
from four sides instead of but three. The public square 
was to be placed on or near the line dividing sections 5 
and 6, township 13, range 10 east. The commissioners 
were allowed $97 for their services. The order for the 
clearing of the public square and the adjacent streets is as 
follows : 

"Conrad Sailors, Agent, Rush county. Order to 
clear Public Square and adjoining streets. 

' ' State of Indiana, Rush County, ss. 

"To the Agent of Rush county, greeting: You are 
hereby commanded to sell out to the lowest bidder the 
public square in Rushville and the adjoining streets, for 
the purpose of clearing and removing all timber, under- 
wood and Inrush of whatsoever nature. You shall also 
bind the undertaker in a bond, with security for the faith- 
ful performance of his contract ; the same to be completed 
before the last day of January next. You will give two 
weeks notice of said sale — the sale to commence on the 
first Saturday in December next. By order of the Board 
of Rush County Commissioners. 

R. Thompson, Clerk. 
Witness : Robert Thompson, this 20th day of November, 


While court and commissioners' meetings were for a 
few years held in the houses of private citizens, which 
could readily accommodate them at first, there was 
immediate necessity for a jail in which to confine male- 
factors and debtors, and steps were accordingly taken to 
build one. This first jail was built by Richard Hackle- 
man and was accepted by the commissioners at their 
November meeting in 1823. It was a two-story structure^ 



ci^ht feet hctweoii the t'loois, and was built of hewed 
timbers, one foot square. It stood 14x18 feet on the 
j^round, was lined on the first floor with two-inch ])lanks, 
and the entrance was closed with iron shutters made of iron bars. 

In tile year 1824, the state legislature abolished the 
office of county commissioner, and in its stead created 
a board (;f justices, composed of one justice from each 
township. In accordance with this law, a board of justices 
was elected, as follows: William P. Priest, E. Leach, 
Amos Baldwin, Baton Halloway, Klisha Scoville, Daniel 
Cox, Richard Blackledge. Thomas Sailor, and Stephen 
Sims. But it was soon seen that this system of county 
government was not as ju-actical as the board of county 
commissioners, and after it had operated for four years, 
was al)olished by law in 1828, the counties going back to 
their old management. 

In November, 1826, after having been three years in 
the process of construction, the first court house was 
completed. It was a two-story brick building with twenty- 
two inch walls. The first stoiy was eighteen feet high, 
and the second, fourteen feet, the lower being divided into 
court and jui'v i-oonis, while the u]i])er floor was divided 
into thice I'oonis used foi- the county offices. Tlie wiiole 
building was surmounted by a cu])ola, and was built by 
Reynold Cory at a cost of about $2,500. 

The fii'st court house and the first jail served the 
needs of the county for ab(>ut twenty years, but at the end 
of that time neithei- was adeciuate. and steps wei'e taken 
to build new ones. The jail was declared unsafe at the 
June term of tlie circuit court. 1845, and Royal P. Cobb 
was given a contract for the cicctioii of a new prison and 
jailer's i-esidence for the suiu of $3,250. It was built on 
the east side of the ])ublic s(|u;ii-e. was made of stone, and 
was 20x20 feet and two stoiies higli. The floors were 
laid of cut stone ten iiidics thick. ;ni(l in addition the lower 
I'oom w<ts covci'cd with siiect ii-oii and the windows closed 


by heavy iron bars. The third jail, completed in 1862, 
is still in use bnt has undergone considerable expensive 
remodeling since its erection. Its original cost was 


Rush county's present prideful court house, widely 
recognized as one of the most adequate and beautiful 
public buildings in Indiana, was completed in 1898 and 
has in many ways confirmed the judgment of the commis- 
sioners who contracted for its erection. But in the 
interim between the erection of this fine modern edifice 
and the first modest court house, erected at a cost of $2,- 
500, as noted above, there was a second court house which 
long served the needs of the county; for nearly half a 
century the life and the affairs of Rush county centered 
in it, a real community civic center. 

The little old court house in which the county's busi- 
ness first was transacted stood the test of the times for 
about twenty years, at the end of which time the need of a 
new court house began to be agitated throughout the 
county. At a special term of the commissioners' court 
held on January 15, 1846, the board listened to arguments 
by county officials and leading citizens and arrived at a 
decision to erect a new court house. John L. Robinson, 
then county clerk, was authorized to secure plans and 
specifications from John Elder, an Indianapolis archi- 
tect, for a brick court house 50x80 feet, two stories in 
height, and at the succeeding March term j\ir. Elder was 
given the contract at a stipulated figure of $12,000. The 
edifice was completed in March, 1848, and as noted above 
this building constituted for nearly fifty years the 
county's civic center. No better tribute of memory to this 
historic old building can be paid than that paid by the 
late John F. Moses, of excellent memory, who years ago 
wrote concerning it : ''The old court room has echoed the 
voices of many eminent men and numerous notable trials 


were fought out there. It was the asseinl)ly room of the 
ctmiity and meetings of all kinds — religious, politieal, 
social, literary, nnisical, agricultural — were held in it. 
Questions of puhlic interest were debated there. It wit- 
nessed many of the touching scenes of the war time, and 
after the wa]*, at many a 'campfire,' stories of camp and 
battle moved the gathered crowds by turns to laughter 
and tears." The old court house, standing in the midst of 
a cluster of trees and sui'rounded by its iron fence and 
hitchrack, was a feature of tlie town until the spring of 
189(), wlien it was torn down to make i-(»(Uii i\)V the present 
magnificent building. 

Quoting further from Mr. Moses's all too brief "His- 
torical Sketch of Rush (^)unty," it is noted that "the 
order for the present court house was made on December 
2, 1895, by Calvin B. Jones, Allen Hinchman and William 
W. Innis, commissioners. They also contracted on the 
same date with A. W. Rush is: Son for plans and specifica- 
tions. Their action was strongly opposed and on Janu- 
ary 15, 1896, the boaj-d met to consider remonstrances 
which had been filed and to hear argument in favor of 
postponing the buildiuL': (»!' a court house until the hard 
times had passed. These they rejected and on March 5 
let the contract to P. IT. Mc('\iiniack & Co., at $157,143. 
A. L. Stewart was ap])ointed engineer and superintendent. 
The old court house was at once torn down and work 
begun. Dining its jji-ogrcss the old (Miristian church at 
southwest corner of Second and .Morgan streets, owned 
by tile Knights of Pythias, was occu])i('d by the county 
offices and I'oi- court ))Ui|)os('s. The com])leted building 
was accepted by the coiiimissionei's on February 2. 1898, 
At iiigiit the splendid bnilding was illuminated, all the 
electric lights being tuiiicd on, and ci'owds of citizens 
inspected its beauties. The next afternoon the county 
of fleers bega n moving in, ( 'ounty Treasurer H. C. Thomp- 
son bei)ig the fii'st to occupy his new quarters. To ])ay for 
the building a temporary bond issue was made and paid 


off. Then followed two issues of court house bonds, one 
for $70,000, the other for $160,000, at 5 per cent. * * * * 
The final cost, including extras, furniture, electric wiring, 
cement walks, sewer, power house, tunnel and connections, 
fees and remodeling the jail, was $257,385.38. * * * 
After its completion, the board building it being com- 
posed of Republicans, the Democrats, made it an issue in 
the next two political campaigns, but without effecting 
any change in the usual result." 


This reference to the injection of partisan politics 
into the question of erecting the court house recalls 
another paragraph of Mr. Moses's admirable ''Sketch" 
in which it is noted that "Rush county people have always 
been strong partisans. County organization followed 
soon after the 'Missouri compromise' had been adopted 
in the vain hope of quieting the bitter controversy 
between slavery and anti-slavery factions. Locally, 
parties were prett}^ evenly divided at the next presidential 
election, that of 1824, between Jackson and Clay — the 
former polling 119 votes and the latter 108 ; fifteen were 
cast for Adams. During a period of sixteen years follow- 
ing the total vote increased to 1,914 and the Democratic 
majority to 420. But the memorable campaign of 1840 
carried the county into the Whig column, Harrison receiv- 
ing a majority of 356 over VanBuren out of a total of 
2,696 votes. It remained there for twelve years, until 
1856, the birthyear of the Republican party, when Buch- 
anan had forty-one plurality over Fremont, the total vote 
being 3,414. The people of Rush county studied national 
politics with special reference to the slavery question dur- 
ing the four years' Kansas-Nebraska struggle which 
ensued, and. hoping for the best but fearing the worst, 
anxiously watched the countr}^ drift toward civil war. 
The quarrel was between North and South and probably 
a decisive majority of the men of Rush county had South- 


ern Ijlood i?! their veins — a fact whieli adds to tlie interest 
in the vote wliicli icflected their political sentiments. Tn 
1Sf>n T^reekeiiriduc and Johnson, ultra Southern candi- 
dates, received oidy 47H votes: Dou<;las and Johnson. 
1,119; Lincoln and Hamlin. 1,757. and Bell and Everett 
35. Tn ])uhlic meetings held after the secession movement 
had clearly revealed its purposes, resolutions were 
adopted l)y both parties. The Republicans pointed to 
'the constitution as it is and the laws now in force' as a 
I'emedy for existint^" conditions and (expressed a willing- 
ness 'to support any ai-rangement of compromise that 
may be acceptable to the country, which may be com- 
patible with our honor, our principles and integi'ity.' 
The Democrats 'deprecated a government maintained by 
the sword, or Union held together by the bayonet,' and 
regarded all ])ersons 'in favor of coercion as dangerous 
peisons to be entrusted with power, as unfriendly to the 
Union and disloyal to her best interests.' As the war 
])rogressed Mr. Lincoln's ])rinci])les and methods were 
more and more bitterly denoiniced. In 1876 the Demo- 
crats elected their county ticket, although Hayes received 
a ])hn'ality of 266 votes over Tilden. Rush eoun.ty did not 
change in the camj^aign of 1SS4, when Cleveland and Hen- 
dricks were elected, but gave Blaine and Logan a plural- 
ity of 384. This county was ])rofoundly moved l)v the 
'free silver cam])aign' of 1896. With one accord all tlie 
people became ardent students of dry and abstract ques- 
tions I'elating to mon(\v aTid finance and the crowds of 
debaters fiercely thi'eshing them over were a ^street 
featui-e (lay and night. Pluralities have been more or less 
affected by loe.-il issues, but during the past thirty years 
[written in 1907] the Rei)ubli(»ans have elected their can- 
didate s witii few excei)tions. " 

Su])])lemental to the above it may be added that the 
Progicssive niovement of 1912 modified the vote in Rush 
cou7ity as follows: Wilson, 2,312 votes; Taft, 1,981; 
Roosevelt, 1,075. in 1920 th<' vote was Harding, 6,113; 


Cox, 4,513. In this latter year the normal vote of the 
county was increased approximately 100 per cent by the 
accession of the women to the ballot, this being the first 
year of Federal female suffrage by constitutional amend- 
ment, the total vote for presidental electors being 


In a preceding chapter relating to the bench and bar 
of Rush county mention has been made of those county 
officers who are classed as officers of the court, including 
the judges, prosecuting attorneys, clerks and sheriffs and 
further mention along these lines here is not required. 
The other officers of the county in the order of their 
service, from the beginning, are as follows : 

Commissioners — Amaziah Morgan, Jehu Perkins, 
John Julian, George Hittle, Adam Conde, Daniel Stiers, 
Daniel Smith, Samuel Jackson, Samuel Culbertson, Peter 
Looney, John Walker, George Mull, John W. Barber, 
Martin Hood, O. H. Neff, T. M. Thompson, H. B. Hill, 
James R. Patton, John Carr, Richard J. Hubbard, Dan- 
iel Wilson, Joseph Peck, W. Mar key, Elisha Prevo, John 
A. Boyd, William Roberts, David Sutton, John Black- 
lidge, David Q. Spahn, I. W. Irvin, Joseph Amos, John 
Hinchmau, Jabez Reeve, Perry Boys, Joseph Florea, 
Hiram A. Tribbey, James Innis, Joseph Overman, James 
Hinchman, James A. Rankin, John T. Gregg, Horace H. 
Elwell, Eli Buell, Augustus Miller, Robert A. Hudelson, 
James B. Kirkpatrick. Robert N. Hinchman, John W. 
Ferree, Andrew B. English, Henry Hungerford, William 
L. Walker, Benjamin L. McFarlan, Samuel R. Patton, 
W^illiam A. Posey, James ;\I. Wikoff, Allen Hinchman, 
Calvin B. Jones, William W. Innis, Marquis L. Sisson, 
John H. Frazee, Winfield S. Thompson, Willard H. 
Amos, Charles H. Lyons, Charles H. Kelso, Thomas H. 
Humes, Merrill S. IBall, John E. Harrison, George H. 
Bell, William T. Moore, Edson L. Aiken, John T. Bowles, 
Pleasant A. Newhouse, Harry Gosnell, Samuel Young. 


Recorders — AVillinm Jiuikcii. Chavles H. Veeder. 
Job Pii.uh, Finlcy Binucr, Isar.c < 'oiule. A. Stone, Daniel 
r-f. Kinney, Jolm II. Brown. John H. Osborne, Charles O. 
Nixon, Ernest B. Thomas. Edmund B. Lowden, Clell 
^Taple. Cli.iilcs J. Bi'ooks, Chcs^te)- Peck. Howard Camp- 

Tn iisnrcrs — James Mc^SIanis, Reu Pugh, William H. 
]Mai'tin. Sanwel Davis. Thomas Y\"allaee. George W. 
Brann. B. B. Talbott, Reu Pugh. Joel F. Smith, Jacob 
Beckner, E. H. :>!. Berry. John B. Reeve. William Beale, 
Francis Gi'ay, John Fleehart, V\"illiam F. Gordon, John 
C. Humes, Xathan V\^eeks, Thomas A. Jones, Henry C. 
Thomp'son.. Ck'orge H. Havens, John C. Blacklidge, 
George H. Caldwell, William M. ALcBride. J<.hn O. Will- 
iams, Charles A. Frazee. 

Auditors — Ma.tthew Smith, Jesse D, Carmichael, 
Archibald Kennedy, Alexander Posey, James M. Hil- 
di-eth. Benjamin F. Johnson, Edward H. Wolfe. Alexan- 
der ]'*os('y, John K. (Jowdy. Martin Bohanuon, C. F. 
Mnllin. Owen L. Carr, Al))ert Tj. ^^'inshi]). Jesse M. Stone, 
Allen R. Holden. William H. McMillin. Phil Wilk. 

Surrci/ors — W. R. ]>aughlin. who "ran the lines" 
f(»r the govcnimeiit survey of this section of the state may 
tluis, of course, be regai'ded as the first surveyor of Rush 
county and it is known that he continued in service as a 
surveyor hercalxMil for years aftei" taking up his perman- 
ent residence here, but of his immediate successors ther(» 
is some doubt. The present surveyor knows nothing of 
tijc original recoi'ds of the office, the first book of surveys 
in his office dating ij-om 1S4-I, tlic first entry therein 
being ovci' the sin'uatuic of .UAux liell. comity surveyor in 
that year. The names i^\' llic successive surveyors from 
lliai (llic down to that of the i»resent incumbent of the 
office follow: S. (i. Mendenhall, N. Shaddinger, John B. 
McCuUongh. R. R. S])encer, J. C. (Jiegg, ^\lorton H, 
Downey, .^lonzo Stewait. Francis M. Springer, Ora W. 
Darkless, (ieoige !?. Kelly. A. R. Darkless, Adolphus 


Cameron. Ciiarks C. BroMai, Clyde Kennedy and Fran]«: 
L. Catt (incumbent). 

Assessors — Prior to the law of 1891 assessments for 
taxes were taken care of by the township assessors, form- 
erly called "listers." The law of 1891 provided for the 
election of a comity assessor who also serves as a member 
and the president of the connty board of review, instructs 
the township assessors in their duties and carries out the 
orders of the state board of tax commissioners. The first 
county assessor elected in Rush county was Rodney 
Spencer, whose unexpired term was filled by Alfred 
Swain, who was succeeded by William A. Powell and 
he, in turn, by Allen Newsom, A¥illiam Gowdy, John F. 
Moses, Henry Schrader and Earl F. Priest (incumbent). 
In this connection it is worthy of note that Conrad Sailor, 
the county agent, who organized Rush county, was first 

Coroner — The chief duty of the coroner is to deter- 
mine by inquest how any person in the county met his 
death by violence or casualty and return a verdict to the 
clerk of the county court. He serves as sheriff if the 
sheriff is absent and may arrest the sheriff if the occasion 
arises. There seems to be some confusion regarding the 
early incumbents of this office in Rush county, the records 
of tire office in the possession of Dr. V\^. E. Barnum, of 
Manilla, covering a period of comparatively few years 
back, during which time D. E. Barnett, Samuel M. Green, 
Frank Green, John :. Lee and W. E. Barnum (incum- 
bent) have served in this capacity. The coroner's inquest 
record on file in the county clerk's office opens with an 
entry as of January 30, 1893, being case No. 1 : "Infant of 
Ella Kemp : Strangulation at the hands of Ella Kemp, 
Bora Crawford being an abbettor or accessory to the 
crime." There are but seven entries in the book, the last 
being in tlie case of James Herbert, a negro, who was 
drowned "in water just south of the county jail" during 
the memorable flood of March, 1913, when by reason of 


tlie iinpreecdciitcd rising of the waters of Big Flat Rock 
river the downtown section of Rushville was under water. 
Strangely enough in none of these entries does the name 
of the coroner who files the report of inquest appear. It 
is considered doul)tful that these seven cases, covering a 
]^eriod of twenty years, include all the cases that were 
suljject to "crowner's quest" during that period. In an 
older chronicle reference is made to Richard Hackleman 
as having been the first coroner of the county. Dr. A. O. 
Shauck was coroner in 1913, when the above record 
closed. A search of tlie inquest fee book opened iri 1SS9 
shows that Frank G. Hackleman then was coroner and 
also reveals that others who have served in this office 
besides those mentioned above, were J. H. Spurrier, 
Edward \. Wnoden and W. S. Coleman. 

Lf'fjislafiue — Several changes have been made in the 
legislative district comprising Rush county since the 
beginning and there is therefore some difficulty in arriv- 
in.g at a definite conclusion with lelation to tluxse wlio 
early served f j'om this district in the state legislatui'e, but 
the state representatives from here since 1888 have been 
William A. Cullen, Eliiah T. Oldham, Gates Sexton, J. 
O. Thomes, Leonidas II. Mull, Will 11. Sparks, Henry E. 
Guffin, Gary Jackson, William P. Jay, Xathan Weeks, 
Oliver C. Norris, Willi;im R. .Jinnett, The joint senators 
who have served during the same period are John W. 
Comstock, David S. Morgan, Thomas K. Mull, Elmer E. 
Stoner, Edgar E. Hendee, E. E. Moore, Gary Jackson. 
Ora Myeis, [jem P. Dobyns and RoM'land S. Hill. Undei' 
the legislative rea])i>ortionment act of 1921 Rush county 
loses its individual reprc^sentative in the state legislature, 
being thrown into a joint representative district with 
Hancock county. It is in a joint senatorial district with 
Henry county. In the chapter relating to the county seat 
mention is made of the i('])resentativ('S from this district 
in earlier da vs. 


Townships and Villages 

The historiographer who attempts a compilation of 
records and a narrative of events of a neighborhood which 
has been forming for more than a century amid the 
changing conditions which mark the erection of an Ameri- 
can community faces a task which would seem well nigh 
hopeless save for the initial work done along similar lines 
by those who were contemporar}^ with those events. 
Happily, in the case of the present compileis there have 
been earnest, thoughtful men here who, in their genera- 
tion, ''blazed the ways" for those who might follow them 
along the gentle paths of local historical research, light- 
ening the labors of inquiry and investigation and making 
clear what otherwise might be but a confusing tangle of 
myth obstructing the differentiation between fact and 
tradition that so often confronts the seeker after state- 
ments regarding the days of "lang syne." And to those 
who thus "blazed the ways" grateful acknowledgment 
has been made by all who have had to do with adding to 
the store of historical knowledge relating to Rush county. 
Two names particularly are mentioned in this connection 
—two dominant figures are recalled, those of Dr. John 
A. Arnold and the Hon. Elijah Hackleman. As the late 
John F. Moses, in the preface to his admirable but all too 
brief "Historical Sketch of Rush County," said in 
acknowledging his indebtedness to these early writers: 
"They were eye-witness from the beginning and a part 
of the events which theii pens have so faithfully and 
ably recorded. No one can ever write about Rush county 
history without being greatly indebted to them." And in 
presenting this chapter on the townships and towns of the 
county the present compilers make similar grateful 



acki!(twlcdL!;ni('iit. ]»jirti(nilai']y to the notable woik (tf 
Doctor Arnold, witlioiit whose ilhimiiiative "Reminis- 
cences" the list of ])i()iie(i's of the rcsjK'ctive townships 
of the county would have been lost forever, or at best 
preserved in so fragnier.tary a fashion as to be valueless 
for the definite purposes of a volume of this character. 

In preceding cha})teis considerable detailed attention 
Ims been given to some of tlie incidents attending the set- 
tlement of the county in ger.eial and a narrative a.lso has 
been made of the organization and outline of the several 
townships of the county. To these details the attention 
of the reader is recalled in this connection, for the plan 
of this work so correlates the several headings under 
which the histoiy of the county is presented as to make a 
faithful and comprehensive narrative when taken as a 
composite. To the elder generation this correlation will 
he instinctive ; associations of recollection will supply the 
connection. To the readers of the younger generation it 
will be no great mental task to keep in mind the connect- 
ing incidents and dates essential to the continuity of the 
work. Chronologically, the order of presentation of the 
records of the several townships of the county may be 
ci'iticised. but it is believed that the })resentation of these 
several nai'ratives in alphabetical order is preferal)le for 
tlie sake of convenience to the reader, and in following 
this order the first township to be given mention will be 


This townshi]). in the southern ])art of the county, 
w;is one of tlie first sections (»f the county to secure the 
overflow oi immigration which began to come this way 
after tlie admission of the state to the Union in 181G and 
at the tii.iie the county became a se]>arate civic entity in 
1(S21 had ;i considerable pioneer settlement. The town- 
shi]i is ;'t the s<»uthei-n border of the coun.ty, bounded by 
I'ushville towriship on the noilh, Richland on the east, 


Decatur coimty on the south and Orange township on the 
west. The town of IMilroy, situated at ahnost the exact 
geographical center of the township, is the center of the 
township's commercial and social activities and the people 
are energetic and progressive. Milroy, however, was not 
laid out as a town until about ten years after the county 
had been organized and in the meantime and even prior 
to county organization local business had been carried on 
in other pioneer trading centers nearby, the first of these, 
according to an older chronicle, having been a small store 
which was opened by William Brown in a building he put 
up adjacent to Miller's mill, at a point about a mile south 
of the present town of Milroy, this mill having been the 
first grist mill erected in that section of the county, a con- 
venience for the pioneers thereabout for some years 
before the organization of the county in 1821. It also is 
said that John Julian, who was afterward a member of 
Eush county's first board of county commissioneis and 
an influential factor in the early doings of the county, had 
carried on a considerable "huckster" business thereabout. 
There also was another neighborhood store, this having 
been operated by Wilson Stewart in a little log house at 
a point a mile west of the present town of Milroy. 
: athan Tompkins presently erected a tavern on Little 
Flat Eock adjacent to a mill which Gossett & Miller had 
set up there, and Nathan Julian opened a store at the 
same i3oiRt, this industrial center becoming a nucleus 
around which other settlers gathered, and in 1830 the 
town of Milroy was formally platted and officially placed 
"on the map." In 1832 Thomas J. Larimore put up a mill 
at that point, thus giving the place two mills, and Ander- 
son township thus early became widely recognized as a 
bus}'' and "going" community. Williamstown was a 
small village on the Decatur county line in this township. 
Upon the advent of the V. G., & E. railroad, one-half mile 
east, this town began its decline, and is now but a mem- 
ory. Earl City was platted along the new railroad and 


tlie postoffioc was iiu^vcd to the new town, retaining the 
name " Williaiiistdwii.'" 

Anion*;- tlic i)i(»iH'ri' settleis of Anderson township 
the names of tlie followiji^- linve been presei-ved l)y the 
older chronicles: Jesse Wiiiship. James Tyler, Beverly 
Wai-d. Jaeol) Hackleman. .lanics Fordyce. John Cooper, 
William I^arlywinc. Kli J. Flstun. Joseph Spurgeon, 
James Thompson. William Julian. Michael Miller, James 
Logan, Adam and Daniel Conde, Lawience Vanansdale, 
William Beal, William l'>ell. John Enos. James AV, Stew- 
art, Hugh Stewart, Daniel Thomas, AA'illiam Hill. Nathan 
Tompkins. .Jacob Hooten. \\'illiam Aiinton, Alexander 
Innis, Richard Harcourt, John and William J. Brown, 
John Julian, Andrew Sci-jght, Adam Richey, Jacob 
Whiteman, Ithamar I^. Root, John Mann. Aquilla 
Humes. Leonard Burton, David Witters, Capt. William 
Rice, Capt. John Boyd, John Bell. Rol)ert Bowles, Will- 
iam Th(»mas. John Aldridge. \Villiam Duncan, George 
Somerville and Xathaii Harlan. 

Milroi; — It was on Xcn'ember 3, 1830, that Nathan 
Tompkins and Nathan -Lilian, as noted above, filed the 
].lat of the town of Milroy, thus officially identifying the 
village which was growing u]) around the tavern of the 
formei' and the stoic of the latter. Other stores were 
beginning to start up. the early mei'chants of the town 
l»eing noted as having been John Corbin, Harvey Hed- 
rick. Seneca E. Smith, Richard Robbins, Samuel Green, 
(Jeorge B. Elstun. Reuben .lohnson, John L. L'obinson. 
Aaron Van Kirk, James (V»x, Alexander & Thorne, Wes- 
ley Morxtw. Alon/.o and Frank F. Swain, Joel F. Smith, 
John Barton and William Burton & Son, Hugh (\ Smith, 
who came fi-oni Cincinnati, was one of the early tavern 
keei>ers. Robei-t h^cott was Milroy's first doctor, and 
among othci' caily physicians in the place are mentioned: 
Doctors I^>ail)('r, Reynolds. Shar]). Robb, Bracken, Day, 
Bussell. 1\)ni])kins. hmis, 'i'homas, Pollitt. Rliley and 
Ivogcrs. When the railroad reached Milroy in 1881, the 


village took "a new lease on life," and has since enjoyed 
a steady and substantial growth, its various commercial 
and industrial interests being well established. When 
natural gas was '^struck" in this county Milroy secured 
an ample supply and still enjoys the use of this convenient 

The first newspaper in ]\iiiroy was the Advertiser, 
established in 1882 by Charles F. Pollitt, who presently 
changed the name of the paper to the Times, and con- 
tinued to carry on his newspaper business until 1887, 
when he sold the paper to George W. Rowe, who changed 
the name to the Netvs, under which name it continued 
until bought by F. C. Green, who gave it the name of the 
Press, which it still bears, now under the capable editorial 
direction of Dewey Hagen, the present owner of the 
paper. Mr. Hagen also publishes the Laurel Review, 
which he owns, and in addition to getting out these paj^ers 
prints several school publications. Milroy has an excel- 
lent school building, built about 1907, as a consolidated 
township high school, in which a commissioned high 
school course is taught, George J. Bugbee, i^rincipal. 
There are three churches, the United Presbyterians^ the 
Methodist Episcopalians and the Christians being repre- 
sented, and there are four lodges of secret societies, the 
Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias and Modern 
Woodmen being represented, each owning their own 
buildings. A local post of the Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic was actively maintained for many years, but the 
dwindling number of the comrades of late years has all 
but extinguished the post. To take the place of this ven- 
erated patriotic body, however, there is a vigorous young 
post of the American Legion, which will be prepared to 
take the lead in patriotic activities formerly taken by the 
elder soldiers. The town has three physicians ; Dr. Will 
T. Lampton, Dr. E. L. Hume and Dr. C. S. Houghland ; 
two dentists. Dr. H. F. Thomas and Dr. A. C. Ross, and a 
veterinarian, Dr. J. S. Francis. The First National Bank 


and the ^.iilioy Bank offei- admirable excliani»-e facilities 
to the connniinity. The flour mill, operated l)y the .Milroy 
Milling- Company, has a ea^jaeity of better thjm two hun- 
dred bai lels ;i day, and the grain, elevator operated by 
W. ]M. Bosley. offcis a local market for gi-ain. A trans- 
mission line of wires from the 1. & C. Traction Company's 
power house at Riishville, carries electricity for lighting 
jnirposes, Theie is a hotel, tlie Milroy Hotel. Schlosser 
Bros, conduct a local cream station; the Allen A. Wilkin- 
son T^umber Co. o])erates a lumber yard, and the ^^lilioy 
Stock Co. offers a market for live stocli. Other business 
in the town is represented as follows : General store, W. 
S. -Mansfield; hardware, W. S. I^^Iercer, W. L. McKee & 
Son ; g]-ocers, C. H. Harton, Tompkins Bros., AV. A, Al- 
dridge; drugs, Norman Harcourt, Slieppard's drug store; 
.jewelry, E. F. Starks; millinery, Betty Wilson; automo- 
biles, ]\lilroy Motor Sales Co. ; garages, F. 0. Hillis, Gol- 
dia H. Carr; harness shop, diaries Stewart; pooli-oom 
and bai'ber shop, Harry Richey ; blacksmiths, Francis, 
Tu]-ner & Brooks and Marion Tague. Milroy has ever 
since along in the '80s made nmch of its ainmal Chautau- 
qua meetings and tlie ])rescnce of a flourishing Chautau- 
qua circle, which has done nuich in the way of scK-ial and 
cultural |U'omotion in that counnuuity, the influence of 
\vliic]i lias been I'eflected throughout tliat whole region. 


This townsliip's situation i;! tlie 7;orthern tier of 
townshi]>s of the county did not attract any considei'able 
number of settlers for several yeai's after the general set- 
tlement of the southern part of the county had wtII set in 
:u]i] it was not until 1S2:> or latei- that ilicic were suffi- 
cieiit luuubcrs of scttlcis tliere to I'cgin to I'egai'd them- 
selves as a ueigliboiliood. ('cuter township is bounded 
on the iioitli by Henry ('<»unty, on the east })y Washing- 
ti'U towp.ship, on the south by Jackson and Union town- 
shijts, aiid on the west by Ripley township. It is trav- 



ersed by Little Blue river, which rises in the northeast 
corner of the township, and by Three-Mile creek, admir- 
able natural drainage thus being afforded. It is said 
that the first physician in the township was Dr. Robert 
Moffett, after whose death his widow married Dr. Abner 
Dillon, who continued the practice. Alfred Reeves estab- 
lished the first store in the township and John Waggoner 
was the first blacksmith. The state Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Orphans' Home, proper mention of which is made else- 
where in this volume, is situated in the northwestern cor- 
ner of Center township. It was not until the coming of 
the railroad in the early '80s that Center township had 
established trading points, local trade having prior to that 
time gone to Knightstown, just over the line in the neigh- 
boring county of Henry, and to Carthage, the business 
center of Ripley township, but with the building of the 
railroad north and south through the eastern part of the 
township two railway stations were established, that of 
Hamilton (now called Sexton) on the border line be- 
tween Center and Jackson townships, and Mays, in sec- 
tion 17, both of which at once became convenient shipping 
and commercial points. 

In the considerable list of pioneers of Center town- 
ship that has been preserved by the older chronicles ap- 
pear the names of William, Robert and John Huddleston, 
David Price, John James, Robert Hamilton, Robert. 
John and Joseph Knox, Hiram Bitner, William, Samuel 
and John Shields, John Bell, David McBride, Moses Clif- 
ford, John Ruby, George Heffner, John Reddick, George 
Brov^m, George and Abraham Rhodes, George Appel, 
Zachariah Sparks, Aaron and John Purcell, William Mc- 
Bride, John Brooks, William Bell, Jabez and Ha Reeves, 
William James, James Ewing, William Kirkpatrick, 
Peter Siler, Cordil Dimmick, George Grandstaff, Will- 
iam Baker, Asa Blanchard, Asa Reeves, Levi James, 
Joshua Plorea, Burrell Akeis, Thomas Craft, Thomas 
Brooks, Joseph and Samuel Barrett, Jesse Garten, Jacob 



Ruby, John Walker, .John Mallis, fJohii Brown, James 
Oldham. John Peters, Robert Brooks, Jacob Shiveley, 
John \\'a^.u<)ner, Joshna Sparks, Dr. Abner Dillon, Al- 
fred Reeves, Samuel Iluddleson, James Cochran, Samuel 
Maze, James and Samuel Young, James Gray, James 
Johnson, David Sutton, Thomas Atkins, Leroy Pugh, 
Daniel Bayliss, Thomas C. Stewart, Nelson Sisson, Jacob 
Cooper, Jonathan Kirkhani, John Somerville, Jacob 
Buck, John R. McBride, James Pinkerton, Arthur Boyd, 
Leroy Scott. William Reeves, Samuel Kirkpatrick, 
James Heiny, Bailey I^'udergrast, Alexander Sears, 
Benjamin Priteliard. James Englisli, Linden Addison, 
Jonathan Hulley. 

Mai/s — This })leasant village in section 17 of Center 
township was established with the opening of the railroad 
through that ])art of the county, and was laid out as a 
town by Samuel Kirkpatrick and Cliarles H. Thrawle.y, 
March 25, 1884. The present population of the village 
is about 250, and it is the center of trade for a consider- 
able area thereabout. The village has a bank, an elevator, 
a sawmill aiid the usual complement of stores. It has an 
excellent school and two churches, the United Presby- 
tei'ian and the (Christian. 


On account of a heavy ])ei-('entage (tf swamp land in 
Jackson township in the days of the settlement of this 
county, the yjopulation of the township was a little back- 
ward, but with the digging of drainage ditches to hel]) out 
sluggish little Mud creek, the natural but inefficient out- 
let for the swaiii]). these sw.nii)) Innds were reclaimed, 
ojx'uing The way to sett lenient and this reclaimed land is 
now among the most valuable in the county. In the old 
days the dreaded Ibii-i- Oak swani)» was considered well 
nigh irreclaimable, but with drainage it was turned into 
fine farm land. Jacks(m townshi]) is bounded (»n the 
north by Center township, on the east by Union, on the 


south by Riishville township and on the west by Posey 
township. The Little Bhie river crosses the northwest 
corner of the township. Henderson is the only hamlet in 
the township. It is situated on the Big Four railroad, in 
section 10, and was platted by Ida M. Henderson, August 
1, 1890. Its conveniences as a railway station and as a 
local trading point were welcomed by the people of the 
neighborhood. The first store opened in the township in 
the early days was that of Jones & Parker, in the once 
locally famous, but long since abandoned hamlet of ''Tail 
Holt," later called Occident, which was a postoffice for a 
number of years. 

Sexton — This hamlet was laid out as a town site on 
May 25, 1883, following the completion of the New Castle 
& Rushville railroad, since taken over by the Lake Erie 
& Western. The name of the platted town as recorded is 
Hamilton Station. When the postoffice was established 
it became necessary to rename the town on account of 
another town of the name of Hamilton in Indiana, and 
the postoffice was named Sexton, by which name the vil- 
lage generally is known. The first house in the hamlet 
was built by Mathias Knecht. 

Following are some of the names that are associated 
with the days of the settlement of the township : Thomas 
Burton, John Souders, John Bowne, John Castle, Jacob 
and William David, William Truitt, Shipman Newkirk, 
Jacob Gobel, William Kirkpatrick, Samuel and Isaac 
Newhouse, William Jones, Elijah Billings, Stephen 
Sparks, James Jones, Robert Berry, Elder William Cald- 
well, Thomas McKinnon, Philip Barger, Daniel Gorman, 
William and Nathan Porter, Harmon Osborne, John 
Smelcer, George Winship, David Gilson, William O 'Ban- 
ion, James Oldham, William Bodine, James Downey, 
William Moffett, Brook Talbott, Aaron Mock, George 
Kirkpatrick, Azahel Griffith, James Fry, William Beale, 
Sr., Benjamin Kendall, John Newhouse, Solomon Steph- 
ens, William Armstrong, David Kenning, Washington 
Barger, Isaac Ploughe, Jonathan Fleener. 



Thoi'e is a pretty strong ])i'csuiiiption of trntli in the 
statement long maintained that tlie first permanent set- 
tlement in Rush county was effected in that section of the 
county which became organized as Noble township, as 
now located, the character of the lands lying along the 
several tributaries of the Little Flat Rock, which has its 
headwateis in this township, having proved attractive to 
prospective settlers seeking overflow from the earlier set- 
tled counties of P^ayette and Franklin on the east. The 
honor of having been the first settler is thus given to 
Isaac Williams, who is reported to have pu.t up, in Sep- 
tember, 1819, a cabin on what afterward became tlie An- 
drew Guff in farm, but Elijah Hackleman's reminis- 
cences have it that the first to settle in the Little Flat 
Rock neighborhood was Enoch Russell, who settled there 
in March of that same year. The old Williams cabin is 
still standing, a part of an old barn on the Guffin farm. 
Early in the si)ring of the next year William ^^lerryman 
put up a cabin on the farin, which afterward l^ecame the 
home of Benjamin F. Reeve. These early ai-rivals of 
course wei-(> "squatters," for the land here was not 
opened for legal entry until in the fall of 1820. After 
the first land sale settlement was effected rapidly and 
Noble township became one of the most populous sections 
of the county at an early date. P('rha])s what may be 
I'cgaidcd as the first couniicrcial enterprise carried on in 
Rush counly was the stoi'c of Conrad Sailor, in tha.l sec- 
tion whicli bccanu- oi-ganized as Noble township. As has 
been noted lici-ctofore. SaiJoi' M'as lite agent a})pointed by 
tlie h'gislatui'e to organize Rush county u]ton the passage 
of tlie enabling act in neccmbcr, 1S21. He had ]'e|U'e- 
sentcd I'laiiklin county in th.e first state legislature 
which met at Corydon, and was active in the ])ublic af- 
faii-s of the pioneer connnunity which began to develop in 
tlic !i('W lands west of that county, not only carrying on 
the business of his little ])ioneer store and taking an influ- 


ential part in politics, but being accounted a leader in the 
work of the Baptist church hereabout. 

Noble township is not quite a true ''congressional" 
township, half of sections 3 and 10 being cut off to help 
form the eastern "jog" in Rushville township, reference 
to which has been made in an earlier chapter. The town- 
ship is bounded on the north by Union township, on the 
east by Fayette county, on the south by Richland town- 
ship and on the west by Rushville township and section 
33 of Anderson township. It is well drained by Little 
Flat Rock river and the headwater tributaries of the 
same. There is no railroad in the township and there is 
but one hamlet. New Salem. The first mill in the town- 
ship was put up by William Robinson and not long after- 
ward Jehu Perkins put up a mill on Pleasant Run. Jehu 
Perkins, one of the three original county commissioners 
of Rush county, was the father of twenty-one children, 
one of whom, a son, Jehu Perkins, Jr., commonly known 
as "Boss," is credited with having been the first white 
child born in the present confines of the county. Ben- 
jamin F. Reeve, the pioneer school teacher in Noble 
township, served this district in both the upper and lower 
houses of the state legislature and also served for many 
years as justice of the peace in and for his home town- 
ship. John P. Thompson organized a Christian church in 
Noble township in 1830, this church being said to have 
been the first formal organization of the Disciples of 
Christ in Indiana. 

Among those mentioned as having been the founders 
of Noble township were the following: John Hawkins, 
Abraham Hackleman, Conrad Sailors, Henry Lines, Col. 
John Tyner, Isaac Patterson, Edward Patterson, Jacob 
Sailors, Elder John Blades, Jehu Perkins, Benjamin 
Sailors, Jesse Winship, Thomas P. Lewis, Doctor Kip- 
per, John Gregg, Isaac Stephens, Jacob Starr, John 
Pogue, James Logan, Aaron Lines, John Laforge, John 
Beaver, Peter Looney, Henry Myers, Lewis Smith, 


George Taylor, Aaron W'elliuaii, Solomou Buweu, Elias 
Posten, Robert Stewart, John McKee, James Wiley, 
James J. Armstrong-, -lohii P. Tompkins, Stephen Lewis 
and Joseph J. Amos. 

New Salem — This, as has iK^en noted above, is the 
only hamlet in Voble township, and has a population of 
around 250. The first settler within the limits of what is 
now the village was Moses Thompson, who put up a cabin 
there in the early '20s, he being followed shortly after- 
ward by Doctor Anthony, who thus became one of the real 
j)ioneer physicians of the county. Then came Reuben 
Runyon, who set uj) a l)lacksmith shop, and Israel Knapp 
with a wagon sho]), these essential ])ioneer industries be- 
coming the nucleus around which gathei'ed the present 
village. Among the early merchants mention is made of 
Thomas J. Lai'imore. Jameson & Salla. Robinson & ^.fil- 
ler, Richardson & Mai'sh and George and Andrew Guffin. 
Two mills formerly operated in the village, but one was 
moved to Rushville and the other was destroyed by a 
tornado. The town was formally platted by Moses 
Thompson in February, 1831. Besides the two or three 
stores essential to the immediate commercial needs of the 
neighborhood New Salem has a bank, the New Salem 
Bank, an excellent school and two churches, both the 
Methodist E])iscopal and the Methodist Protestant being 
re])resented there, each having substantial church build- 
ings. A grain elevator was erected at New Salem a few 
years ago by a Brookville grain man in expectation of the 
village becoming a rail shi])])ing ])oint when the right of 
way through there was se(nired l)y tlie I. & C. Traction 
Cf>mj)any, but the hope of the villagers to have a rail out- 
let has not yet materialized, in the old days before rail- 
]'oads came to the county New Salem was noted as a stop- 
ping point for cattle drovers who woidd be driving their 
stock to market at Gincimiati. Its present commercial 
interests are represented ))y Jehu Peikins, general store; 
Roy Murphy & Son, grocers; Cail \V. Dausch, grocer; 


William Dauscli, butcher, and Clarence Maple and Ed- 
ward Owinnup, blacksmiths. 


This township in the southwestern corner of the 
county is a ''square" township of thirty-six sections, and 
is bounded on the north by Walker township, on the east 
b}^ Anderson township, on the south by Decatur county 
and on the west by, Shelby county. It is perhaps the most 
rugged section of the county topographically, the surface 
being much broken by numerous streams and hills. Big 
Flat Rock traverses it, entering in section 4, near the 
northeast corner, and flowing out in section 29, besides 
which Little Hurricane and Big Mill creeks and two or 
three other small streams afford ample drainage. Mos- 
cow, a village of about one hundred population, in the 
southeast quarter of section 18, and Gowdy, a cross-roads 
hamlet in section 1, are the trading centers. Moscow was 
surveyed by W. B. Laughlin for John Woods, who filed 
the plat for record May 1, 1830. The township has no 
railroad, but has excellent highways, as have all parts of 
the county. Limestone of a good quality for building 
crops out in the vicinity of Moscow, and quarries have 
been profitably worked in the past. According to Doctor 
Arnold's narrative, Moscow in the early days "possessed 
a reputation far from enviable ; in fact, it was famous for 
lawlessness and ruffianism, but now it is a quiet, orderly 
village." The village of Moscow dates back to 1822 when 
John Woods and David Querry built a mill on Big Flat 
Rock at that point. Nathan Julian presently opened a 
store at the milling point, which thus became the center 
of the community, and the village had expanded to such a 
point in the spring of 1830 that John Woods employed 
Doctor Laughlin, the pioneer surveyor, to plat the 
place and get it "on the map," Other early merchants 
were A. Musselman, John T. Drummond, O'Brien 
Gwynne and R. H. Johnson, the latter of whom had a 


])artn('r at Brdokvillo. John Woods, mentioned above, 
also operated a distillery, as did Josejjh Owens, and it is 
said these were quite liberally patronized, this fact prob- 
ably accounting for the "unenviable reputation" borne 
by the place in the pioneer days, to which reference has 
been made above. The first tavern was conducted by one 
Hays and Samuel Harney presently put up another tav- 
ern Avhich became (juite noted in its way in its day. An 
organ iz(Hl band of horsethieves operated in the Moscow 
neighborhood many yeais ago, making their rendezvous 
there a disti ibuting point for their plunder. 

Bearing on conditions in and about Moscow in an 
earlier da}^ the following under the head of "Letter 
from Moscow," published in a county seat paper in 1872, 
is informative: "Orange township is called the dark 
corner of Rush county. Somehow our township has never 
taken the stand in education, religion or enterprise that 
has been accorded to some other |)arts of our county. 
.Moscow is the seat of government for this region, tt is 
little and lifeless, and is no laiger than it was twenty 
years ago, and has only a sad prospect for the future. 
Once a week the mail comes and the outer world is heard 
from. Saturdays are great days in our capital, because 
then we get the mail and all the sui-rounding country 
coirics in to get the news." That was fifty years ago, and 
happily, a great change has been made in conununity con- 
ditions during the half-century that has elapsed since 
then. Ten years ago a consolid;ited townshi]) school was 
erected at .Moscow at a cost of $;^0.000, and the iTifluence 
of school on the community lias been ;i transforming 
one, indeed. The conununity has lieen diawn more closely 
together l)y the daily associations of the children in a com- 
mon iiioti\-e and in other ways conditions have been bet- 
tei-ed. R. H. (Jlenn, who has be(>n associated with the 
school almost ever since it was established, is now prin- 
cipal of the same, and is extending the work, the plan now 
being to elect an addition to the building. Tt is a matter 


of note that the longest wooden bridge in the state spans 
Big Flat Rock at Moscow. Thongh social conditions at 
Moscow have been wonderfully improved since the days 
referred to above by the older chronicle, the town has not 
grown in size and is but a typical rnral hamlet, one store, 
that of Barlow Bros,, being sufficient to supply the com- 
mercial needs of the community. The old mill that has 
stood there along the river bank for near a century, was 
recently sold out and has been abandoned. The one 
church in the village, that of the Christian denomination; 
has been established for many years, but the congregation 
is worshiping in a handsome new edifice erected within 
the past few ^^ears, the pastor, the Reverend ;V[r. Selig, of 
Butler College, coming once a fortnight to minister to the 
congregation. The complaint uttered by the j)laintive 
writer of the "Letter From Moscow" above noted, that 
mail reached the village but once a week lost its force 
when rural free mail deliver}^ was established throughout 
the county and daily mail brought to the dooi's of the 
farmers and villagers now keeps them full}^ informed. 
Certainly Orange township no longer can be "called the 
dark corner of Rush county." The township school and 
the daily newspapers forbid. 

Among the pioneers of Orange township whose 
names have been preserved by the older chronicles were 
George Shoppelle, Richard Shaw, Israel Hewitt, Joseph 
Owens, John Vv^oods, Nathan Allison, John Machlan, Ab- 
salom Milligan, Robert Hungerford, William, John and 
Henry McCarty, John Waggoner, Robert McDuf fy, John 
Mullens, Robert Bowling, Thomas Wilson, Michael Eze- 
kial, Josiah Kelly, Jesse Barlow, Jesse M. Barlow. John 
Little, Jerome Buffingham, Abraham Rhue, Benjamin 
Moore, Daniel Querry, David, Joseph and Nathan 
Frakes, Uriah and ReulDen Farlow, Millikin Owens, John 
Selby, Harm Farlow, Richard Hungerford, John Hewitt, 
Isaac Conde, Andrew Stiers, Nathan Aldridge, William 
Dodson, Elias Hilligoss, Matthew Allison, Absalom Sli- 


fer, Thomas Prill, John (Jriffith, Josiah Bishop, Daniel 
Tevis, Robert Waggoner, David Alter, Alexander Simp- 
son, Sr.. and Peter, Aris and Milton Waggoner, 


This is another of the "square" townships of the 
county, being made up of thirty-six sections, and lies on 
the western edge of the county, being bounded on the 
north by Rii)ley townshi]), on the east by Jackson and 
Rushvillc townships, on the south by Walker township 
and on the west by Shelby county. Arlington, a thriving 
station on the old 0. H., & D, raili-oad, now known as the 
C. T.. & AV,, is the only village in the township. The to^^^l- 
ship is traversed by Little Blue river and l)y ''orth Fork, 
Meadow and Mud creeks and one or two other small 
streams. These are sluggish streams, liowever, and the 
generally flat character of the surface has necessitated 
considerable ditching. 

Settlement in Posey township began about the year 
1822, and it was not long until all the laud in the town- 
ship was taken by original entry. Levin Birt, who laid 
out the to\\Ti plat of Burlingttm (present Arlington) 
about the year 1830, opened the first store in the town- 
slii]) and also is referred to as having been the first school 
teacher there. A second store was opened by Carr, AVoo- 
ster & Co., and the first physician was Dr. Erastus Bus- 
sell. The coming of the railroad through the township 
not only afforded a rail shipping point conveniently ac- 
cessible to all ])arts of the townshi]), but gave an impetus 
to development along other lines and what had before 
that time been regarded as a somewhat "backward" 
towiishij) stepjx'd u]) into the fi-ont rank and has re- 
mained there. The hiter coming of the ti'olley cars also 
was a \aliiable coiitiibuting factor in the township's 
})rogress, as it has been of all townships touched by this 
convenient mode of transj^ortation. 

The oMei- chronicles carry quite a list of the names 


of the early settlers of this township, among which are 
noted Rev. James Havens, Adam M. C. Gowdy, Jefferson 
Arnett, William Davis, Hiram R. Tribbey, Recompense 
Murphy, Levin Birt, Obed Meredith, Garland B., George 
and William Allender, James Eaton, John Alsman, Will- 
iam Collins, John Jordan, John Spencer, Samuel Gordon, 
George Moore, Thomas Gruell, John Stapleton, William 
Drysdale, George Hamil, John Moore, Sabert Offutt, 
Jonathan Ball, Henry Ball, John McMichael, Jesse Leon- 
ard, Hezekiah Clark, Capt. Christian Nelson, Henry 
Bogue, Vv^iley Bogue, Jesse .i^>iorgan, William McHatton, 
James Allender, Eli Claville, Jesse McDaniel, James 
Walker, Morgan and Ransom Baity, Drury Holt, James 
Junken, John Junken, Alexander Woods, Thomas Hea- 
ton, Obed Worth, Obed Swain, Jesse Adams, Archibald 
Kennedy, Lewis Bravard, Henry Beckner, Jacob Beck- 
ner, Sr., James Smith, Caleb Doudge, Daniel Bebout, 
Jesse Kellum, Hugh S. Fleehart, Rev. Gabriel McDuf- 
fie, William Brun, Thomas Swain, Peter Sapp, Wright 
Smith, Richard Rutter, Wright Donnelly, Samuel Swin- 
hart, Nimrod Adams and George W. Leisure. Uncle Jeff 
Arnett was the first justice of the peace in the commu- 
nity. He was also postmaster, the profits of the office 
amounting to about $1 a quarter. Mr. Arnett also was 
proprietor of a tannery, which offered a local market 
for hides. The first physician was Doctor Clark, and it 
is said that the first church building erected in the village 
was a structure twelve by fourteen feet put up by the pio- 
neer Langden, who had settled there in 1824. 

Arlington — The town of Arlington in sections 19 and 
24 of Posey township is a pleasant village of about 450 
population. It was platted by Levin Birt and James Col- 
lins in April, 1832, and was given the name of Burlington, 
but presently was changed to Beech Grove, its first post- 
office name, on account of another postoffice of the name 
of Burlington in the state. This name later was changed 
to Arlington and so remains. Additions to the original 


})]at have been made l>y Fletelier Tevis, C. C. Lee and 
James W. Green. Levin Birt, fomider of tlie town, men- 
tioned above as tlie first merchant and selioolteaehev. also 
operated a cardini;' mill in the early days of the town, the 
site of the mill having been on the jiresent site of the 
Christian clmrch, and later added a eorn mill. Joseph 
Hamilton alst) was an early merchant; Peter Sapp was 
the village blacksmith: Jeffejson Arnett carried on a 
tannery and Robert Ford had a harness shop. Business 
since those days has develo])ed until now all essential lines 
are represented. The town has a commissioned high 
school and two live cluirches, the Christian and the Meth- 
odist Episcopal. The i\i'lington Bank offers an admir- 
able medium for local exchange and Hutchinson & Son's 
grain elevator affords convenient facilities for marketing 
the products of the farm. Fred Woods, the postmaster, 
has a grocery store, and other mercantile lines are repre- 
sented as follows: D. M. Baldridge, hardware and im- 
})l('ments; Perry Reddick, general stoi'e; J. M. Eaton, 
general store; C. F. Cline, grocer; C. M. Kuhn, grocery 
and restaurant; Stella M. Davis, diligs; Charles L. Stout, 
restaui-ant: Lee Silvers, vulcanizing and motor accessoi-- 
ies; O, F. Downey, ga.rage: ^\ . T. Xewhouse, AV. B. Hin- 
ton and L. Snider, blacksmiths, and two poolrooms. 
Thei'e are two physiciaiis in the village. Dr. A. G. Shanck 
and Dr. Fred 11. Finlaw. The independent Order of Odd 
Fellows is repiesented ])y a subordinate lodge, a lodge of 
the Daughters of Rebekah and the encain])ment and the 
Imjjroved Order of Red Men lias a lodge and the auxil- 
iary Daughters of Pocahontas. Ai'lington has the oldest 
brass })and in the county, the same liaving been a continu- 
ous organization ff)r moi-e than twenty-five years, now 
undei" the leadership of < '. Fail Downey. 

RICH!. AND roWXSlllI' 

'I'liis 1(»\viisliip. sitiia1»'(l in the southeast corner of the 
county, is a township of tiiiity sections, and is Ixninded 


on the north by Noble township, on the east by Franklin 
county, on the south by Decatur county, on the west by 
Anderson township. It is well drained, Clifty creek mak- 
ing a loop in the south central portion of the township, the 
North Fork of Clifty traversing the northwest section 
and Salt creek and Bull Fork creek draining the eastern 
section. By reason of its situation with respect to the 
older counties to the east and south Richland was one of 
the first centers of population in Rush county, a settle- 
ment having been effected on Clifty creek in this town- 
ship as early as 1820, George Brown, Jesse Moi'gan, 
James Henderson, John Ray, John Ewick, Joel Craig 
and James and John Gregg having located there in that 
year. Jacob Fisher came in the following year, and in 
1822 and 1823 quite a number of other families had lo- 
cated thereabout, making quite a settlement in the Rich- 
land neighborhood. Joel Craig started a store at the 
cross roads dividing sections 10 and 15 for the accommo- 
dation of the pioneer settlers and around this trading 
center the village of Richland grew up. Larrimore & 
Eyestone, afterward Eyestone & Hackleman, opened the 
second store, and in 1824 Harvey Bros, also started a 
store. Jesse Morgan, who later represented this district 
in both houses of the state legislature, was the first just- 
ice of the peace. His brother, Jonah Morgan, was a pio- 
neer schoolteacher and Methodist preacher. The Hope- 
well Methodist church, organized by the Greggs in this 
township in 1821, is commonly regarded as having been 
the first formal chui'ch organization in Rush county. 
It is noted that Lorenzo Dow in his itinerary through this 
section of Indiana preached to the pioneers in the Hope- 
well grove. The first white child born in the township 
was Hannah, daughter of Jacob Fisher, whose birth oc- 
curred in September, 1821. The first marriage, in that 
same year, was that of Jonathan Richeson and Ann 
Wheeler. It is well to note that this pioneer couple 
raised thirteen children, an evidence, as an older chroni- 


cle notes, of their "i^ood citizenship." The first teacher 
was Air. Ricker, who coiuUicted a j^ioiieer school in a cabin 
in the Richland neighborhood. Doctor Bradshaw was the 
first physician and he was followed by Doctors Bracken 
and ITowland. The presence in this townshi]) in the <tld 
days of Richland Academy uave an iui|)etns to the canse 
of education in that connnunity wliicli was reflected 
throng] lout this whole region. 

Aniout; the pioneers of this townshi}) may be noted 
the names of Jesse Morgan, George Brown, James Hen- 
derson, John Ray, John Ewick, Joel Craig, John and 
James Gregg, Jacob Fisher, John Stewart, Abraham 
Bever, Joseph Wash])urn, Peter and Joseph Aliller, 
Charles Robinson, Charles and Archibald Miller, John 
Cook and John Walker. 

Uichland — Though this village, as noted above, had 
been a trading jjoint since the day of the beginning of a 
settlement in Richland township, it was not formally 
platted until in 1854 when A. P. Butler and others "laid 
out" the town, the original ])lat consisting of sixteen lots. 
When the railroad came to Milroy, about four miles to 
the west, that village became the natural center of trade 
for that region and Richland's conuuercial develo])ment 
went into a decline from wliich it never recovered, a 
fui'thcr decline ensuing wlien the postoffice was taken 
away. Jiiail being br(»ught by rural delivery from Mili-oy. 
Richland has a ])o})ulati(»u of about I-IO. The Methodist 
Episco]>al cliurch is the only one there, but there formerly 
was a congregation of United Presbyterians, the old 
Richland Academy having Jx'eii conducted under their 
auspices, but they gradually were absorbed by other 
(M»nnuunions. The United Brethren have a church in the 
S(»utlieast i)art of the townshi]). \Vhen it fii'st became a 
community centei- this village was known as Harvey's 
Co]'neis. Later it took tlie higher sounding name (►f 
Palmyia and it was not until the '70s that it became 
known as Richland. There are two stores at Richland, 
Messrs. Lusk and Hawkins being the merchants. 



This township is situated iii the northwest corner of 
Rush county and is bounded on the north by Henry 
county and two sections of Hancock county, on the east 
by Center township, on the south by Posey township and 
on the west by Hancock county. Carthage, a town of 
about 900 population on the Big Four railroad, near the 
center of the township, is the trading center and has been 
so from the beginning, the Quaker settlement which 
sprang up on the Big Blue at that point in pioneer days 
having maintained its dominance as a social and commer- 
cial center. Farmers, a station on the Big Four in section 
33, is a trading point in the southeast corner of the town- 
ship. Ripley township is well drained, being traversed 
from the northeast corner to the southwest corner by Big 
Blue river, which gave power to the mills in pioneer days. 
Six Mile creek drains the western portion of the town- 
ship and Three Mile creek enters Big Blue in the north- 
eastern portion. 

The first permanent settlement in the township was 
made by a colony of Quakers from North Carolina, who 
settled there in 1821. Even before the lands were opened 
by the Government for sale Joseph Henley, Samuel Hill 
and a party had come out here into the wilderness from 
North Carolina to "spy out the land" and had selected 
lands along the Big Blue in the vicinity of where Carth- 
age later came to be laid out. At the land sale Robert 
Hill, son of Samuel Hill and brother-in-law of Joseph 
Henley, acting as agent for the colony, purchased the tract 
and in 1821 several families settled, including those of 
Thomas, Jonathan and Nathan Hill, brothers of Robert 
Hill; Andrew Thorp, Dayton Holloway, Benjamin 
Snyder, William Wilson, Pearson Lacy, Benjamin Cox 
and Nathan White. In the next year others came and by 
1825 there was a quite numerous settlement in the rich 
lands of the township. The first birth of a white child in 


the township was in the family of Nathan Hill in 1^22 
and the first marriage in the township was that of Will- 
iam Binford and ^Nlary Jessup. It was not long after their 
arrival on the scene before the colony of Friends had a 
log meeting house erected on AValnut Ridge and in this 
pioneer meeting house the first school was conducted, 
Xathan Hill being the teacher. Robert Hill opened the 
first store and this early commercial center became the 
nucleus around which Carthage grew up. Robert Hill, 
who had acted as the agent for the colony in the purchase 
of their lands, also was the fiist miller and was an active 
factor in the development of the conununity. The first 
blacksmith was Dayton Holloway, who some years later 
also started a mill. Until the coming of the Shelby ville 
& Knightstown railroad in 1848 the development of the 
community was aliout that of the normal rural com- 
nnuiity, but when the railroad gave Carthage a proper 
outlet it began to expand and has ever since been the 
second town in i^oint of population in the county. Among 
others besides those above mentioned who were classed 
as pioneers of Ripley township were John Addison, John 
Walker, William James, Samuel Moore, Isaac Tullis, 
Henry and Thomas Henley, l^cuben Bentley, Xathan 
Pettijohn, Luke Newsom, Jonathan Pieisou, Jonathan 
Ph('ll)s, John l)aws(m, Jacob Siler, John Reddick, Sarah 
(^ommons, Hannah Earnest, Thomas Draper, Henry 
Xewby, Thomas Cogshall, Lindsey Hearkless, Elias Hen- 
ley, Ste])hen l>entl('y, John dates, Mahlon Hockett, Abra- 
ham Small, "i'lionias Tlionil)urg, Joel Pusey and William 

Cdrthinjc — Hi ])oirt of size ;nul l)usiness im]jortance 
Carthage is second onlv to l\usliville ns a commercial 
center in Rush county, it is beautifully situated on the 
b;niks of i'ig Blue river about the center of the township 
and is an inijtoi-tant sjiij)ping ))oiiit on the Big F(mr rail- 
road. The big ])lant of the American T^aper Products 
Company at this place is regarded as one of the most 




extensive industrial concerns in Rush county and 
employs about 150 persons. Though Carthage had been 
established as a trading point in the early '20s, as noted 
above, when Robert Hill opened his little store there, it 
was not officially recognized on the ma^) until August 
18, 1834, when John Clark and Henry Henley filed a plat 
of the village. This plat which was laid out in the north- 
east corner of the northwest quarter of section 19, town- 
ship 15, range 9 east, comprised thirty-two lots, sixteen on 
each side of Main street, the cross streets being named 
First, Second and Third. Five or six additions have since 
been made to this original plat and the town now has a 
population in excess of 900 and is substantially built. 
Natural gas is provided by the Carthage Natural Gas 
Company, William Bundy, president, and light is pro- 
vided by local electric light plant of which F. F. Brennan 
is the proprietor, he getting his power from the paper 
mill. The Carthage Bank and the Carthage Building and 
Loan Association are im23ortant commercial factors in the 
town, while the grain elevator operated by the Hill Grain 
and Coal Company offers a market for the local cereal 
crops. Otto O. Griffin, who was commissioned in 1918, 
succeeding the late L. B. McCarty, is the postmaster. The 
township commissioned high school is one of the hand- 
somest school buildings in this part of the state and is 
ample in equipment for the needs of the town's public 
schools. There also is a school for colored children, called 
the Booker T. Washington school. The considerable 
colored population in and about Carthage is descended 
from the families brought there in the days before the 
Civil war by means of the "underground railroad," a 
station of which was maintained by the Friends in that 
vicinity. There are also two colored churches, one for 
the JMethodists and one for the Christians. The other 
churches are those of the Friends, of which the Rev. A. J, 
Furstenberg is the pastor ; the Fletcher Methodist Episco- 
pal, Rev. Arthur Jean, pastor ; the Wesleyan JMethodist. 


Rov. H. T. Hawkins, ]iastor, and the Christian, Rev. 
Sumner, pastor. The very attractive Henley Memoiial 
Library erected in 1902 is an admirable social center for 
the community. It was constructed by volunteer contri- 
butions of public spirited citizens. Henry Henley, one 
of the founders of Carthage, moved by a desire to benefit 
the people of that conmiunity, gave $1,000 to establish a 
free public library. This gift was added to by private 
persons, the W. C. T. U., the Carthage Monthly fleeting 
of Friends and by a small tax authorized by law. A 
board of directors was appointed, composed of W. P. 
Henley, J. ^I. Stone, N. C. Biuford, Levi Binford, J. F. 
Publow, Eunice H. Dunn and Luzena Thornburg, and an 
organization effected under the law\ For some time a 
room in the Carthage Bank building was used, but the de- 
mand for more books and more room led to an effort to 
supply both. The childi'en of Henry Henley gave $2,000 
to the building fund, other subscriptons were made and 
the additional sum required was raised by taxation. As a 
result the present beautiful building was erected at a cost 
of $6,500. 

The lil)i'arv is well maintained and is patronized 
by tlie wliole township. The town is well represented 
abroad })y its weekly newspaper, the Citizen, C. C Hill, 
editor and proprietor. The Freemasons and the Odd 
Fellows liave lodges at Carthage aiid there is a dwindling 
jjost of the Grand Arni}^ of the Republic and a vigorous 
post of the American Legion. The Auditorium theater, 
J. F. Tweedy, manager, offers the eounimnity a place of 
entertainment. Hotels are conducted l)y Mrs. H. G. 
Rolls and Mrs. Palmira Smith, wliile J. F. Kennedy and 
C. E. Rlioades have restaurants. Otliei- ))usiness in the 
town is repi'csented as follows : (I i< K-crs, I lungate Whole- 
sale Comi)any, A. W. Winridd. I^helps Bros., T. E. 
C()oi)er; dry goods, F. J. Sims, l^\ B. Yankuner; hard- 
ware, C K. White & Son, Sharer & Moore; music and 
nuisical instruments, Gates Music Company; tailor, J. A. 


Lineback; drugs. O. C. McCarty; barbers, Peacock & 
Kyser, George F. Winslow ; garages, H. T. Beher, Ralph 
Lindamood ; blacksmiths, James Carfield, William 
Shaffer ; feed store, R. C. Hill ; shoemakers, W. A. Minor, 
William Snyder; bakery, T. J. Passwater; poolroom, 
Parish Bros. ; sawmill, R. T. Moore ; canning factory, the 
DeSchipper Canning Company, John DeSchipper, 
manager. The industries of Carthage began about the 
time Robert Hill put up his store there back in pioneer 
days, this pioneer's second enterprise being the erection 
of a sawmill to which plant he presently added a grist- 
mill. The next merchants were Eli and Joseph Stratton, 
Hill & Henley, L. & F. Hill, Jabez Henley and Jason 
Williams. Among the early mechanics were John Sears 
and Isaac Nelson, blacksmiths, and George W. Pearce, 
wagon maker. Formerly the town supported a busy 
planing mill which was operated by Hiram and Jesse 
Henley, Theodore Moore had a sawmill, Charles Moore 
a cement block factory and John Dana a cannery. Cox 
& Cox's flour mill was a busy institution in its day and 
Charles R. Butler had a machine shop. 


This is the central township of the county and con- 
tains the county seat. As it was properly surmised that 
the county seat would be located somewhere near the 
center of the county there was considerable settlement 
here even before the commissioners acting for the state 
decided on the location of a county seat, and its develop- 
ment from the beginning has kept pace with Rushville, 
the county's chief city. Rushville township is bounded 
on the north by Jackson township and one-half section of 
Union township, on the east by Union and Noble town- 
ships, on the south by Anderson township and on the west 
by Walker township and two sections of Posey township. 
It is well drained. Big Flat Rock river entering the 
township in the northeast corner and flowing out in the 


southwest cornel', while Ben Davis creek and other small 
tributaries afford additional natural drainag-e. It is said 
that Di-. Maishall Sexton, son of Dr. Horatio Sexton, was 
the first white ciiild horn in the township. That was in 
1822. The first niillei- was W. B. Lanohlin, the surveyoi' 
who cast in his lot with this communit}' after coniijleting 
the Government survey hereabout. He also was the first 
school teacher and in other ways impressed himself upon 
the community in its "day of small things." As the 
general history of Rushville township follows so closely 
that of the town of Husliville the reader is i-efei-red for 
further details in this connection to the chapter relating 
to the county seat elsewhere in this volume, though it 
will be i)ro})er here to give the names of those who are 
mentioned as among the first settlers of the township and 
most of whom located outside the town of Rushville. 
among these being Plenry Thornbury, John Hale, David 
Morris, John Oldham, Joseph and Ilenry Nichols, 
Stephen Sims, Thomas and Benjamin Lakin, Ewell 
Kindall, Robert English, David McHatton, Charles Elias 
Boston, Elijah Hefflin, Samuel Allenthrope, William 
Junken, Sullivan S. Ross, Christian Clymer, Houston 
Morris, James ^^'alker, Lot Green, George Guffin, Will- 
iam and Wesley Moffett, Daniel Smith, Rutherford J. 
Boyd, Amaziah and Alamandei- Fowler, Reuben Roland, 
McCormick Zion, David Meciiei-, Elijah Lewark, Henry 
Webster, Custavus Cowgei', Ivan Fleener, William Cald- 
well, William Lochridge, John Cavitt, John, James, Will- 
iam and Michael Lower, Richard Thornbury, William 
Dill, flames Davis, Amariah Sutton, George Mull, Thomas 
Stewart, Cuthbert Webb, Fielding and Isaac B. Jones, 
John Parsons, Andrew Gilson, Artenms Moore, David 
Crawfoi'd, John Asher, Pressley Moore, John Philli])s, 
Weir Cassady, Silas, John T. and William T. Ililligoss, 
Isaac Carr, Benjamin Sam])son, Samuel Jackson, R(^bert 
Gardner, Sampson (Cassady, Thomas Cassady, Sr., James 
Havens, AN'illiam Newell, flames McManus, Thomas 


McCarty, John Oliver, Sr., James Anderson, Jonathan 
Boyce and Jacob Minx. 


In this township, in section 25, along Ben Davis 
creek where "Arnold's Home" later came to be estab- 
lished, the Indians under the leadership of old Chief 
Mahoning (whom the wliites when they came called Ben 
Davis) had their village long before white settlers began 
to invade the rich Inmting grounds of the aboriginals 
hereabout. Even before the treaty which caused the 
Indians to be moved from their lands here several white 
men had settled in this section. They occupied themselves 
hunting and trapping and were on friendly relations with 
the Indians. Among these was Henry Sadorus, who had 
a cabin where the Indian trail crossed Big Flat Rock 
river, the point where John Smelser erected the mill 
which gave the name of Smelser 's Mills to the point after 
1822. Samuel Gruell put up a cabin on Ben Davis creek 
in the vicinity of the Indian village, now "Arnold's 
Home," and Weir Cassady settled on what later came to 
be known as the Joseph Hinchman farm, and there were 
no doubt other trappers and hunters as well as a few 
' ' squatters ' ' who were awaiting their opportunit}^ to claim 
title when the land was thrown open to sale, so that as 
early as 1819 there were found quite a number of white 
men on the ground. When the land sale was opened there 
was a rush for the lands west of the older counties of 
Fayette and Franklin and general settlement of the town- 
ship was not long delayed. John Arnold, Raus Byrd 
Green, Thos. Sargeant and John Houghton bought land 
in this township on the first day of the land sale in Octo- 
ber, 1820, and among those who came not long afterward 
are mentioned John Horlock, Amaziah Morgan, George 
and Michael Hittle, Samuel Banner, John McMillen, Yf ils 
Buzan, Samuel Newhouse, John Nash, John and Richard 
Blacklidge, George Nipp, Isaac Arnold, Jacob Virgil, 


Elisha Clark and Edward Swaiison (afterward the mur- 
derer of Elisha Clark, as set out elsewhere), Peter Shafer, 
George and Matthew Zion, John Clifford, Samuel I)ur- 
bon, John ^I orris, Obediah Seward, Philip and Richard 
Richee, Isaac Sparks, David Looney, Samuel Bussell, 
Lawrence Aspey, Conrad Hilligoss, James and John 
Hinchman, John Brown, Thomas, Henry and John 
Logan, John Garrison, Isaac and Abraham Fleener, 
David liow, Hiram Kindle and Robert Groves. The 
first white child born in the township was Louise, daugh- 
ter of John Arnold, in June, 1822, and the first marriage 
was that of John Horlock and Mary, daughter of Isaac 
Arnold, in that same year. The Baptists organized a 
congregation as early as 1822 and erected a meeting house 
on Ben Davis creek. James IMatthews and Clark Kitchen 
are mentioned as among the early school teachers. 
Shafer 's sawmill on Ben Davis creek was an early conven- 
ience to the pioneers thereabout and Smelser's gristmill 
already has been mentioned, John Arnold opened a store 
on his farm, and this place of business was long a center 
of the connnunity, foi' years local elections and musters 
being held there. On this farm lived Swanson, the only 
man ever hanged in Rush county, who was executed for 
the murder of Elisha Clark. 

Union to^^ms]lip is bounded on the north by Wash- 
ington township and one section of Center township, east 
by P'ayette county, soutli by Noble to■^\^lship and on the 
west by Rush and Jackson townshii)s. Glenwood in the 
southeastern ]»ai't of the townshi]) (lying in sections 28 
and '.)'■) of tliis townshi]) and partly in Fayette county) 
and Mauzy oi- Griffin Station, are trading points on the 
C. 1. i^' \y. railroad and Gings Station in section 11 and 
Falmouth in tlic noi'theast coniei' (])art lying in Union 
townshi)), ])art in W'ashiiigton township and j)art in the 
neighboring county of Fayette) ai'e trading })oints on the 
Pennsylvania railroad. The townshij) is well drained, 
the headwaters of Little Flat Rock river and its tribu- 


taries, Shankitank, Middle Fork, Shawnee, Plum and 
Turkey creeks draining the upper half and Ben Davis 
creek with its small tributaries draining the lower half of 
the township. 

Glenwood — This is an incorporated village of about 
300 population which, as above noted, lies partly in Rush 
county and partly in Fayette county. It was first known 
as Steele's, so called after its first postmaster, who was 
a pioneer tavern keeper at that point. In 1832 Dr. 
Jefferson Helm, Samuel Durbon and John Morris had a 
formal plat made of the town and gave it the name of 
Vienna, which some years later was changed to Glenwood 
and by this latter name the village since has been known. 
The first merchant at this point was Alfred Thompson 
and Henry and Thomas Thompson were the pioneer 
blacksmiths and wagon makers for the community which 
developed around the tavern and store. The first doctors 
were John Arnold and Jefferson Helm. Among the early 
business men were John Gatrell and Moses Wiley, wagon 
makers ; Gideon Klink, saddler and harness maker ; John 
Jack, merchant, Samuel Boden, car^^enter; John Lang- 
ley, who kept a store and was also a preacher, and G. 
Clawson, shoemaker. Among the early residents are men- 
tioned Thomas Smiley, Joseph Clifford, Vv ard Williams, 
Thomas Ochiltree and Henry Cline. With the coming of 
the railroad Glenwood became stimulated with a new 
commercial spirit and a grain elevator afforded a con- 
venient local market, while other lines of business also 
came in. The later arrival of the trolley line gave an 
additional impetus to the business life of the town. The 
Methodist Episcopalians and the United Presbyterians 
have churches at Glenwood and the Odd Fellows and Red 
Men have lodges. 

Falmouth — This village also lies partly over the line 
in Fayette county and is also partly in Washington 
township, being in the extreme northeastern corner of 
Union township. It was "laid out" on the Fayette side 


of tlic line in 1832 and in the fall of 18(i7 D. M. Sliawhan 
laid ont an addition ovoi- the line in Rush county. The 
villai^'e lias a jxipulatidn of ahout 200 and is a good trading- 
point on the Pennsylvania railroad. The Methodist 
Episcoisalians have a church there. Clings is a station on 
the Pennsylvania in section 11, a grain elevator, a store 
and a blacksmith shop composing the business interests of 
the place. 


Tills is one of the smaller townsliij)s in the county, 
having ])ut thirty sections in it, six east aiid west and five 
nortli and south. It is bounded on the north by Posey 
township, on the east by Rushville township, on the south 
by Orange township and on the west by Shelby county. 
^Manilla, a flourishing town of about 500 population in 
the western part of the to\vnship, lying in sections 14 and 
15, and Homei-, a busy village in section 18, about the 
center of the townshix). ai'e excellent shipping and com- 
mercial ])oints on the Pennsylvania railroad. The surface 
of the township is generally flat, tliough there is some 
rolling land, and the natural drainage provided by the 
sluggish Mud creek and its equally sluggish tril)utaries 
has been supplemented by considerable ditching which 
was found necessary to reclaim large sections of swanij) 
lands which in the early days wcj-e regarded as ])ractically 
\-aluel('ss but which now are excellent farm lands. On 
account of the presence here of nmch swani]) land and 
also because it was farther west than the other townships 
on the s;iiiie tier in the county settlement of Walker 
townshi]) was not effected as early ;;s in its neighboring 
t(»wnshi]) to the east, very few ])ioiieers having been found 
there ])i'ior to 1824. Fn this year a considerable "colony" 
of Kent nck'ians came up from Kleming county and estab- 
iislied themselves in the townslii]). theii- presence stinm- 
lating further settlement until in tlie next two or three 
years ])retty much all the available land had been taken 
u]» and most of it re]»resented by established homes. In 



the list of pioneers of this township are fonnd the names 
of John Goddard and his son Joseph, James Davis, Lan- 
don Gardner, Landy Hnrst, William Burgess, Daniel 
Jones, Oliver Norman, Reuben Hefflin, David Peters, 
Fielding Hurst, Joshua Hefflin, James Rogers, Collins 
Hefflin, Frederick and Jacob Mull, Wright Donnelly, 
Isaac Baltis, Mr. Vfarfield, Samuel Y\^ilson, Edward 
Inlow, J. Webb, William Glass, Edward Riley, Samuel 
AYatson, Jacob Hendricks, Peter Carpenter, Dean Y^illis, 
Benjamin Plummer, Paul Folger, William Davis, 
Thomas and Barnard l\Iacy, John Bramble, Reuben 
Conrad, Benjamin Elder, John Fouch, James and Reuben 
Alexander, James Goddard, John Heaton, David Peters, 
John English, James Fouch, Aaron Rollins, George 
Thomas, Isaac Hilligoss, Andrew Elder, Jacob Goddard, 
Eli Hill, Jonathan Murphy, Daniel Thomas, Doctor 
Huston, Gilbert Edwards, Coleman Rollins, AYilliam S. 
Hilligoss, Benjamin Plummer, Josiah and Alexander 
Aliller, James Morrison, George and James Mahin, 
Emmons Hurst, James Emmons, John Alexander, Levi 
Hilligoss, Squire McCorkle, AYilliam Gates, Fred J. and 
Michael Hael, ^iichael Kney, Joseph Tomes, William 
Hodge, Y^illiam AYesterfield, David and John Dearinger, 
Fred Koontz, Casper and James Johnson, James Collins, 
John Y^ebb and William Hunter. 

Manilla — This is the chief town of Y^alker township 
and is situated almost on the western edge of the county. 
It is a good shipping point on the Pennsylvania railroad 
and has a bank, a grain elevator, a commissioned high 
school, two churches and the essential business houses and 
industrial establishments to carry on the business of the 
thriving community of which it is the center. The present 
(1921) pastor of the Methodist Episcopal church is the 
Rev. M. E. Abel and of the Cliristian church, Rev. J. P. 
Mars. Thomas K. Mull is ])resident of the Manilla Bank 
arid the Rush-Shelby Crain Company operates the grain 
elevator. The postmistress. Miss Mary M. Inlow, who 


was commissioned on April 2, 1919, carries on a confec- 
tionery business in connection with the postoffice. Gen- 
eral stores, John Gross and M. L. Heaton ; hardware, J. E. 
Creed and Silverthorn & Hungerford; drugs, George J. 
Inlow: hotel, .Mrs. A. B. Staniford; barber shops, E. H. 
^Nlahan and Oscar Passmore; garage, Frank Nichel; 
millinery, Blanche Fox; confectionery. Shook & Son; 
blacksmith, Edward Edwards. There is one physician in 
the village, Dr. AV, E. Barnum, and one dentist. Dr. 
Charles ^V. Zike. Among the earliei' physicians in the 
town may be mentioned the names of John Westerfield, 
J. W. Houston, James W. Trees, J. J. Inlow, John H. 
Spurrier and Armstrong and Ramey. The town has a 
flourishing lodge of Freemasons and a lodge of Red .Men. 
AVhen natural gas was developed in Rush county Manilla 
secured a good sn])i:>ly through local wells and is still using 
this convenient fuel although the pressure is nothing like 
it was in other days. It uses the Bell and Independent 
telephones and secures electric current for lighting pur- 
poses fi-om Rushville. It was on January 4, 1836, that 
the original plat of Manilla was filed for record, the ti^wn 
being "laid out" by Jacob Mull, Elias and Jonathan 
Murphy aiid Jonathan Edwards. At first the town was 
called Wilmington, Init later was changed to ^lanilla, 
wliich name it ever since has borne, one of the two })Ost- 
offices of that name in the United States. Inquiry among 
some of the ohl I'esidents failed to reveal the source of 
tlic name. The first house in the town was a log cabin 
erected on the site of the present Trei^s homestead ])lace. 
Jacob Mull was the first merchant and other early mer- 
chants were AVoofolk and Riley & Frame. When the rail- 
road was being constructed through there, in 1848. a 
sawmill w;is erected to get out timber for construction 
work, 'i'hc first train ran over the line on July 4, 1850, 
and thereafter the growth of the village to its present 
stage was substantial, the connnmiity appreciating the 
advantage of a rail shipping point. One of the former 


industries of the town was a tannery which was erected 
in 1841 and a gristmill was erected in 1860. The Manilla 
Bank was organized by Thomas K. and Leonidas H. Mull 
in 1901 and has served as a great commercial convenience 
throughout that part of the county. 

Homer — This is the second village in size in Walker 
township and is a pleasant place of about 200 souls, on the 
Pennsylvania railroad about the center of the township. 
The Arbuckle tile mill, one of the most extensive in this 
part of the state, is the chief industry in the place. There 
also is a good grain elevator and the several stores in the 
village supply the local wants of the community in the 
commercial way. The town has an excellent township 
school and there are two churches, the Christian and the 
Baptists being represented by congregations. The only 
lodge is that of the Odd Fellows. Homer grew up around 
a sawmill which was started by Nathan Murphy and 
Samuel Craig at that point in the late '40s to get out 
timber for the construction of the railroad and was at 
first known simply as "Slabtown," from the use of slabs 
from the sa^NTiiill for road repairs instead of the usual 
corduroy, but as the place grew this was regarded as 
hardly dignified enough and the classic name of Homer 
was given the station and the people there wouldn 't trade 
that name for any other on the map. The town was 
l^latted in the sum^mer of 1876. Among the early business 
men of the village may be mentioned J. Folger, Jesse 
Jarrett, James Andrews, Alexander Bridges, J. J. 
Emmons, William Emmons, J. T. Robertson, Uriah 
Thomas, Arbuckle & Son, S. C. Van Winkle and Jarrett 
& Innis. 


This is the northeast township of the county and is 
bounded on the north by Henry county, on the east by 
Fayette county, on the south by Union township and on 
the west by Center township. Raleigh, in almost the exact 


center of the towiishi]). has ))een the social centei' of the 
toTv^lship since it was hiid out many years ai^o. It was 
given its name in honor of the capital of orth Carolina, 
in deference to the wishes of a number of Carolinians who 
had settled in that vicinity. The villa,L!:e of Falmouth, 
wliicli 1i;!S Ix'cn I'efci'red to inidci- the cajitidn of Union 
townslii]), touches W'ashiiiuton townshi]* in the southeast 
corucr of the townshi]) through which the I^enr.sylvania 
railroad runs. A\'ashington townshi]) is drained by Flat 
Rock. Shankitank, 2\liddle Foi-k and Shawnee creeks, all 
rather sluggish streams, which were not sufficient at an 
earlier day to drain the extensive swam]) lands which kept 
back settlement in that ]>art of the county uaitil consider- 
ably later than other sections began to fill u]\ Init these 
swamps have long since been drained by ditches su|)]3le- 
menting the creeks and there is now very little land in the 
townshi]) that is not profitably cultivated. "Washington 
townshi]) and the town of Raleigh will ever be known as 
the home of the consolidated t()A\nishi]3 school, such a 
school having been organized at Raleigh under the direc- 
tion of William S. Hall as early as 1S76. which is said to 
have been the first movement of the kind in the United 
States. Mr. Hall, whose ardent interest in school work 
is referred to elsewhere iu this vohune. was one of the 
most influential of th( enrlic]- residents of Washington 
townshi]), served for years as the local justice of the 
])eace. as townshi]) trustee, during which lattei' term of 
ser\i(*e he jierroiitied liis notable work of school de\'elo])- 
ment, and later re])resented this district in the state legis- 
lature. !lis sou, the venerable l^'i-aidc fl. Hall, now living 
at Rusb\illc. WM<» was born in this townshi]). was electetl 
lieutenanl governor of Indiana in 190S. it is said that 
ll'.e fiist while male child born in this lownshi]) was Kin 
Fi-iiie an.' the first female l^>liy l-:. dackson. The first 
man'iage was that of John M;ntin and Piudence Cooke, 
The first school teacher was Johii X. Renw^ell, 

Inehuled among the ]»ioneers of Washington town- 


ship, according to the older chronicles, were John Morgan, 
Daniel Sliawan, Matthew Prine, Richard Knotts, John 
Cooke, Tliomas and Samuel Legg, Peter Yonnker, Adam 
and Zachariah Amnion, Marshall and Salathiel Vickery, 
John and George Maple, William McCann, Elam Irvin, 
Thomas and Joseph Hall, Joash Cook, Isaac Fry, James 
Prine, Benjamin, William, Joseph and Isaiah Jackson, 
Samuel Peake, Thomas Colbert, Jesse Scott. John H. 
Hood, Philip Ei'tel, Hiram Plnmmer, John Weaver, 
Matthew Rippe, David and Lewis L. Canaday, John y\. 
Shawhan, Manlove, Jonathan, James I. and Franklin 
Caldwell, Robert Jeffries, Jacob Parrish, Benjamin 
Loder, John M. Penwell, Samuel Peake, Thomas Will- 
iams, William Beard, Sarah Irvin, Davis Rich, Richard 
Kolp, Jonathan and Levi Hatfield, James Low, John 
Reddin and Alfred C. Lightf oot. 

Raleigh — It is said that the first house erected on the 
present site of the town of Raleigh was built by William 
McCann, who was one of the early settlers in that part of 
the county and that about 1841 Benjamin Clifford opened 
a store in that house. This store preseuth^ was taken over 
by Mr. McCann and the hamlet which grew up around the 
store became locally known simply as McCann 's. About 
1845 William Beard, whose farm covered the site sold 
some lots and gave the place the name of Newberne. On 
October 30, 1847, E. W. Shrader filed a plat of the site 
under the name of Raleigh and later 3 Jr. Beard and Sarah 
Irvin made an addition to the original plat. The new 
plat gave the place the name of Raleigh in honor of the 
Carolinians who were settlers thereabout, as has been 
noted above. Raleigh found itself far off the line when 
the railroads began to come through this section of the 
state and has remained a pleasant rural hamlet, its 
present population being in the neighborhood of 150, but 
it has always maintained high standards and as a social 
center has ever exerted a wholesome influence throughout 
that entire countryside; its influence in an educational 


way particularly havin^^ been widespread, as stated above. 
The consolidated school building erected long ago under 
Mr. Hall's thoughtful direction, years ago became 
inadequate and was supplanted by the present fine school 
building, a pictui-e of Avhicli is found elsewhere in this 


According to a jjreliminary announcement of popu- 
lation (subject to correction) issued by the Census 
Bureau early in 1921 giving figures of the fourteenth 
census (1920), the population of the several townships 
of Rush county is as follows : Anderson township, 1,457 ; 
Center township, 1,376: Jackson township, 582; Noble 
townshi]), 945; Orange township, 1,015; Posey township, 
1,299; Richland township, 695; Ripley township, includ- 
ing towm of Carthage, 1,815; Rushville township, includ- 
ing city of Rushville, 6,782; Union to^mship, including 
that pai't of Glenwood lying in this county, 1,158; Walker 
toTvmship, 1,192, and Washington township, 925. Total 
for county, 19,241. Rushville \s po})ulatiou is given at 
5,498, as follows: First ward, 1,641 ; Second ward, 1,364; 
Third ward, 2,493. 

The trend of population away fi'om the farm which 
has been so noticeable a feature of census statistics in the 
middle West during the past two decades has been noticed 
with concern in Rush county, where, as in neai'ly every 
other section of the state, the rural conununities have 
suffered a loss in population. Comparison of the above 
figures with thr»se of the census report for twenty years 
ago will show a decline in ])opulation in all townships of 
the county save Rushville townsliij), which is saved by 
the gain in the city's ])()pulation, the figures for 1900 
being as follows: Anderson township, 1,481; Center, 
1,753; Jacksf»n, 706; Noble, 992; Orange, 1,102; Posey, 
1,495; Richland, 767: Rii)ley (including Carthage"), 
2,118; Rushville (including city of Rushville), 6,027; 


Union, 1,341 ; Walker, 1,361 ; Washington, 1,005. The total 
population of the county in 1900 was given as 20,148, as 
against 19,241 for 1920, and the population of the city of 
Rushville in 1900 was given as 4,541, as against 5,498 for 
1920. The gain in the city, however, was not sufficient to 
offset the loss in the rural communities and Rush county 
is thus shown to have suffered an actual decline in j)opu- 
lation of 907. 

Township Trustees — The present (1921) trustees of 
the several townships of Rush county are as follows: 
Anderson township, Frank McCorkle, of Milroy ; Center, 
John F. Cohee, of Mays; Jackson, Alvah Newhouse, 
Rushville rural route ; Noble, E. R. Titsworth, Glenwood ; 
Orange, Wilbur Brown, Milroy; Posey, Thomas R. Lee, 
Arlington; Richland, Fred Goddard, New Salem rural 
route ; Ripley, Jesse Henley, Carthage ; Rushville, James 
V. Young, Rushville ; Union, John F. Mapes, Glenwood ; 
Walker, Lew Lewis, Manilla, and Washington, Edward 
V. Jackson, Mays rural route. 

Some ''Deserted Villages'' — An interesting and 
somewhat pathetic record of blasted hopes and fruitless 
ambitions is carried in the plat book at the county 
recorder 's office, where have been filed in all the pride of 
budding hope plats of towns that "died a bornin' " in this 
county. One of the earliest of these projects that failed 
of fruition was that of Moses Coffin and Joseph Leonard, 
of this county, and two men living over the line in Shelby 
county who platted a "town" of forty-eight lots, half in 
Rush and half in Shelby, in June, 1834, and gave the name 
of "Savannah" to the same. Its location was one mile 
south of the northwest corner of Walker township. 
Unhappily for the promoters' dreams of a metropolis 
rising there. Savannah did not materialize beyond the pen 
and ink stage and the old plat book is the only present 
record of it. 

In June, 1835, Reuben Johnson filed a plat of "Ash- 
land," set out as lying in the west half of the southwest 


qiuiiter of sectiini 17, townsiiip 12, raiiiie 9 cast, and con- 
taining thirty lots jnst cast across Big Flat Rock river 
from the town of Moscow. AVhether the lots were sold or 
not, Ashland is not on the current nia])s of Rush connty. 

y-t. Etna was another jjaper town laid ont about that 
time, .lohn Scott in June, 1836, filing a plat of such town 
carrying sixteen lots in the east half of the noithwcst 
quarter of section 7, township 14, range 10 east, but ^it. 
Etna failed to develop. This proposed town was located 
in Jackson township, one mile south of the north line of 
the townshi]) and near the center of township, east and 

In September, 1836, Alexander B. Luce filed a plat 
of the town of Mai-cellus, also containing sixteen lots and 
lying in the northeast corner of the west half of the south- 
east quarter of section 36, township 14, range 10 east, near 
the to"^Ti of Farmington, but search of a modern ma]" of 
the county fails to reveal Aiarcellus. 

The same is true of the town of Carmel, a plat of 
which was filed in A])ril, 1837, by John AY. Barber and 
others setting out the limits of the town in the northeast 
(piarter of section 5, township 13, range 10 east. This 
was a somewhat more ambitious pi'oject than the others 
for the plat carried 110 lots, but of Carmel there is now 
no note on the county's map, although on account of the 
high gi'ound the townsite occupied its projectors had 
hoped to make of it a rival to Rushville and the eventual 
metropolis of the county. The "boom" that was hoped 
for never came. 



Beautiful for locatiou, situated in the midst of a 
region as fair and fertile as any in the Union, affording 
to its citizens the culture and comfort that exalt and 
embellish civilized life, the city of Rushville has ever 
been regarded as one of the particularly favored county 
seat towns of Indiana. Into its social, industrial and 
commercial life and living the most substantial elements 
enter and in the community thus formed there is a whole- 
some, friendly ''neighborliness" that impresses all and 
offers unmistakable evidence of the sterling qualities that 
underlie the general social structure. ear enough to the 
state capital to enjoy the advantage of this proximity and 
yet far enough awa}' not to suffer greatly the detraction 
of the larger city's "pulling power," it also enjoys the 
neighborhood of attractive and interesting county seat 
towns roundabout, New Castle, Connersville, Brookville, 
Greensburg, Shelbyville and Greenfield having from the 
days of the beginning of settlement in this section of the 
state been neighbors above reproach, and throughout all 
this region there has been from the first a sort of general 
community of interest that is perhaps not equalled in any 
similar group of cities in the country. Settled by a ster- 
ling type of pioneers, men of the real pioneer breed, in the 
days when to make a town in Indiana meant a struggle 
with the forest wilderness such as the present generation 
hardly can understand, much less appreciate, the town 
has had a steady and substantial growth and bids fair to 
continue the same wholesome progress during the genera- 
tions yet to come. Now entering the second century of its 
existence, its future is promising and it faces that future 
full of hope and determination. 




With its miles of paved streets, well kept and shaded 
lawns, haiidsonie homes and substantial business houses; 
with its well l)uilt up and busy factory district, evidence 
of industi'ial activity; with its dignified looking school 
houses and churches and with the magnificent court house 
standing in the center of the business district dominating 
the scene with its appearance of substantial dignity 
ty]jical of the county which erected it, Rushville architec- 
turally has long been recognized as one of the pleasantest 
cities in Indiana. Added to this the traditionally cordial 
hospitality of the people, a heritage from the pioneers 
who a century ago sought to make here a social and lousi- 
ness center that would pi-operly represent the delightful 
region of wdiich it is the center; added to this the general 
air of thrift and enterprise that pervades the community, 
investing all its activities wdth a modern up-to-dateness 
most attractive to the newcomer, and added to all this the 
fine social atmosphere that has marked the community 
from the beginning and which has done so much to make 
the name and the fame of Rushville over the state a 
pleasing thought, the observer recognizes a sum of qual- 
ities which explains fully the pride the people of the whole 
coimty take in the town and leaves nothing to conjecture. 
The founders of this couiuumity built wisely and well and 
the qualities of the foundations then laid have been main- 
tained by those who in the century that has ela})S('d since 
then have faced the duty of continuing the thoughtful 
development then begun. It is a far cry from the rude 
little clearing cut in the woods a hundred years ago to the 
fair city of today and the pioneers who wrought here in 
that far off time are not forgotten. Theirs ever will be 
a fragrant memory. 

And what, for this f i-ail world, were all 

That mortals do or suffer. 
Did no res])onsiv(' liarj), no pen, 

Memorial tribute offei-? 

— Wordsworth. 



The schools of Riishville are admirably equipped and 
are carried on in buildings of modern construction, there 
being five such buildings, the high school, the Graham 
annex, the Jackson, the Havens and the Washington, the 
latter a school for colored children. There is besides a 
parochial school, conducted by the Sisters of St. Francis, 
for the children of St. Mary's (Catholic) parish. The 
public library, which occupies excellent quarters on the 
ground floor of the court house, is made a subject of 
special mention elsewhere and more detailed mention of 
the schools is made in the chapter on Schools of Rush 
County. The Rush County Farmers' Association also has 
quarters in the court house and a commodious assembly 
room in that edifice offers ample accommodation for 
meetings of this association and for other public meetings 
There are twelve churches in the city, four Baptist — one 
of which is for the colored persons of that faith — a Cath- 
olic church, a Christian church, the Church of God, two 
Methodist Episcopal churches — one of which is for 
colored persons — a Presbyterian church, a United Pres- 
byterian church, a United Brethren church and a local 
branch of the Salvation Army. Besides the City park 
and Riverside park a baseball park is maintained. The 
county infirmary is a mile and a half east of the city, just 
on beyond the cemetery. The fraternal spirit of the com- 
munity is kept aflame by numerous organizations of a 
fraternal character, including the American Legion, the 
Boy Scouts, the Eagles, the Elks, the Freemasons, the 
Grand Army of the Republic, the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows, the Knights of Columbus, the Knights of 
Maccabees, the Knights of Pythias, the Modern Wood- 
men of America and the Red Men. There are also three 
colored lodges. Clubs and societies of one sort and 
another contribute to social diversion. 



Following is the official entry of the ])roeeedinirs of 
the hoard of commissioiuMS appointed hv the lec^islative 
enahlinii; act which o])ei'ated in the erection of Rnsh 
connty, hearing- on the location of the county seat : "At a 
calh'd meeting of the honorable board of Rnsh county 
connnissionei'S in and foi- the conn.ty of Rnsh aiul state of 
Indiana begun and held at the house of Wm. B. Langhlin 
in the aforesaid county on Monday the 17th day of June, 
LS22. present Amz [Amaziah] ^I organ, Jehu Perkins and 
John Julian, the board received the report of the com- 
missioners appointed to locate the seat of justice in and 
for the county of Rush. The board a])p(nnted Conrad 
Sailor agent in and for the county of Rush." Under 
entry as of the same date the board allowed the following 
bills for services rendered by individuals in locating the 
seat of justice: Robert Liice, $21; Samuel Jack, $37; 
James Delaney, $24. Among the entries I'elating to the 
proceedings of the board on the following day (June 18) 
is noted the order of the board "that Conrad Saihn*, agent 
in and for the county of Rush, ])roceed to lay off not less 
than loO lots nor more than 200 in the site fixed by the 
state commission foi' the seat of justice in said connty in 
wliich he shadl j)lace the public square on or neai" the 
line dividing sections 5 and C^ in town ^'^ north, and range 
10 east, which he shall advertise the sale of said lots at 
least thirty days previous to tlie day of sale in tlie ]iaper 
])ublished at Indianapolis and also the paper published 
at Brookville; sale to coinmence on tlie 29th day of July 
next, on the following terms : The sum to be paid in three 
e(|Ual iiislaHmenls, one-lhird in one year fron.i tlie date, 
the second iji two years from the date and the third in 
three years: the town to be known by the name of Rush- 
ville: llie ])hin of said town shall be aftei" the form of the 
town of ( ^)miersville, with making an street to 
])ass the ])nblic sr|uare." 


The opening entry in Plat Book 1 in the office of 
the county recorder carries the original plat of the town 
of Riishville with the following notation: "I, Conrad 
Sailor, agent for the county of Rush, do hereby certify 
that the annexed plat represents a correct survey of the 
town of Rushville. The lots are five poles in front and 
ten back. The streets run north and south and east and 
west, and are four poles in width, and the alleys one. The 
survey commences from a stone in the middle of Main 
street, on which a cross is marked, from which the south- 
west corner of the Public Square bears north 45 degrees 
east, distance two poles ; variations, 6 degrees, 15 minutes 
east. (Signed) Conrad Sailor, agent for Rush county, 
Indiana," The plat annexed to this notation shows the 
public square bounded by Ruth street on the north, 
Perkins street on the east, '"oble street on the south and 
Main street on the west. Water street is the only street 
to the south of Noble street ; Julian the only street to the 
east of Perkins; jMorgan the only street to the west of 
Main, while to the north of Ruth street there are two 
streets, Elizabeth and Jennings. It will be noticed that 
the commissioners sought to perpetuate their names in 
the naming of the streets of the town, also to compliment: 
Governor Jennings, who signed the enabling act^ and. 
Noah Noble, who afterward became governor of the state. 
Ruth and Elizabeth streets were named in compliment to 
two of the ten daughters of William B, Laughlin. When 
the city council, along in the early '80s, gave the east and 
west streets of the city numbers for the sake of conve- 
nience, J'Toble, Ruth, Elizabeth and Jennings lost their 
names. On the original lolat the lots begin at No. 1 at 
the southwest corner of Main and Water streets and run 
to 151, the lot in the southeast corner of the plat, fronting 
on Big Flat Rock river. Through some inexplicable 
omission the date of record is not given to the plat. The 
next plat recorded is that of Pugh, Laughlin and Cross's 
Guardians' addition to the town of Rushville, dated No- 


voinber 17. 1836, and as the needs (»f the growini^ popula- 
tion required there have been numerous additions since 
made to the town, the others, in the order in which they 
were filed, lieing- Bridges & Tingley's addition, Pugh, 
Brown, ^lurphy & (^armichaers, Smith & Carr's, H. G. 
Sexton's, N. Hodges 's (outlets, east side), Z. Hodges 's 
(outlots, west side), George C. Clark's First, Theodore 
Jennings's First, George C. Clai-k's Second, J. Carmich- 
ael's, George C. Clark's Third, H. G. Sexton's Heirs', 
Stewart & Pugh's, Theodore Jennings's Second, L. Sex- 
ton's, George C, Clark's Fourth, Theodore Jennings's 
Third, L, Sexton's Heirs', Building, Loan & Savings', 
Citizens', Maudlin's, Cherry Grove, Theodore Jennings's 
Fourth, L. Sexton's Heirs' Second, W. A. Cull en's, Nor- 
ris Bros., George C. Clark's South Rushville, Graham & 
Hutchinson's, Thomas's, Hannah & E. Z. Mauzy's, Hill 
& Jennings's, Lewis ?\Iaddux's, 1^. Sexton's Heirs' Third, 
David Graham's, Noble Brami's, Payne, Reeve & Allen's, 
as trustees; Jacob Fritch's, Ed D. Pugh (receivers'). Mc- 
Mahon & Foster's, Beech Grove, Stewart & Smith's, John 
R. Bainbridge's, Ben L. McFarlow's (subdivision), John 
L. Beale's, Theodore Abercrombie's First, Berkley Park, 
James & Millie Ijock's, Belmont, Stewart & Tompkins's 
Addition to Belmont and Theodore Abercrombie's Sec- 
ond Addition, the last named filed (m November 17, 1911. 


Perhaps the determining factor in the location of 
the county seat on the site selected by the commissioners 
was the fact that this site was in almost the exact geo- 
graphical centei- of the county on the chief stream flowing 
through this section, for in tlic absence of railroads or 
any thoughts of the same rivei-s controlled the tide of 
immigration and fixed the centers of settlement in the 
new country. But there was another factor that perhaps 
was equally determining and tliat was the fact that the 
host of the commissioners on the day they met to decide 


the location of the county seat was the most influential 
individual force in the new community, the versatile 
William B. Laughlin, who must always be regarded as 
"the father of Rushville." Mr. Laughlin had made the 
Government survey of this territory and in 1820 had 
moved over here from Franklin county, and had entered 
a considerable tract of land on the Big Flat Rock cover- 
ing the present site of the city of Rushville, and had 
erected a little mill on the south bank of the river, dam- 
ming the stream at about the point where the south bridge 
now spans the river. When it came time to locate the 
county seat he made an offer to the commissioners to 
donate seventy-five acres of his land for such location, 
the commissioners met at his house to consider the mat- 
ter, the proposition was accepted and the site of the city 
of Rushville was then and there determined and on the 
following day, as above set out, Conrad Sailor was in- 
structed to plat the town. In passing, and as a sidelight 
on the situation in the days of the beginning of the com- 
munity here, it must be recorded that the Laughlin mill 
above referred to was put out of commission two or three 
years later by the excited people of the pioneer commu- 
nity who attributed an epidemic of "malarial fever" in 
the new village to the stagnant water backed up by the 
mill dam, and in their fear of conditions growing worse, 
destroyed the dam and for the time being rendered useless 
the mill that had been sparing them the long trip to Con- 
nersville for their milling. 

William B. Laughlin, here referred to as "the father 
of Rushville, ' ' was born in Washington county, Pennsyl- 
vania, son of James Laughlin, and his youth was spent 
serving an apprenticeship to a hatter. He was studiously 
inclined, and by the time his apprenticeship had been 
served had prepared himself by private study to enter 
Jefferson College, from which institution he was in due 
time graduated. In 1812 he went to Scott county, Ken- 
tucky, and began teaching school. Four years later 


when TiidiaTia was admitted to statehood he came ii]» into 
the new state and Ix'uan teaching school at Broolvville, at 
the same time takiug i;]) the study of medicine and in his 
vacation periods becoming' enuagcd as a Government sur- 
veyor. In this hitter capacity he assisted in the survey 
not only of Rush county, but the counties of Shelby, De- 
catur, Bartholomew. Johnson, Marion, Delaware, Mad- 
ison, Heniy, Hancock, Randolph and Jay. His wide 
range of study and reflection included law as well as 
medicine and engineering, his medicine having been taken 
under the preceptorship of Dr. Benjamin Rush, of Phil- 
adelphia, in whose honor, as has been previously noted, he 
claimed the right to name Rush county and Rushville, the 
county seat. "Between times," wdiile teaching at Brook- 
ville he practiced both the professions of medicine and 
law and soon after taking up his residence at Brookville 
was elected judge and in 1818 representative from that 
district to the Indiana After taking up his 
residence on Big Flat Rock the doctor continued the prac- 
tice of his profession, and was thus the pioneer physician 
herealxnit. He also continued the practice of law, still 
cairicd or. his work as a surveyor and was active in other 
lines of pioneei- endeavoi" until his death at Rushville on 
January 1» 1836. Befoi-e coming out into the new country 
Doctor Laughlin married Ruth McKinnon, of Pennsyl- 
vania, and he and his wife were the parents of thii'teen 
children, three sons and ten daughters. It may be said in 
])jissing that while teaching at Ijrookville he had three 
])U])ils who afterward became governors of Indiana, Ray, 
Noble and Wallace. His son. Harmony T>aughlin, served 
three terms as sheriff of Rush county during the '40s. 
Doctor Laugldin was a Whig, a Kreemason and a 

While (111 the tojiic of "ratlic^s." it is interesting to 
note what ;in older chi'onicle has to say of another man 
who in his genei'ation exerted a wliolesome influence 
upon the })ioneer connminity. Regarding Amaziah Mor- 

'^ ***'.'. '}>-''' ,•**"' 



gan, who has been noted above as one of the ''fathers," 
Doctor Arnold wrote as follows: "I must notice a few 
of our early political leaders, Amaziah Morgan was the 
most distinguished and able of these. He was one of the 
first county commissioners, and by his energy and ex- 
ecutive ability did much to oi'ganize and put in motion the 
machinery of county business. He was really a great 
man, fully meeting the requirements of those days, and 
representing the wishes, wants and feelings of his con- 
stituents. He had a strong, practical mind with all the 
qualities necessary for a leader in pioneer life. Brave, 
hospitable, generous and public-spirited, he possessed a 
rough, earnest eloquence that produced a powerful influ- 
ence on his auditors, and gave him a wonderful popular- 
ity and influence. He served as commissioner and then 
resigned, and was elected the first representative of Rush 
county. He served in this office two years and was then 
elected to the state senate, serving about nine or ten years. 
During this time he was unquestionably the most able and 
popular politician of our county. He was one of the lead- 
ing spirits of the senate, and his influence was felt all 
over the state. Nature had been generous to him both 
physically and mentally. He was tall and erect, with 
well-cut features, a full and clear black eye, alike capable 
of expressing the fiercest passion or the most tender emo- 
tion. A strong clear voice, an earnest delivery and an im- 
posing presence gave additional force to his impassioned 
utterances. At home he was careless in his attire, gener- 
ally wearing linsey pantaloons, a buckskin hunting shirt; 
with a belt around his waist, a soft hat or coouskin cap, no 
boots or shoes on his feet ; with his long rifle on his shoul- 
der, he looked the genuine backwoodsman, ever ready to 
help raise a house or roll the logs for his neighbors and to 
bear his part in the shooting matches then so popular. 
General Morgan was succeeded as representative b}' 
Vv'illiam Newell, an honorable and competent man, wh<> 
earnestly attended to the duties of his office. Then came 


Charles H. Test, au able lawyer ; then Adam Conde, a man 
of integrity and stroni;' connnou sense; William S. Bus- 
sell, a dashing Kentnckian; William J. Brown, a sharp 
lawyer; Marinns AVillet, another law^yer, and then Jesse 
Moi'gan, a plain, quiet, honest farmer, who always did his 
duty to the best of his ability and possessed the full con- 
fidence of the country. Next came Samuel Bigger, after- 
wai'd the governor of the state; William P. Rush, a kind- 
hearted, reckless fellow; Dr. William Frame, Benjamin 
F. Reeve, Col. Alfred Posey, George B. Tingley, Joseph 
Lowe, Thomas Woostei-, Joseph Peck, Samuel Barret. 
John M. Huddlesou, AVilliam C. Robinson, Osman Rob- 
inson, Dr. Jefferson Helm, P. A. Hackleman, Robert S. 
Cox, A. W. Hubbard, George C. Clark, D. M. Stewart, 
William S. Hall and others who represented Rush county 
in the legislature." 


The publication of the order of sale of lots in the new 
county seat attractinl a considerable number of prospect- 
ive buyers to the site at Tjaughlin's mill on July 29, 1822. 
and the spirited character of the bidding for what were 
regarded as the choice lots surrounding the "i^ublic 
square" indicated the confidence the buyers had in the 
future of the budding metropolis in the woods. It was not 
long after the sale until the ow^ners of the lots appeared 
strii)ped and accoutered for the battle with the wilder- 
ness and a clearing was quickly made in which cabins be- 
gan to spring up as by magic, each settler helping his fel- 
low in the "rollin's" and "raisin's," the new to\\qi becom- 
ing quite a settlement even in the first year of its origin. 
Among those who thus laid the foundations of the town 
are found the names of Stephen Sims, John and Samuel 
Alley, William Hai't, Robert Thompson (whose house on 
the west side of Main street was used as court house, 
county clerk's office and school house until se})a]'ate quar- 
ters had been secured for the operation of these jniblic 


functions), Job and Reu Pugh,, Dr. Horatio G. Sexton, 
Joseph Nichols, Charles Veeder, Alfred, Daniel and 
George Lauman, Benjamin Sailors, Joseph Chapman. 
Donovan Groves, Paul Randall, Daniel Boyce, Nathan- 
iel Marks, Onias Jackson, Randolph Rutherford, Joseph 
Thrasher, Isaac Boblett, George W. Brann, William 
Clum, Jonathan Williams, William Frame, George 
Stretch, Isaac Garver, John McPike, Henry Beckwith, 
Charles H. Test and Jesse O'Neil. A widow of the name 
of Webb also was one of the early residents. It is said 
that the first store was opened by a Pittsburgher, of the 
name of Patterson. William Hart put up a two-story log 
house and opened in it the first tavern, but presently sold 
it to Charles H. Test, later circuit judge, who used it as a 
residence. Reu Pugh also quite early put uj) a preten- 
tious log house which he used as a tavern and as a general 
store, at the same time operating a tannery. His brother, 
Job Pugh, served as county recorder from 1829 to 1847. 
In Deed Record Q in the office of the county recorder, 
under date of September 1, 1847, on page 71 in the middle 
of the sixth line from the bottom, a word stops with a 
blot, the writing having begun to waver a half-dozen 
words back. The record is finished in the writing of 
Finley Bigger, who succeeded Pugh as recorder, and on 
the margin of the page there is this notation: ''Job 
Pugh, recorder of Rush county, was stricken with paraly- 
sis at the blot on this page." Charles Veeder was the 
first postmaster of the ambitious village and Doctor 
Laughlin taught the first school, later opening an acad- 
emy for the advanced pupils. Among other early mer- 
chants the names of Major Newell, W. Cleary & Company 
and Thomas Wooster are mentioned in the older chron- 
icles. Jack Irvin was the first village tailor, Thomas 
Pugh the hatter, Henry Beckwith the wagon maker and 
Joseph Thrasher and Hiram Bell the blacksmiths, the 
early needs of the new community thus being amply pro- 
vided for along all lines. The first houses were erected 


oii the streets siirroiuiding the piiblie square and up and 
down Main street for a square either way, with a few 
facing the river between Main and Morgan streets. There 
was no false "boom" to stimulate a rapid growth of the 
town, and it was long Ijefore the extensions of the chief 
streets were sufficiently well ])opulated to bear other 
than the names of the roads into which they mei'ged, even 
as late as the '40s the extension of Noi'th Main street be- 
ir.g kiKnvn as the Knightstown road, the extension of 
South Main the Brook ville road, the extension of N'oble 
(First) the Shelbyville road. Ruth (Second) the O071- 
nersville road, Elizabeth (Thiid) the Indianapolis road, 
and so on. One of the ''landmarks'' in the town w^as the 
''white corner" (present Grand Hotel), erected by 
Joseph Hamilton, who became a resident about 1830 and 
who at different times kejft store at the three corners to 
the south and west of the public square and was keeping 
tavern at the ''white corner" when he died. Other mer- 
chants who got a comparatively early start in the village 
were George Hibben, Lowry & Hibben, Hibben & Flinn, 
]).Iaddux & Havens, Hibben & Mauzy, William ALauzy & 
Company. The advertising columns of a copy of the 
Rushville Whig, date of November 15, 1844, carry busi- 
ness announcements of L. & T. Maddux, A. F. Windeler 
& Co.. i'l. & J. S. Hibben, Posey & Flinn, A. S. Lakin and 
F. k W. Orawfoi'd: lawyers "cards" wei'e carried by R. 
S. Cox & V. A. Hackleman, R. 1). Logan and Finley Big- 
ger, while 11. (J. & M. Sexton announced themselves as 
]-i;ietieii)g iihysiciaus and druggists. The strictly agri- 
eiiltural eharaetei- of the surrounding country was not 
such as to attract manuracturei-s and artisans, ihe village 
blacksmitli. the wagon maker, the cal)inet maker and the 
slioemaker ))eing about all the manufacturers required in 
addition to the miller and the tanner. In addition to the 
l>ioneei- fh)Ui' mill a sawmill ]>resently was establislied 
and frame houses began to take the places of the log 
houses which constituted the village's first dwellings, the 


old Carmichael mill at the foot of Morgan street, erected 
in 1840 by a company, composed of Harvey W. Carr, 
Joseph Nichols, Joseph JMcPike and Dr. William Frame, 
being the first pretentions industrial enterprise. In 1856 
Col. Alfred Posey built a distillery. There was no bank 
until 1857, when the Rushville branch of the old Indiana 
State Bank was established, the predecessor of the Rush- 
ville National Bank. In 1878 a Cincinnati concern erected 
an artificial gas plant and laid nine miles of mains, which 
with gradual extension supplied the town with lighting 
facilities until superseded by natural gas in the early 
'90s. Natural gas is still supplied to the city, as it is to 
most parts of the county, scores of producing wells having 
been developed hereabout, but of recent years the pres- 
sure has been insufficient to supply the demand, during 
real cold weather, and coal as a fuel for heating has again 
come .into general use, although gas for cooking and for 
light heating is still maintained, three companies carry- 
ing on a gas business in Rushville. In 1889 the Jenny 
Company, of Ft. Wayne, erected an electric light i3lant at 
Rushville and supplied current until supplanted by the 
present plant, which, with the water works plant, is under 
municipal control. The city was somewhat reluctantly 
dragged into the notion of municipal control of its light 
and water sei vice, but the wisdom of taking over the busi- 
ness has long since been anqDly demonstrated. In 1895 an 
Indianapolis concern was given a contract for a water 
and light plant and constructed the same, but before it 
had been in operation a year the company found itself 
und.ergoing a receivership and in self -protection the city 
bought the double plant in, issuing bonds for the payment 
of the same, and has since been operating the plant on a 
profitable basis. The waterworks plant is a direct pres- 
sure system, the water being secured from deep wells, 
which furnish an apparently inexhaustible supx3ly of 
most excellent water. Prior to 1881 the town relied upon 
a volunteer fire department for fire protection, the lead- 


ing men of the town from the very beginning of the sys- 
tem "doing themselves ]n(»iur' by taking jjart in this 
vohniteer service, the equipment of which consisted of a 
hook and ladder truck and a hand i^ump. In the year 
mentioned a steamer was purchased and the jiresent head- 
qua I'ters building was erected, the same also giving quar- 
ters for the police department and the front section of 
the second story serving as a city council room and for the 
mayor's court. The city treasurer is given quartei's at 
the court house. The present ])aid fire department con- 
sists of a force of five men and is equip})ed with a 
steamer, a motor truck and chemical engine and a reserve 
hose wagon. When the telephone came along in the 
course of civilization's development Tharles H. Bailey 
put up a local exchange, which besides giving local serv- 
ice, connected Rushville and Carthage. When the Bell 
people began to absorl) local telephone lines Bailey sold 
out to the big system, which operated the lines until its 
franchise expired and was not renewed upon its effort to 
increase rates, whereupon in 1892 the present Co-opera- 
tive Telephone Company was organized, and has since 
been carrying on the business, using the automatic system 
and serving through its exchange villages and farms 
throughout the county. Long-distance service is fur- 
nislied by the two old companies, the Bell and the Inde- 
l»endent. Rushville 's slow but substantial growth is indi- 
cated by the following census figures: Population in 
1850, 742; 1860, 1,434; 1870, 1,(;9(5; 1880, 2,515, 1890, 3,- 
475; 1900, 4,541; 1910, 4,925; 1920, 5,498. The city is 
credited with a ]ter ca])ita wealth of $655, and a ]ier cap- 
ita surjilus of $1.89 in the city ti'easury. According to 
the current Indiana "Year 13ook" the city has a net prop- 
erty valuation of $3,226,400; total receipts, $116,374; to- 
tal expenditures, $81,097 ; gross debt, $25,990.95, of which 
$25,000 is ])onded. 



The most destructive fire in the history of Rushville 
occurred on May 4, 1892, when a big furniture factory, a 
planing mill and several dwellings were destroyed, en- 
tailing a loss which at first was regarded as ''an irretriev- 
able disaster." But, as in many such instances, the loss 
in the end proved a gain. The fire was of such magnitude 
that Indianapolis was appealed to for help and responded 
with a fire engine and crew, which were of great aid in 
checking the alarming progress of the flames. Threat- 
ened with the loss of these two industries — the Innis- 
Pearce furniture factory and the Mock & Walker planing 
mill — one of them the most important industry in the 
town, citizens co-operated in a movement to raise $50,000 
to be devoted to the work of securing factories. At a cost 
of $23,000 a tract of 106 acres in the west side of town was 
bought and laid off into lots, with the city park, for which 
latter feature the citv council appropriated the sum of 
$6,000. The plant was filed on July 5, 1892, and Edwin 
Payne, John B. Reeve and William A. Allen were made 
trustees for the disposal of the same. Lots were sold at 
$150 each, and were taken by all classes of citizens, some- 
times, it is said, at considerable sacrifice, and were allot- 
ted to the purchasers by a public "drawing" held at 
Melodeon hall on August 1 following. Besides meeting 
the urgent need of the time and increasing the number of 
factories the movement developed a degree of public 
spirit that is reflected to this day, the co-operative feeling 
then aroused still existing in a large measure, a local asset 
of great value. However, even from the days of the be- 
ginning, Rushville has been noted for the public spirit of 
its citizens and for the large measure of "comnmnity of 
interest" here displa3'ed. This was recognized and com- 
mented upon by the venerable Dr. John A. Arnold, who in 
his day knew the toMTQ and county perhaps better than 
any other, and who in a historical sketch printed in 1879, 
noted that "Rushville has at this time about 2,500 inhab- 


itants and does more biisii^ess than any town of the state 
the same size. Fts i)iisir.ess men are energetic and at the 
same time prudent men. Knsh county is not excelled in 
the intelligence, skill and consequent success and wealth 
of its farming connnnnity. This constitutes an imj)ortant 
factor in the pi'osi)erity of the town. It is growing rap- 
idly. Last year there were some twenty-five houses built. 
Tliis year the number will reach thirty, among these, 
tliT'ce fine brick business houses and a numbei' of hand- 
some residences. Its graded school is a first-class one — 
as good as can be had under the present scliool laws. 
Rushville has nine physicians and seventeen attorneys. 
It has six dry goods stoi-es, seven grocery and provision 
stores, three boot and shoe stores, three butcher shoj^s. two 
jewelry stores, two furniture stores, four drug stores, six 
saloons, three i-estaui'ants, five millinery establishments, 
two lumber merchants, one book store, two hardware and 
agricultural implement stores, four livery stables, two 
hotels, three planing mills, two gristmills, two newspa- 
pers, one furniture factory, four saddlery and lip.riK^ss 
makers, one sawmill, thr^-e stove ar.d tiTi sho])S, one paint 
sho}), Iwo carriage shojjs, three blacksmith shops and a 
large number of mechanics of all kinds. It has eight tui-n- 
])ik('S leading to it and two railroads passing through it, 
so tliat it has every facility for trade." 


In these pages repeated refei'c^nce has been made to 
the writer of the above description of Rushville in 1H79, 
and it would seem fitting here to say something in detail 
regarding this man who in his generation exerted so wide 
and so wholesome an influence hereabout. Doctor Arnold 
was the eldest child and only son of John and Mary Ann 
((^)le) Arnold and was born on Wroxall farm. Isle of 
Vv'ight, England, January 14, 1815. His fathe'.- and his 
father's brothers, Isaac and Richard, having determined 
to immigrate to America, it was arranged that John and 


his brother, Richard, who was a bachelor, should go first, 
select a home, and, after making all the necessary prep- 
arations, notify Isaac Arnold, who was to come with his 
own and his brother John's faniilj^ This arrangement 
was carried out. John Arnold, Sr., embarked for Amer- 
ica on May 20, 1820, landed in New York, and then trav- 
eled by wagon to Pittsburgh, thence by boat to Cincin- 
nati, and then by wagon to Connersville. The New Pur- 
chase, as it was termed, was survej^ed but not yet brought 
into market. The Arnold party explored the most desir- 
able parts and selected land on Ben Davis creek. This 
was the latter part of August, and the land office did not 
open until the first Monday in October, 1820, w^hen he 
bought 160 acres of land, thereafter known as "Ar- 
nold's Home." Having built a house, cleared some land, 
and made other necessar}^ preparations, the next jesiv he 
sent for his family, met them at PhiladeliJhia and con- 
ducted them to their new home, where they arrived Octo- 
ber 21, 1821. During the next three years John Arnold, 
Jr., enjoyed the novel and exciting scene of a new coun- 
try, and when his father, having decided to leave the farm 
for a time, removed to Cincinnati, he had an opportunity 
of attending school a part of the two years and also dur- 
ing the year following, when his father moved to Aurora, 
Dearborn county, Indiana. His mother having died in 
1826, his father returned to his farm in 1827, and in the 
latter part of 1828, John was sent to Judge Laughlin's 
academy in Rushville, where he remained one yeav pre- 
paring himself to enter college. Judge Laughlin was a 
ripe scholar and an efficient teacher, and took great in- 
terest in his pupil, who boarded in his family. In May, 
1830, he went to Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, where 
he remained for four years, and then, on account of fail- 
ing health, returned home. His health being restored, he 
determined to devote himself to the medical profession, 
and entered the office of Dr. Jefferson Helm, then living 
in Vienna (now Glenwood), and in 1836 he received a 


lieonse to practice. Doctor Arnold was at once taken into 
]>artnership with his preceptor, Doctor Helm, thus being 
initiated into the practice under most favorable auspices. 
On Christmas day, 1838. he was united in marriage to 
Sarah Ann Ball, the fifth daughter of Abner and Rhoda 
P. Ball, of Fayette county. After about four years of 
practice, his health again broke down, and he decided to 
revisit his native land. He remained in England one 
year, and in the spring of 1843 located in Connersville. 
In 1852 he bought his father's farm and moved there in 
the autumn of 1853. Here he continued the practice of 
his profession, at the same time carrying on extensive 
farming operations. In 1877, on account of his wife's 
delicate health he moved to Rushville, where he prac- 
ticed his profession and spent the rest of his life. As a 
writer Doctor Arnold had more than ordinary talent, and 
took a deep interest in local history. It is said that in his 
generation no man in Rush county held a firmer place in 
the hearts of the people than Dr. John Arnold, his kind- 
ness and coui'teous, gentlemanly bearing winning him the 
respect and unshaken confidence of every good citizen. 


The way the story goes, it was on the night of Sep- 
tember 11, 1875, that burglars broke into the office of 
Robert Hinchman, justice of the peace at Rushville, the 
office in which the board of ti'ustees of the toT\n corpo- 
i-ation of Kushville licld its meetings and kept its records, 
and stole the corporation I'ecords, two ordinance books 
and cei'tain other books and cai'ried them away, it l>eing 
later discovered tliat the Ixioks liad been desti'oyed by fire 
on a \'acant lot in tlic oiilskirts of the town, the object 
of this insensate i)iece of van(lnlis!ii being th(»ught to be 
the destruction of records implicating certaiii persons at 
that time mider judgment of Squire Hinchman 's court, 
for violations of the local liqucn- laws. It is suppftsed 
that the vandals believed they were getting the records of 


the justice's court when they took the town records, and 
in ignorance of the character of the books they took away 
with them destroyed the only records of the early pro- 
ceedings of the town board, under the belief that they 
were destroying the court's judgments against them. The 
records of the county commissioners' court, however, re- 
veal that on September 4, 1838, Jeptha Woods, John 
Lewis, John Kelso, John Dixon, Samuel Davis and forty- 
seven others had petitioned the court to grant an order of 
incorporation for the town of Rushville, and that an elec- 
tion was ordered for September 17 following, for the pur- 
pose of electing a board of five trustees for the town 
corporation. The record of this election, however, seems 
to be missing and in the absence of the corporation's early 
records and minutes the personnel of the original town 
board is now unknown. 

The minute book of the town corporation opened fol- 
lowing the act of vandalism above noted is introduced 
with the following notation, signed by W. S. Conde, clerk : 
*'Up to the time of the destruction of the corporation rec- 
ords, the board of trustees had held eleven meetings and 
all the members of the board with the exception of Mr. 
Rounds had missed being present at one. The above 
statement I know to be correct." The opening minute of 
the proceedings of the board at the meeting following, 
which was held in the office of the Rushville Republican, 
September 20, 1875, shows that the clerk was ordered to 
buy a new set of record books for the corporation. The 
minute was signed by Dr. John Moffett, president of the 
board, and attested by W. S. Conde, clerk ; present W. C. 
Mauzy, Oliver Posey and W. A. Pugh, other members of 
the board. From that time on until the adoption of the 
city charter in 1883, succeeding Doctor Moffett as presi- 
dent of the board, were John B. Schrichte, John P. Guf- 
fin, Edward D. Beher, James D. Glore and John H. Be- 
bout; clerks, following W. S. Conde, Edwin Farrer, 
Thomas O. Havens, Robert L. Allen and H. P. McGuire. 


At the special election held on September 4, 1883, for the 
purpose of electing" a city council and officers under the 
city charter granted in that year, George H. Puuteiniy 
was elected mayor ; Joseph A. Armsti'ong, clerk ; Samuel 
G. Vance, marshal; William E. Havens, treasurer; Allen 
Hinchman, assessor. City councilmen — Leonidas Link. 
Absalom Pavey, John J. Fonts, John Readle, Martin Bo- 
hannon, John B. Reeve. Since then the following have 
served as mayor of the city: Wilson T. Jackson, H. G. 
L. S. Hilligoss, AVils(m T. Jackson, Joseph A. Armstrong, 
John M. Fraze, John j\[. Stevens, Frank J. Hall, Harvey 
M. Cowing, B. A. Black. Clata L. Bebont and A. B. Irvin, 
the latter of whom died in office in 19'2(), and was suc- 
ceeded by Rudolj'h F. Scudder, the ])resent (1921) in- 
cumbent. During this same ])eriod the following have 
served as city clerk: H. P. McGuire, John Kelley, Will 
G. McVay, John Rutlidge, Hari-y Lakiu, Samuel G. 
Gi'egg, Thomas S. Cauley, Carl L. Guiming and Farl E. 
Osborne (incumbent). The other officials of the city are 
as follows: Treasurer, George Helm; street commis- 
sioner, AVill E. Havens; chief of fire department, Joseph 
A, Williamson; assistant, William H. Moffett; chief of 
police, Harvey Wilfcmg; assistant, Samuel Brown; 
councilmen, Frank Al)ercrombi(\ Edwai-d Lee, ADiert P. 
Waggoner, Walter Marion Peai'ce and Chase P. Mauzy. 


Unfortunately the fire which destroyed the ]\lasonic 
Temple at liushville in 1913, not oidy desti'oyed the rec- 
ords of Phoenix Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons, but 
destroyed the re(;ords of the ])ostoffice, the postoffice 
then being in the Masonic Temple even as it is now in the 
restored temple. That was just about two weeks after the 
]>i'ese]it postmaster, Geston P. TTuiit, had entered upon 
his duties as postmaster and he had not sufficiently famil- 
iarized himself with the records of the office to have any 
veiy distinct recollection of their contents, his knowledge 


of the history of the postoffice thus being no more com- 
plete than that of the average citizen of Rushville of his 
age. The recollections of old residents carrying back to 
Civil war days can supply the names of those who served 
as postmasters since that period, but the names of the 
earlier postmasters are perhaps lost, as the older chron- 
icles seem to be silent on this subject. The present post- 
office is conveniently located in the Masonic Temple on 
Main street, where it has commodious quarters. The 
postmaster, as noted above, is Geston P. Hunt ; assistant 
postmaster, Charles H. Brown ; clerks, Harvey D. Allen, 
Clarence W. Cross, Thomas Geraghty and John Worth- 
ington; city mail carriers, Howard B. Carmichael, Bert 
Conde, Ben Sparks, Herman E. Jones and Griffin R, 
Treadway; rural mail route carriers — Route 1, John 
Mills ; 2, Faud Carr ; 3, J. W. Moore ; 4, Joel M. Harrold ; 
5, Chester Dearinger; 6, Russell Dearinger; 7, Wilbur 
Mahin ; 8, Leonidas Kennedy ; 9, John J. Finley ; 10, W. 
L. Barlow. Newspaper files supjDly information regard- 
ing the establishment of the rural free delivery and the 
city free delivery in the Rushville postoffice, it thus being 
determined that rural free delivery was established here 
on July 5, 1890, under the administration of Postmaster 
A. V. Spivey, and city free delivery on October 1, 1900, 
the service starting out with three carriers and one sub- 
stitute. A newspaper item, printed early in 1903, says 
that '^it is definitely decided that by next spring the rural 
mail facilities in Rush county will be greatly extended. 
At present there are seventeen routes established and in 
operation in Rush county — six from Rushville ; two from 
Milroy ; two from Manilla ; two from Arlington ; two from 
Carthage; one from Knightstown; one from Dunreith, 
and one from Lewisville. With additional new routes 
there will be a total of thirty-one or thirty-two." Old 
residents of the city cherish pleasant recollections of the 
time when Rushville was served by a postmistress and a 
little sidelight on that time is reflected by a newspaper 


item of January 1, 1868, which says that "Mrs. P. A. 
Hackloinaii lias boen appointed postmistress and intends 
moving the office into the new building on the north- 
west corner of her lot." It has been noted at an earlier 
point in this chapter that Charles Veeder was the first 
man to serve Rushville as postmaster, he having been 
appointed to distiibute such mail as came to the pioneers 
hereabout by stage fi'om Connersville, but from that time 
on to the period of recollection of the elders of the present 
generation the list appears to be lost, inquiry revealing 
the names of those who have served as postmasters within 
the recollection of "oldest inhabitants" as follows: 
Marinus Willett, T. A. Knox, J. S. Campbell, E. H. 
Wolfe, John R. Carmichael, Henry Dixon, Mrs. P. A. 
Hackleman (widow of Gen. Pleasant A. Hackleman, the 
only Indiana general killed in the field during the Civil 
war), J. M. Ochiltree, Robert Bebout, William Meredith, 
Adam V. Spivey, Homer Havens, Benjamin McFarlan, 
Charles A. Frazee and Geston P. Hunt (incumbent). 


Rushville 's beautiful burial ground is situated on the 
south side of the Rushville and Glenwood highway just 
beyond the bi-idge. It contains something over nineteen 
acres, and was naturally a beautiful piece of groimd, well 
adaj)ted to the uses to which it is now consecrated. The 
trustees wisely employed a skillful landscape gardener 
to lay out the grounds and su2)erintend the work, and the 
result is that the city has a cemetery beautiful as a whole 
and tasteful in all its details. It is divided into six sec- 
tions of unecjual size and form by graceful cui'ving ave- 
nues. The citizens of Rushville .-nid of the county gen- 
ei-ally had long recognized the lU'cessity of securing some 
suital)le and sufficient tract of laud to make a ])ennanent 
bui'ial gi'ouud, whei'e tlieir loved and lost ones might be 
laid to I'est amid such surroiiiidiugs as would testify to 
the tender love and fond remembrances of those left be- 


hind. This feeling culminated in the call for the public 
meeting, which was held in the court house on June 18, 
1859. At this meeting, a committee of five was appointed 
to select a suitable location for the cemetery, and to report 
at the next meeting. This committee consisted of Jeffer- 
son Helm, Sr., Daniel Wilson, George Hibben, C. S. Don- 
aldson, and Joseph Winship, who added to their number 
the name of Joel Wolf. P. A. Hackleman, Leonidas Sex- 
ton, and John Carmichael were appointed a committee 
on organization to report at the next meeting. Pursuant 
to the adjournment the friends of the cemetery associa- 
tion met at the court house on June 29, Joel Wolf presid- 
ing, and John S. Campbell acting as secretary. Leonidas 
Sexton, from the committee appointed, submitted articles 
of association which were adopted. 

The name of this association is the East Hill Ceme- 
tery Company of Rushville. The articles of association 
provide that the business shall be conducted and con- 
trolled by five trustees, who shall be elected annually. 
These articles were signed by forty-nine men, and on July 
12, 1859, the election resulted in the choice of the follow- 
ing trustees: George Hibben, Jefferson Helm, Sr., Joel 
Wolf, C. S. Donaldson and Daniel Wilson, who proceeded 
to carry out the intentions and purposes of the organiza- 
tion. There is a section containing about thirty-five lots 
that was sold to the Catholics, who used it for burial pur- 
poses for several years, but, having purchased land on 
the Smelser Mill road, just north of town, they have a 
cemetery exclusively their own, and to it removed their 
dead from their former resting place. A portion in the 
northeast corner of the cemetery, where paupers are 
buried, belongs to the county; another portion adjoining 
this on the west is the "potter's field," where strangers 
are interred. An unusual number of fine and tasteful 
monuments are seen, testifying to the pious reverence of 
the people for their unforgotten and beloved dead. The 
records of the cemetery association show that from the 


beginning, more tli;!ii hall' a eontiiiy, tlio various offi- 
cers, boards of tiustces and executive committees have 
had a deep and active interest in the develoinncnt <»f the 
cemetery on right lines. As a result. East liill ranks as 
one of Indiana 's most beautiful burial places. The of f i- 
cei's of the company, as shown by the records, have been 
as follows : President — Jefferson Helm, 1859-61 ; David 
:\f. Stewart, 1861-68; John Moffett, 1868-73; Eli Buell, 
1873-77: David :\I. Stewart, 1877-84; John B. Reeve, 
1884-1911 ; Allx'rt B. Dunning, 1911 to date. Treasurer- 
Daniel Y/ilson, 1859-65 ; James S. Hibben, 1865-68 ; AVill- 
iam Lannum, 1868-71; Elisha King, 1871-77; A. G. 
Mauzy, 1877-82; Virgil B. Bodine, 1882-86; B. W. Riley, 
1886-1906 ; Henry P. .McGuire, 1906 to date. Secretary— 
Vrilliam C. TvIcRevnolds, 1859-61 ; Benjamin F. Tingley, 
Sr., 1861-73; Jos(*ph H. Oglesbv, 1873-76; Benjamin F. 
Tinglev, Sr., 1876-82; James S. Lakin, 1882-86; Zarah E. 
Mauzy, 1886-1906; Robert W. Cox, 1906-07; Wilbur 
Stiers, 1907 to date. 


ITa])])ily there is a fine collection of newspaper files 
in the office of the county recorder. Some years ago the 
newspapei's of Rushville turned over to the county such 
broken files as were still preserved in the respective offi- 
ces and the commissioners oi'dered that bound files of the 
papers thereafter should be preserved, the collection now 
making one of great historical value, some of those old 
})ajjers dating baclv into the '50s. iM'cn then, perha])S 
more than now, tlicrc was some growling at the condition 
of the sidewalks in the town, t'o)* a newspaper item of 
May K), 1857, noted Ihc re-election of "our old and well- 
ti'ied marshal, Daniel Wilsoii, re-elected by a handsome 
majority. We hope M i-. \\'i]su)! will go to work with his 
nsua! iiubistry and have the sti'ccts and sidewalks re- 
]>aii-e(l. 'I'hey have been sadly neglected of late. We also 
ho])e he will stir up ihe old officials and prevail on them 
to give an exhibit of their last year's doings." 




In July, I860, publication of statistics relating to the 
value of real and personal property within the corporate 
limits of the town of Rushville returned by the assessor 
showed the value of lots, $61,105; improvements, $102,- 
950; personal, $161,541. Total, $325,596. Total tax for 
1860, including poll, $838.49. On that same date it was 
noted that "our brass band availed itself of an invitation 
from the railroad company and also from Captain David, 
of the steamer, 'Pioneer', to take an excursion trip to 
Cincinnati by way of Madison, and a pleasant trip was 
reported. ' ' In September, 1869, a vehement protest was 
published against the presence of geese, chickens and 
hogs in the streets; also against muddy roads and poor 
street crossings. An item a few months later noted that 
there were eight saloons in Rushville. In October, 1870, 
it was noted that street crossings had been repaired and 
graveled and new pavements i3ut in along many of the 
sidewalks. An item in January, 1871, noted the presence 
on the streets of the first milk wagon started in the town^ 
driven by Y\^'illiam M. Martin. In the summer of 1871, 
complaint was made that Rushville was acquiring an un- 
desirable reputation as an unhealthful place of residence 
on account of ague induced by the millrace, and that 
farmers were objecting to moving to town on this account. 
In October, 1872, the newspapers ijointed with pride to 
the erection of a new hall in Rushville, the same having 
a seating capacity of 1,000 and "a credit to the city." In 
March, 1876, prideful reference was made to the fact that 
''more hothouse plants are sold in Rushville every year 
than in any other town of its size in the state." On 
March 30, 1876, it was noted that the Rushville corpora- 
tion tax was $1 on the $100, while the combined county 
and state tax was $1.19. An item on the city's finances in 
the next year showed total receipts of $9,355.10 and ex- 
penses of $6,729.54. In May of this latter year (1877) it 
was noted that Dr. John Moffett had been president of the 
town board for ten years, "and a good one," and nothing 


with regret tliat he had declined to serve further. In the 
same mouth the paper called attention to the fact that 
telephone service from St, Louis Crossing to Flat Rock 
had proved a success and urged that Rushville should 
have a telephone exchange. 

A leader published in the summer of 1877 set out that 
"this is not in any sense a manufacturing town. Lying in 
the midst of a superb agricultural region, Rushville 
thrives upon its large trade and is enjoying a steady and 
healthy growth. Few places in this part of the Union 
offer so many or such strong inducements as Rushville to 
persons who are seeking homes among a refined and cul- 
tured people. It is distant but a few hours' ride from 
Cincinnati and Indianapolis. Its church privileges and 
educational advantages are good. It is a well-improved, 
orderly town, with a friendly and intelligent population ; 
taxes are not oppressive and the surrounding country is 
beautiful, fertile and rich." And so on and on through 
the years, the newspaper reviews of the doings of the com- 
munity, a chronicle of those days even more interesting 
now through the perspective of the years than then, if 
possible. It is notable that the paper on which the news- 
papers of the '50s w^ere printed is of a finer and much 
more endui'ing texture than that of the present day news- 
j)aper, and suggests the thought that the rag fiber of 
which those sheets are composed will be good for another 
seventy years, while the wood fiber of which the modern 
paper is composed, will have crumbled into dust, render- 
ing valueless the files that now are being preserved. 


In many f[uaiteis regret is expressed that Rushville 
has no active cominci-cial club oi- other such organization 
designed b) take a leading pai't in the promotion of com- 
mercial and industrial activities. In the absence of such 
an organization the Rotary Club and the Kiwannis Club 
are doing their part to '* boost" the general commercial 


interest of the city and these two comparatively new or- 
ganizations give promise of great usefulness, probably 
more than the Commercial Club of other days, for of the 
latter there now only is a memor}^ while for the former 
there seems to be a definite promise of permanency. It 
was back in 1899 that Rushville had a Commercial Club. 
It started out with an excellent program and for a while 
did good work, but apparently apathy struck in before it 
had gone far and it long since became wholly inactive as a 
formal organization. Of this old commercial club a con- 
temporary print said: "The Club proposes to brush the 
cobwebs from the Rushville of yesterday, take an active 
interest in the Rushville of today and build up the Rush- 
ville of tomorrow. That they will succeed is a foregone 
conclusion. They have started right. They have chosen 
as their officers men who are hustling, wide-awake and 
progressive, and a spirit of unity and harmony prevails 
which is bound to be conducive of much good. This Com- 
mercial Club does not propose nor expect to accomplish 
their work in a day nor a week, but they have made a 
start in the right direction and they extend a most cordial 
invitation to every factory and every proposed enterprise 
in the country to communicate with them, no matter how 
small or how large this industry may be. Let your wants 
be known to them and they will endeavor to assist you. 
They also invite correspondence from farmers, stock 
breeders and home-seekeis, and those of the latter class 
are assured of the same degree of consideration that will 
be extended to the largest manufacturer. Letters ad- 
dressed to J. L. Stone, president, or R. F. Scudder, sec- 
retary, will be answered promptly and information rela- 
tive to Rushville or Rush county will be cheerfully fur- 
nished." The various committees of this Commercial 
Club of more than twenty years ago were as follows: 
Rules and City Affairs — C. S. Spritz, George Aultman, 
W. A. Caldwell, Ed Crosby and F. C. Hackleman. Mem- 
bership and Public Policy — John P. Huffman, Frank 


Wilson, C. W. Burt. Dr. C W. Smith and R. F. Scndder. 
jMaiuifactiirini'- — William Frazoe. W. A. Allen. A. R, 
Holden, Z. E. iMaiizv and U. D. Cole. Legislation— 1.. D. 
Gnff in, AY. J. Henley, B. L. Smith, J. B. Reeve and J. W. 
Tompkins. Statistics and Information — J. F. Moses, 
J. A. Armstrong, R. W. Cox, Geoi'ge C. Wyatt and Dr. 
J. W. Spnrrier. Commerce — John P. Frazee, E. A. 
Pnyne, C. F. Felton, George W. Young and jM. R. Hull. 
Reception and Entertainment — Fon Riggs, C. Cambern, 
T. W. Betker, Homer Plavens, C. A. Mauzy. J. E. Watson, 
Dan ^lurphy, A. B. Irvin and Dr. J. C. Sexton. Insur- 
ance and Public Entertainment — Al Denning, A. T^ Al- 
dridge, J. A. Titsworth, Dr. D. H. Dean, AVill G. ^IcYav, 
J. BrSchrichte, AV. S. Meredith, J. AI. Gwinn, N. G. Eevi- 
son, Thomas Sullivan. George Wingerter, J. B. Doll and 
L. Neutzenhelzer. Advertising — William M. Bliss, Will- 
iam E. Havens, F. B. Johnson, L. M. Sexton and Gates 
Sexton. Executive iw.d Finance— E. I). Pugh, W. M. 
Bliss, (). L. Carr, Edwin Payne and R. A. Innis, Arbi- 
tration — L. Link, Edward Young, J. M. Stevens, B. W. 
Riley and Thomas M. Green. Real Estate — Edwin 
Payne, F. G. Llackleman, Charles Hugo, David Graham 
and W. E. Yv^allace. Transportation — R. A. Innis, S. L. 
Innis, J. M. Newhouse, Di-. W. N. Megee and Nathan 
Vveeks. At that time among the "bi'ief facts" quoted to 
advance Rushville's claim to attention it was noted that 
the city "has a population of over 5,000 ; Rush county has 
the finest court house in the state; the price (»f ]iroperty 
(tf ;!l] descriptions is steadily advancing; Rushville owns 
its own waterworks and electric light i^lant, has three 
lai'ge grain elevators and two flouring mills, empty busi- 
r.ess l)locks or lesidence houses are miknown, three nat- 
ural, and one artificial, gas companies doing business in 
the town; the ])opulation has iiearly dou.bled since the 
taking of the last census; the city has fouitcen factcu'ies, 
all rui;i)ing full time an.d doing well; more wheat was 
raised in RusJj county during the ])ast year than in any 


other county in the state; more commercial travelers 
'make' Rushville than any town of equal size in Indiana; 
natural gas is used almost entirely as a fuel and the city 
is clean and a desirable residence cit}^ The wealth of the 
county is more evenly distributed here than in any other 
county in the state; four of the country's leading trunk 
lines penetrate the city, and give it unequaled railroad 
facilities; there have been fewer business failures in 
Rushville during the late depression than in any of her 
sister cities ; Rush county rivals the Blue Grass section of 
Kentucky for the number and quality of fine horses 
raised and shipped, and in Rushville one can enjoy the 
benefit of the telephone at the nominal cost of 80 cents 
a month." Certainly some very excellent talking points 
on which to base the Commercial Club's campaign to "sell 
the city." The names of the committeemen given above 
and the talking i3oints they evolved to promote the city's 
interests abroad will be interesting for historical com- 
parison in the next generation, even as the names of the 
members of the Rotary Club and of the Kiwannis Club, 
carried elsewhere in this work, will make better than mere 
"newspaper reading" twenty years from now. 


A survey of the field in the spring of 1921 shows the 
following list of individuals and firms engaged in profes- 
sions or business at Rushville : 

Abstracts — Anna L. Bohannon, L. C. Lambert, 
Charles Newkirk, E. B. Thomas. 

Agriculture Implements — H. M. Cowing, J. B. Mor- 
ris, O'Neal Bros., Rushville Implement Company, C. H. 
Tompkins, E. A. Lee. 

Auctioneers — R. S. Compton, Clen Miller. 

Automobile Sales, Accessories, Repairs, Etc. — R. E. 
Abernathy, G. C. Alexander, W. E. Bowen, Bussard Gar- 
age, J. C. Caldwell, Owen L. Carr & Son, Joseph Clark, 
J. C. EUman Company, Ford Hospital, Howell Bros., 


S. L. Hunt, J. A. Knecht, O. W. Montgomery, J. B. Mor- 
ris, Mullins & Tayloi-, O'Neal Bros., Sorden-Jones Sales 
Company, G. Urbach. A. G. Haydon. 

Bakers— Wall ic Weakley, A. AV. AVilkinson. 

Banks — Farmers Trust Company, Rush County Na- 
tional Bank, Peoples Loan and Trust Company, Peoples 
National Bank, Rnslivillc National Bank. 

Barbers — Allen Daniels, Richard Floyd, Frank Gip- 
son, Charles ^[oore, Norman Norris. Charles H. Pettis, 
AVright & Suess, Dale Jackson. 

BicA^cles — S. J. Finnev, Ellman & Son. 

Billiards— O. O. Felts, E. H. Greely, Scott Hosier, 
T. E. McAllister, Aug Roth, Denny Ryan. 

Blacksmiths— Geraghty & Kelly, Henry O'Neal, Ed 
Kelly, James Mullins. 

Building Material — Pinnell-Tompkins Lumber 
Company, J. P. Frazee & Son, Capitol Lumber Company. 

Building and Loan Association — Building Associa- 
tion No. 10, Prudential Building and Loan Association. 

Candy — Caron Candy Shop, Katsaros Bros. 

Chiiopractors — William H. Monks, JMcKee & Mc- 

Cigar Manufacturers — Ray Benning, George Wiu- 

Cleaning, Pressing and Dyeing — F. G. Bender, 
Knecht 's O. 1*. C. H.. Sanitaiy Diy Cleaners, Twentieth 
Century (Ueaners and Pressers, Johnson Jones^ Ed 

(Mothing — J. L. Cowing, Son & Company, Knecht 's 
O. P. (I H.," Harry McCauley, William G. Mulno, Frank 
Wilson & Com])any, Sanitary Dry Cleaners. 

Coal — J. P. Frazee & Son, William Trennepohl, Jr., 
Winkler Grain Company, Dan ]Matlook, T. H. Reed & 


Contractors — Beale Bros., M. Bennett, Edward 
Crosby, Delta Hinchman, F. B. Johnson, G. P. McCarty 
& Company, O. W. Price, Alonzo Sexton, Walter Wain- 


wright, Joe Lakin, Morris Winship, E. L. Kennedy & Son, 
William Woliung, Will Keck, Harry Ferather. 

Corn Turner (Manufacturers) — Hoosier Corn 

Creameries — White River Creamery Company; 
cream buyers, Schlosser Bros. ; cream test, Donald Webb ; 
dairies, James Dugan, Dodson, O'Reilly and Green Bros. 

Dentists— Carl F. Beher, P. H. Chadwick, C. S. 
Green, F. R. McClannahan, H. H. Pearsey, Frank Smitb, 
F. M. Sparks. 

Drugs — Hargrove & Mullin, F. B. Johnson, Thomas 
W. Lytle, Pitman & Wilson. 

Dry Goods — Callaghan Company, E. R. Casady, 
Guff in Dry Goods Company, J. W. Hogsett, Mauzy Com- 
pany, Wiltsee Company. 

Electricians and Supplies — S. J. Finney, P. J. Mil- 
ler, James Foley. 

Factory Trucks (manufacturers) — Charles E. 
Francis Company. 

Farm Gates (manufacturers) — National Manufac- 
turing Company. 

Five and Ten Cent Stores — Wiltse Company. 

Florists — Glenn Moore, Pansy Green House. 

Foundries — Arbuckle & Company, Dill Foundry 

Fruits and Pioduce — M. J. Mascari, John R. Thomp- 
son, Adam's Produce Compan}^ 

Furnaces — Beale Bros., James Foley, O'Teal Bros., 
Rushville Implement Company, E. A. Lee. 

Furniture (manufacturers) — ^ Innis-Pearce Com- 
pany, Rushville Furniture Company, Park Furniture 
Company; dealers, F. A. Caldwell, George C. Wyatt & 

Gas — Central Fuel Gas Company, Peoples Natural 
Gas Company, Rushville Natural Gas Company, Con- 
sumers Supply Co. 

Gloves (manufacturers) — Rushville Glove Company. 


Glue Room iMiuipmeut (manufacturers) — Charles 
E. Francis Company. 

Grain, Flour and Feed — Ball & Ornie, AV. G. Xewlin, 
T. H. Reed & S(m (elevator), Rush County Mill, Winlder 
Grain Company. 

Grocers — L. L. Allen. Ezra Hinkle, O. C. Brann, C. 
C. Brown, D. P. Childs, W. E. Clarkson & Son, Herschel 
Gregory, M. E. Hankins, B. F. Hasher, James Voil, J. 
Kellv, Jr., Thomas W. Lvtle, Jesse ^klcDaniel, Carl 
O'Neal, Edward T. O'Neal, John AY. Ryan, Claud Smith. 
Y^alter Wainwright, Donald Webb, Lee Wicker, Havens 
& Son, Yarley Ci'ocery Store. 

Gun and Ijocksmiths — S. J. Finney. 

Hair Dressers — Hazel Innis Harmon, Roy Evans; 
hair goods, Ida Dixon. 

Hardware — J. P. Frazee & Son, A. G. Haydon, S. L. 
Hunt, J. B. Morris, Pinnell, Tompkins Lumber Com- 

Harness — H. M. Cowing, C. H. Tompkins. 

Hides and Wool — O'Neal Bros., H^Tnan Schatz. 

Plotels— Cottage Hotel, Colonial Hotel, Grand Hotel, 
Scanlan Hotel, AN^indsor Hotel. 

Investments — American Security Company, R. L. 
Boilings Company. 

Jewelers — Abercrombie Bros., Kennard Jewelrv 
Store, W. B. Poe & Son. 

Laundries — Rush vi lie Laundi-y Company. 

Lawyers — See chapter on Bench and Bar. 

Machine Shops^Arbuckle & Company, Madden 

Meat Mai-kets — Davis ^ Lyons, H. A. Kramer Pack- 
ing House, Weeks Fresh Meat and Produce Company, 
Luther Sharj). 

Men's Furnishings — William G. Mulno, Shuster & 
Epstein, I'^iank Wilson & Company, .1. L. Cowing, Son & 
Company, Knecht's O. P. C. H. 


Millinery — Belle Cosand, Ida Dixon, Mary Neutzen- 
helzer, Harriet Plough, Agnes Winston. 

Monuments — Schrichte Monumental Works. 

Newspapers (and printing) — Rushville American, 
the Daily News, the Daily Republican. See chapter on 
the Press. 

Oculists — F. G, Hackleman. 

Optometrists — J. Kennard Allen, Jesse Poe. 

Oils — Go-Gas Filling Station, Standard Oil Com- 
pany, Western Oil Refining Company. 

Osteopaths — J. B. Kinsinger. 

Photographers — Hugo Jamison, Euphemia Lewis, F. 
A. Wallace. 

Physicians and Surgeons — See chapter on the Medi- 
cal Profession. 

Pianos — A. P. Wagner, John A. Spurrier, Frederick 

Plumbers — Beale Bros., James Foley, Joseph H. 
Lakin, O. W. Price, Alonzo Sexton. 

Produce — Adams Produce Company, Mascari Bros., 
John R. Thompson. 

Real Estate— H. W. Cole, W. P. Elder, John Gant- 
ner, Jesse Guire, William Inlow, L. C. Lambert. 

Restaurants — City Restaurant, Lillie Gipson, J. P. 
Madden, Miller & Buschmohl, City Hall Restaurant. 

Rugs (manufacturers) — Luther Raymond. 

Second Hand Stores — Michael Scanlan. 

Shoes— V. C. Bodine, H. S. Havens, T. E. McAllister, 
J. F. Mclntyre & Co., and the department stores; shoe 
repairs, Frank Comella, N. P. Fletcher. 

Soft Drinks— E. H. Greely, Miller & Busclmiohl, 
Albert Pea, Aug Roth, Denny Ryan. 

Sporting Goods — A. G. Llavdon, S. L. Hunt, J. B. 
Morris, R. H. Jones & Co., Wiltse. 

Spark Plugs (manufacturers) — Three-in-One Spark 
Plug Manufacturing Company. 



Tailors — Frank Bender, E. ^l. Osborne, Johnson 
Jones, Echvaid Tyner. 

Telegrajjli and 'J'elephone — Western Union Tele- 
graph Company, Rushville Co-operative Telephone 
Company, Bell Telephone Company. 

Theaters — Mystic, Princess. 

Undertakers— F. A. Caldwell, George C. Wvatt & 

Variety Stores — R. H. Jones & Co., Wiltse Com- 

Vulcanizing — Ira Greenwood, Howell Bros., George 

AVood Working Machinery (manufacturers) — 
Charles E. Francis Company. 


Banks and Banking 

Happily the present geueration does not have to 
endure the confusing conditions faced by the pioneers of 
Rush county with respect to their current medium of 
exchange. When Indiana was admitted to the Union in 
1816 the Second United States Bank had just been char- 
tered to succeed the First United States Bank whose 
charter had expired in 1811 and monetary conditions were 
in a state of well nigh hopeless confusion. "Wildcat" 
banks had sprung up everywhere, offering a medium of 
local exchange, and the man who accepted the money thus 
issued was lucky if his money retained its value over 
night. As Logan Esarey, Ph. D., instructor in Western 
history in Indiana University, in his "History of In- 
diana" (1915) says: "A 'wildcat' bank was a very 
simple affair. In order to start a bank, the banker had 
only to have a supply of notes engraved and then open his 
bank in some convenient place. These banks, as a rule, 
received no deposits. They were open one day in the 
week or preferably two half days. The banker used every 
means to get his notes in circulation, frequently selling or 
loaning them at half their face value. If business pros- 
pered he would remain and redeem his notes; if not he 
packed his grip with the remaining notes and sought a 
more favorable field. Banks like this were established in 
territorial times at Brookville, Lexington and New Har- 
mony." The confusion arising out of such a situation 
may be better imagined than described. As a matter of 
fact, the pioneers much preferred to carry on their simple 
commercial transactions in terms of coon skins, beeswax 
and the like, barter being the common form of exchange 
rather than currency. In order to bring something like 



a state of order out of this seeniiiigly inextricable confu- 
sion the territorial assembly, sitting at Corydon in 1814 
granted charters to two ])anking institutions, the Farmers 
and Mechanics Bank at Madison and the Bank of Vin- 
cennes, the first with an authorized capital of $750,000 
and the latter with the same ('apitalization, later raised to 
$1,500,000. It was with the Bank of Madison that this 
particular region was more immediately interested, for 
at first the notes of the Bank of Madison were received at 
the land office at Brookville in pa^Tiient for land, and 
thus a comparatively stable medium of exchange had been 
created by the time the lands in this section were opened 
for sale. In order to create a stabilized local currency it 
is pointed out by the historian above quoted that this 
bank "proceeded to make itself useful at once by redeem- 
ing the shin-plasters issued by the local merchants. It 
was the custom of the merchants to keep on hand a large 
amount of paper money, printed by themselves, in denom- 
inations of 61/4, 12^/^, 25 and 50 cents. There being no 
coin in circulation, the storekeepers handed this out in 
change. This the bank redeemed in the currency of the 
Commonwealth Bank of Kentucky, when ])resented in 
amounts of $1 or more." It is further stated that the 
Madison Bank held the enviable reputation of having 
furnished land office money to the settlers in exchange 
for other money not I'eceivable at the land office without 
any cost to the settlers, the receiver at the land office 
keeping his money on deposit with the bank. But when 
the Second United States Bank began its war on all 
private banks and refused to have any dealings with 
banks in Tennessee, Indiana or Illinois, practically every 
baTik in the states named "went broke." However, the 
Madison I>ank was able to pay all its obligations, grad- 
ually retii'cd its curi'ency and was honorably closed. Not 
so well did tlie Viucemies Bank fare. The state constitu- 
tion had (ionfiruied its charter and it was ado])te(l as a 
State Bank with branches, fourteen in all, the parent 


bank to be at Vincennes. But what is a bank without 
money? As there was no money in the country — or com- 
paratively very little — it was discovered that this ambi- 
tious project was impracticable and but three of the pro- 
posed branches finally were opened — at Brookville, 
Vevay and Corydon. Unhappily, before these banks got 
fairly going they were caught in the "hard times" of 
1818 and 1819 and ruined. The parent bank presently 
went the same way, failing with more than $165,000 of 
United States money on deposit, a loss later made good by 
the stockliolders and its charter was annulled in 1822. It 
thus will be seen that at the time Rush county was 
organized money as a medium of exchange hereabout was 
mighty scarce, little United States Bank currency being 
in circulation out here, and the "wildcat" stuff that was 
in circulation being an exceedingly uncertain quantity. 

These bank failures were one of the real causes of 
such hard times in Indiana during that period. There 
was very little coin in the country at that time, the silver, 
with the exception of a small amount of subsidiary coin, 
being of foreign coinage. The old style "bits" (12l^ 
cent pieces) and what was termed by the Hoosiers 
"fo'-j)ence" (61/4 cents), were made up of Spanish 
dollars, principally coming up out of Mexico, these dollars 
being cut into quarters and sometimes into eighths when 
the transaction called for 121/^ cents, or even into six- 
teenths. Some who wanted to get the best of the bargain 
would cut the dollar into five pieces, thus making 25 cents 
on each dollar cut up. This became so common that in 
some places the county commissioners provided a die the 
dimension of a quarter of these Spanish dollars and when 
cut money was used in paying taxes the "quarters" were 
required to fit into these dies or else rejected. Some 
storekeepers resorted to the same expedient to avoid being 
"short-changed." On paying the blacksmith, if the 
account amounted to a quarter and the customer had a 
dollar to be "changed" in making payment, the black- 


smith would lay tlie dollar on the anvil and with his oold 
chisel would cut a quarter wedge out of the piece of silver. 
In pa\anent of a hill of 121/2 cents, one-half of this quar- 
tering wedge would he taken and for 614 cents another 
division, or one-sixteenth of the dollar would he taken. 
To the present generation this form of monetary juggling 
is scarcely comprehensi))k'. The Indian wampum string 
would have been preferable, it would seem, and it is not 
a matter of wonder that coon skins and beeswax formed 
the more connnon medium of exchange. 


This was the situation up to the year 1834 when a new 
State Bank was chartered. The agitation for a new state 
Imnk began after the election of 1832, one of the issues of 
which was the rechartcring of the Second Bank of the 
United States, whose cliarter would expire in 1836. 
When it was seen tliat the bank would not be rechartered, 
a movement was started to charter another state bank in 
Indiana and arrangements were made to that end. Since 
the failure of the Madison and Vincennes banks there was 
no branch of the United States Bank in Indiana, Federal 
currency circulating hei-eabout through the branches at 
Cincinnati and Louisville. The movement to revive the 
state bank was resisted in certain quarters on the ground 
that the failure of the First State Bank (at Vincennes) 
had so thoroughly disrupted the credit not only of the 
state but of its citizcMis that it would be unwise to subject 
the i)eople to the i)ossibility of such another failure, and 
when a bill for the creation of a state bank was introduced 
in the legislature in the sessi(m of 1832 there was such 
violent dissent that the measure was postponed until the 
succeeding session. Meanwhile a "campaign of educa- 
tion" was undertaken, the necessity of a bank was urged 
upon the people and early in the next session of the 
asseml)ly a charter was granted to the Bank of the State 
of Indiana. This bank was to be located in Indianapolis, 


the state to be divided into districts and the directors 
empowered to establish branch banks in these districts. 
Though the head office was to be at the state capital there 
was to be no "parent" bank, all branches being on an 
equality. The new bank was capitalized at $1,600,000 but 
in 1836 this was raised to $2,500,000, each branch to have 
an equal part in the capital. This bank proved its 
strength in the memorable panic of 1837 during which all 
the Eastern banks, including the old Bank of the United 
States, svispended specie payment and is said to have been 
the only bank west of the Alleghanies that did not fail 
during that crisis. Despite this record the state consti- 
tutional convention of 1850-51 voted against an extension 
of the charter of the Bank of the State of Indiana and 
the legislature in the session following the proclamation 
of the new constitution enacted the free banking law. The 
fallacy of this system was disclosed during the money 
panic of 1854 and when the assembly met in January, 
1855, Governor Wright demanded a law for the restora- 
tion of a sound currency. The legislature passed a bill 
for the creation of a new state bank to be known as the 
Bank of the State of Indiana. The minority protested 
against the measure, pointing out phases of the law which 
they declared to be unsound and the governor vetoed the 
bill, but the senate passed it over his veto and thus the 
third state bank was established: There was considerable 
scandal connected with the establishment of this bank,^ 
but as Doctor Esarey notes in his review of conditions at" 
the time, "the new Bank of the State of Indiana gathered 
itself together after the storm and began to do a careful, 
conservative banking business. The people soon came to 
look upon the whole winter campaign as a war among 
highwaymen, in which, for the moment, the lobbyists had 
got the upper hand of the old bank men. " The bank con- 
tinued until the national bank law of 1863 (amended in 
1866) put a stop to such experiments in banking, and no 
further changes were made in the banking laws until the 


law of 1874 crejitiiii^- the ])r('sent system of state banks to 
siii)])lenieiit tlie national banks. Undev the operation of 
the national bank law the days of the Bank of the State 
of Indiana WTie nnmbered and under an act of the legis- 
lature in 1865 the affairs of the bank were closed, nearly 
all of its branches becoming national banks. Amorig these 
was the Rushville branch of the Bank c>f the State of 
Indiana, wdiich had been organized on March 9, 1857, with 
a capital of $100,000, and which, on February 22, 1865, 
w^as nationalized, taking the name of the Rushville 
National Bank, George C. Claris, president, and William 
C. ^IcReynolds. cashier. Mr. Clark i-emained president 
of the bank until liis death in the fall of 1900. Singularly 
enough, even though the Rushville branch of the Bank of 
the State of Indiana was the first bank established in 
Rushville, search of the files of the local newspapers of 
That date fails to reveal any mention of what must have 
Ix'cn a matter of large local im])(ntance, the colunms of 
both the Jaclx^ouidii and the BepnhJican in their issues 
following ]\iarch 9, 1857, being silent on the subject; but 
newspapers were not much on local news in those days, 
their editors apparently taking more satisfaction in 
"roasting" each other than in giving the people the news 
of the day. The newspapers, however, during that lor,g 
])ei"iod of unstable and variable currency values were 
taking no chances on the face vahic of such currency as 
might come to tlicir han.ds. hi 1855 the Rushville 
ltc]mblican was carrying luuler its "masthead" the fol- 
lowing announcement: "We will take the notes of the 
J^ank of Connersville, at 10 per cent, discount, on new and 
old subscribers, and on all debts due the Be publican office 
u]» to the 1st of Februaiy. It is only Avorth from 70 
to 75 ('{'iits on tlic dollar." Tlic mieertainty concerning 
the ]>i'ol)able value (or lack of it ) of the l)ank notes in eir- 
c'ulalioii ])rior to the civatiou (u* the natioiial banking 
system necessitated the cari-ying of standing advertise- 
ments ill the lu'wspapers, the same ;i!)pe,n-ing in the Rush- 


ville papers during the early days of the Civil war under 
the heading ''Bank Note List," corrected weeldy by Col. 
W. C. McReynolds, cashier of the Branch Bank of Rush- 
ville, together with the rates of gold and Eastern 
exchange. A sample advertisement of this sort published 
in July, 1862, carried the warning that "banks of all 
Southern states excepting Kentucky, Delaware and Mary- 
land are at heavy discount; better refuse them." Some 
of the notes quoted carried as heavy a discount as 55 per 
cent. Gold on that date was at 2 to 3 per cent, premium 
and Eastern exchange buying at Vs to y± discount : selling 
at Yi premium. In this connection it is interesting to note 
that there has been preserved in the office of the clerk of 
the Rush Circuit Court an old dust-covered and musty 
volume, "Hodges' American Bank Note Safe-Guard," 
published in New York in 1865, a work of more than 300 
pages giving descriptions of upward of 10,000 bank notes, 
embracing every genuine note issued in the United States 
and Canada — "revised and corrected, and arranged 
geographically and alpliabeticall}^ ; the most effectual 
detector of spurious, altered and counterfeit bills now 
published," and claiming on its title page to be "the only 
work of the kind extant. ' ' In this list are descriptions of 
bank notes of eighteen Indiana banks, including banks 
at Paoli, Cory don, Salem, New Albany, Madison, Frank- 
lin, Columbus, Rockville, Terre Haute and some in the 
northern part of the state. This "detector" devotes a 
little "box" to each bank note, these boxes being divided 
into three panels each, these panels carrying in type the 
description of the bank note thus identified ; for example, 
the box relating to the bank note issue of the bank at 
Corydon has in the left-hand panel the word "One" at 
top and bottom, with the figure "1" in the center, denot- 
ing denomination of the note. In the central panel it is 
set out that in the genuine note of this bank there should 
appear the picture of a man and woman picking grapes, 
with "Bank of Corydon— One Dollar — Corydon, Ind." 


engraved thereon and on the i-ight-hand panel the figure 
1 engraved over the portrait of a female. The preface 
to the "Safe-Guai-d" says "it is of interest and impor- 
tance to every individual of every age, condition or sex, 
who handles a dollar of the miscellaneous and precarious 
currency of our country. The paper money of the United 
States is of such infinite variety of design that the artful 
and accomplished counterfeiter can sport upon and defy 

the perce])tion of the great majority of our people 

A new counterfeit or spurious bank note is prepared liy a 
rogue who, with his numerous accomplices and confed- 
erates, distribute and circulate their issue simultaneously 
in different and distant localities," hence the "Safe- 
Guard" as a detector. 


The RusJiville Nafioixil Bank — As noted above, the 
Rushvillc National Bank, successor of the old Rushville 
branch of the Bank of the State of Indiana, was the first 
l)ank organized in Rush county. It was established on 
March 9, 1857, as the local branch of the state bank and 
so continued imtil nationalized on February 22, 1865. 
taking then the name of the Rushville National Bank, 
which it since has carried. George C. Clark, the first 
])r(\sidcnt of the bank, continued in sei'vice until his death 
on Novem})er 18, 1900. a period of service covering forty- 
thi-ee years. The first cashier of the bank was William C. 
•McReynolds, who was succeeded by Joseph Oglesby, who 
sci-ved luitil 1870 and was succeeded by Edwin Payne, 
who continued as cashier until 1897 when he retired and 
])i('sently founded the Peo])les National Bank, l)eing suc- 
ceeded ))v John B. Reeve. Theodore Abei'crombie suc- 
ceeded George C. Clark as president of the bank. 
The first board of directors of the liank was composed 
of Jefferson Helm, James S. Hil)ben, George C. Clark, 
Joseph M. Oglesby and Joseph Hamilton. The present 
officers and staff of the bank are as follows: President. 


Albert L. Winsliip; vice-president, Thomas K. Muill; 
cashier, Wilbur Stiers; assistant cashier, Charles G. 
Newkirk; bookkeepers, Richard McManus, Luther J. 
Colestock and Edna Tacoma; directors, Albert L. Win- 
ship, Thomas K. Mull, Alvan Moor, Johanan M. Amos, 
Thomas M. Green, Joseph L. Cowing and Frank S. 
Reynolds. The bank is capitalized at $100,000, paid in, 
and shows a surplus fund earned of $100,000. During 
the sixty-four years of its establishment the institution 
has been located in the block to the north of the public 
square and moved to its present building, erected in 
1910, at the northeast corner of Main and Second streets 
on February 16, 1911. Prior to that time it had owned 
and occupied since its organization the building one-half 
square to the east now occupied by the local lodge of the 
Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. Most of 
the present officers and directors of the bank have 
been connected with the institution in some capacity 
for many years. The statement of the condition 
of the Rushville National Bank at the close of business 
on February 21, 1921, follows: Resources — Loans and 
discounts, $555,377.35; stock in Federal Reserve Bank, 
$6,000; bonds, securities, etc., $13,936.81; War Savings 
Stamps, $165.76; United States Government securities, 
$17,000; United States bonds to secure circulation, 
$24,500 ; interest earned but not collected, $8,537.75 ; bank- 
ing house, etc., $36,500; redemption fund, $1,250; cash 
and due from banks, $87,361.68; total, $751,129.35. Lia- 
Ulities—CRrpitsil stock, $100,000 ; surplus, $100,000 ; undi- 
vided profits, $12,956.62; interest collected but not 
earned, $794; amount reserved for interest accrued, 
$8,537.75; national bank notes outstanding, $25,000; 
deposits, $466,740.98; rediscounts, $36,600; total 

The Rush County National Bank — In the late '50s, 
not long after the organization of the local branch of the 
state bank the Rush County Bank was organized as a 


private bank at Riislivillc witli Leonidas Sexton as presi- 
dent and Janu'S S. Lakin as casliiei-, tliis arran<>:ement 
continuing until 1871 when the ])ank was nationalized as 
the Rush County National Bank with Oliver Posey as 
pi'esident and James S. Ijakin continuing as cashier. The 
latter was succeeded by .John Megee. who was succeeded 
in 1884 by Edward D. Pugh. who served for twenty-six 
years, or until succeeded by the present cashier, L. ^1. 
Sexton. Oliver Posey served as president of the bank 
until succeeded by its present president, L. Link. The 
original directors of the bank were E. H. M. Berry, Jacob 
Oglesby, Leonidas Sexton and Lewis Maddux. The bank 
was originally capitalized at $100,000, wdiich remains the 
same, and its surplus is equal to its capital. The present 
officers and directors of the Rush County National Bank 
are as follows: President, L. Link; vice-president, C. 
Cambern ; cashier, Ij. M. Sexton ; assistant cashier, H. C. 
Flint; teller, Ourney Cohee; bookkeepers. Bertha Blount, 
Paul Newhouse and Paul Root; directors, I^eonidas Link, 
Claude Cambern, Will M. Sj^arks, Alfonso L. Riggs, John 
C. Sexton, Frank Wilson and L. M. Sexton. The bank 
occupies quarters in the Odd Fellow building on the south- 
west corner of Main and Second streets and owns that 
]tart of the building which it occupies. The re])ort of the 
condition of this bank at the close of business on February 
21, 1921, follows: Resources — Loans and discounts, 
$748,224.58; United States aiid other bonds, $134,615; 
United States certificates, $163,500; banking house, 
$8,000; stock in Federal reserve bank, $6,000; cash and 
exHiange, $161,329.07; interest earned, $13,599.67. Total, 
$1,235,258.32. Liabilities — Capital stock, $100,000; 
surplus and ])rofits, $160,483,02; circulation, $95,000; 
deposits, $650,063.49; war loan deposit account, $8,262; 
unearned discount, $449.81; rediscounts, $62,000; bills 
]javal)le, $20.(K)(): United States certificates sold, 
$139,000. Total, $1,235,258.32. 

The Pconlfs NdfioudJ B(tnlx — The above banks 


proved sufficient for the banking needs of Rushville for 
many years or until 1900 when the late Edwin Payne, 
who in 1897 had retired from the Rushville National 
Bank, founded the Peoples Bank as a private institution, 
the same being opened for business on October 17, 1900. 
Mr. Payne had associated with him in this enterprise his 
sons, Earl H. Payne, who acted as cashier of the bank, 
and Ralph Payne, assistant, and this arrangement con- 
tinued until August 26. 1904, when the bank was nation- 
alized under the name of the Peoples National Bank, 
Edwin Payne, president; Charles A. Mauzy, vice-presi- 
dent; Earl H. Payne, cashier; Ralph Payne, assistant 
cashier. Edwin Payne remained president of the bank 
until his retirement some little time before his death in 
1907 and was succeeded by his elder son. Earl H. Payne, 
present president of the bank. The other officers and 
members of the staff of the Peoples National Bank are as 
follows: Vice-president, Charles A. Mauzy; cashier, 
Ralph Payne; assistant cashier. Glen E. Foster; teller, 
Lloyd T. Nelson, and bookkeepers, Ouy E. Mulbarger, 
Elmer Darnell and Zora Carney; directors, Robert A. 
Innis, Ralph Payne, Charles A. Mauzy, Glen E. Foster 
and Earl H. Payne. The bank was capitalized at $50,000, 
paid in, and has a surplus and undivided profits of 
$91,546.40. It occupies jointly with the Peoples Loan and 
Trust Company the building at the northwest corner of 
Main and Second streets, erected by the Payne Realty 
Company in 1914, The report of the condition of the 
Peoples National Bank as of February 21, 1921, follows : 
Resources — Loans and discounts, $672,689.38; United 
States, county and city bonds, $57,363; United States 
bonds to secure circulation, $12,500; United States bonds 
to secure postal savings, $2,000; stock Federal Reserve 
bank, $3,750; War Savings certificates and Stamps, 
$1,402.69 ; redemption fund United States treasury, $625; 
overdrafts, $1,061.74; interest — approximate — not col- 
lected, $6,166,50; furniture and fixtures, $4,074.50; cash 


ajid due from banks, $122,074.98. Total, $883,707.79. 
Lidhilifics — Capital stock paid in, $50,000; surplus and 
undivided profits, $91,546.40; national bank notes out- 
standing, $12,100; reserved for taxes, $3,500; rediscounts 
with Federal Reserve bank, $62.625 ; discount and interest 
collected — approximatelv, $6,166.50; deposits, $657,387.- 
6r> ; other liabilities, $382.24. Total, $883,707.79. 

The Peoples Loan and Trust Company — This fidu- 
ciary institution was organized at Rushville on June 18, 
1909, as an essential sulisidiary of the i\'023les National 
Bank, the continuing demands being made upon the ])ank 
for sei-viccs which only could be rendei-ed by a trust com- 
jjany making the step necessary and the two concerns 
have since been going along side by side, each occupying 
the same building, as noted above, the bank's business 
being conducted on one side of the room and the trust 
company's affairs being looked after on the other side, 
a most convenient arrangement. When organized the 
Peoples Loan and Trust Company was officered as 
follows: Earl H. Payne, president: Charles A. Mauzy, 
vice-president; Ralph Payne, treasurer, and Ernest B. 
Thomas, assistant secretary. The present trust com]:)any 
officers are Earl H. Payne, chairman of the board ; Ral})h 
Payne, president; Charles A. ^Fauzy, vice-president; 
Ernest B. Th(mias, secretary, and Miles S. Cox, treasurer; 
trust comjjany directors, Robert A. Innis, Rali)h T^iyne. 
Ernest B. Thomas, Thomas H. Parry, Charles A. ^Nlauzy, 
Miles S. r^ox and ?]arl H. Payne. The trust company has 
a cai»ital stock, paid in. of $50.000 ; surjtlus and undivided 
].i-ofits of $19,405.40 and deposits as of February 21, 1921, 
of $710,127.66. As of the same date it showed resources 
;!S follows: Tjoans and discounts, $224,522.16; bonds and 
securities, $490,468,41; furniture and fixtures, $4,000; 
othei- assets, $259.73; i-eal estate, $17,687.57; cash and due 
from banks, $42,595.19, a total of $779,533.06. 

The Farmers Trust Company — In the year following 
the organization of the Peoples Trust Company the 


Farmers Trust Company was organized at Rusliville, the 
date of organization being September 23, 1910, with the 
following officers: President, A. B. Irvin; vice-presi- 
dent, W. E. Wallace; secretary, Theodore L. Heeb; 
directors, A. B. Irvin, W. E. Wallace, D. H. Dean, R. C. 
Hargrove, T. A. Craig, L. Pyle. This trust company is 
an outgrowth of the old Farmers Banking Company of 
Rusliville, a private concern, which opened its doors on 
August 19, 1891, with a capital of $10,000, George H. 
Puntenney president and Arthur B. Irvin, cashier ; direc- 
tors, Vv\ E. Wallace, R. C. Hargrove and J. M. Wikoff. 
The capital stock of the Farmers Trust Company is 
$50,000 and it is located at 240 Main street. The present 
management of the company took charge on January 22, 
1921, the officers being as follows: President, Bert L. 
Trabue ; vice-president, R. C. Hargrove ; secretary, L. L. 
Allen; assistant secretary, Leona Ruddell; directors, R. 
C. Hargrove, L. L. Allen, George W. Looney, Jr., Jesse 
Retherford, Samuel L. Trabue and Bert L. Trabue. A 
condensed statement of the condition of the Farmers 
Trust Company at the close of business on February 21, 
1921, follows: Resources — Loans and discounts, 
$165,383.83; overdrafts, $67.16; bonds and stocks, $700; 
company's building, $10,000; furniture and fixtures, 
$1,500; due from banks and trust companies, $9,430.55; 
cash on hand, $4,953.44; cash items, $1,680.12; trust 
securities, $4,300 ; taxes and interest paid, $520.63 ; total , 
$198,535.73. LM&*7*Yies— Capital stock, paid in, $50,000 ; 
surplus, $8,000 ; undivided profits, net, $3,884.10 ; demand 
deposits, except banks, $89,463.04; savings deposits. 
$410.38 ; trust deposits, $4,763.92 ; certificates of deposit, 
$27,520.86; bills payable, $14,493.43 ; total, $198,535.73. 

The Bank of Carthage — The banking business of 
Rush county was confined to Rusliville until 1876 when, 
under the state bank law, the Bank of Carthage was or- 
ganized at Carthage with a capital stock of $100,000, 
Charles Henley, president, and S. B. Hill, cashier, and the 


following directors: Charles Henley, S. B, Hill, Henry- 
Henley, Theodore .Morris and Robert Henley. The bank 
retains its original capitalization and shows surplus and 
profits of $40,000. It occupies attractive quarters in the 
center of the business section of Carthage and accommo- 
dates a wide territory thereabout. The present officers 
and directors of the Bank of Carthage are as follows: 
President, W. P. Henley; cashier, How^ard E. Henley; 
directors, W. P. Henlev, Edgar N. Hill, Howard E. 
Henley, Walter R. Newliii and Walter B. Hill. 

The Manilla Bank — In point of senioi-ity this bank 
follows the Bank of Carthage, having been the second 
bank outside of Rushville organized in this county. 
Cyrus E. Trees, who at that time was engaged in the grain 
business at Manilla and had besides large fanning inter- 
ests, recognized the need of a bank at Manilla and in 1895 
erected a suitable building and on August 1 of that year 
opened a private bank, with himself as ])resident and 
George W. Gross as cashier. A few years later Mr. Trees' 
health failed and he began to dispose of some of his inter- 
ests. The ownership of the bank was transferred to 
Thomas K. Mull and Leonidas H. Mull, who assumed 
management on April 1, 1901, the former as president, the 
latter as vice-president, and H. O. Gross as cashier. In 
1912 Rue Miller became assistant cashier. In 1917 the 
bank and the community suffered a heavy loss in the 
death of Leonidas H. Mull. No other changes have taken 
place among the officers of the bank. The Manilla Bank 
has enjoyed the patronage and coTif idence of the peoj^le of 
that community to an unusual degnu' and has endeavored 
to fill its pro])er place in the affairs of the community. 
A condensed repoi't of the condition of this ))ank iis of 
April 18, 1921, follows: Assets— Loans, $242,823.89; 
overdrafts, $180.77; United States bonds, $26,950; othei" 
bonds, $91; buildings and fixtures, $5,000; due fi'om 
banks, $48,928.49; cash, $5,104.49. Total, $329,078.64. 
Li<ihilih\s—('a\nt:i] stock, $20,000; surplus, $6,000; 



reserve, $2,672.48 ; undivided profits, $1,648.68 ; deposits, 
$298,757.48. Total, $329,078.64. 

Arlington Bank — The Arlington Bank, at Arlington, 
a state bank, was organized in 1905, articles of association 
of the same having been signed on May 20, of that year. 
Two days later the bank received its certificate of author- 
ity and on May 23, the next day, opened for business with 
Moses W. Davis as president and J. F. Downey, present 
incumbent, as cashier. On September 30, 1905, Mr. Davis 
tendered his resignation as j^resident of the bank and the 
board of directors accepted the same, William H. Xelson 
being elected on the same day to succeed him, Mr. Nelson 
continued to serve as president of the bank until his death 
on Sej3tember 3, 1914, and on September 10 of the same 
year Frank Of futt, the present president of the bank, was 
elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Mr. 
Nelson. At the time of organization the capital stock of 
this bank was fixed at $10,000 and this capitalization was 
continued until November 26, 1915, when it was increased 
to $20,000, this increase being approved by the auditor of 
state three days later. The bank has substantial quarters 
at Arlington and has proved a great convenience for the 
people of that section of Rush county and over in the 
adjacent section of Shelby county. In addition to Mr. 
Offutt and Mr. Downey the directors of this bank are 
Elmer Hutchinson, Elihu Price, Nathan I. Price and 
Elizabeth Nelson. The condition of the bank as of its last 
published report, December 29, 1920, follows: Fesonrces 
— Loans and discounts, $140,979.24; overdrafts, $166.32; 
United States bonds, $200; other bonds and securities, 
$20; banking house, $500; furniture and fixtures, $100; 
due from banks and trust companies, $43,887.09 ; cash on 
hand, $6,959.26; cash item, $33.81; current expense, 
$177.82; interest paid, $50.01; total $193,073.55. 
Liabilities — Capital stock, $20,000 ; surplus, $4,000 ; undi- 
vided profits, $3,834.72 ; exchange, interest and discount, 
$1,048.92; profit and loss, $9.48; demand deposits, 



$138,276.52 ; time deposits, $25,753.91 ; discount on bonds, 
$150; total, $193,073.55. 

The Milroi/ Bank — There ai'e two banks at -Milroy, 
the Milroy Bank and the First National Bank of Alilroy, 
the first named of whieh has been serving the public in a 
general banking way for seventeen years. Prior to these 
banks, the Home Bank, a private institution, owned and 
operated by George W. Allison, began doing business in 
1899, and continued until 1904, when it was succeeded by 
the present Milroy Bank. The i\lilroy Bank, a private 
bank, began business on June 25, 1904, under the super- 
vision of Periy T. Innis, ]jresident. and George W. Alli- 
son, cashier. Air. Allison served in this latter capacity 
for several years, or until the death of his wife, when he 
severed his relation with the bank and went to make his 
home with his daughter at Sidney, Ohio. He was suc- 
ceeded by (^larence E. Brown, who has since served as 
cashier of the bank. Mr. Innis has been ])resident of the 
bank since its organization and continues to take an active 
interest in the business. The bank has a capital of 
$25,000 and resources of $250,000. The present direc- 
tors are Robert ^^^ Brown, William B. Crane and John 
^^^ Anderson. Mr. Brown and Mv. Crane have served as 
directors of the bank since its organization and Mr. An- 
derson was recently elected to succeed the late William 
W. Barton, who had served the bank as director for many 

Firsf \(ifi(}ii(il liauk of Milroij — This is the junior 
bank of Rush county, and is the fifth national bank in 
the county. Its charter was granlcd on July 9, 1920, and 
it opened its doors for business <»ii the following August 
30. The First National Bank of Milroy is capitalized at 
$50,000 and has llic i'oilowing of ficiaiy : President, Ed- 
gar Thomas; vi('e-j)i('sidei)t, l)(»i-a F. Jackman; cashier, 
Everett 1^ Ryan; directors, Jolni \V. Davis, James H. 
Davis. John 1^. Ilai-rison, John H. N'ernon and Lafayette 
P('<'k. I'lic report <»f the condition of the bank at the 


close of business on February 21, 1921, follows: Re- 
sources — Loans and discounts, including rediscounts, 
$37,092,69; overdrafts secured, none; unsecured, $3.76; 
U. S. Government securities owned: deposited to secure 
circulation (U, S. bonds par value, $50,000; owned and 
unpledged, $1,500; premiam on U. S. bonds, $125; total 
U. S. Government securities, $51,625; stock of Federal 
Reserve Bank (50 per cent, of subscription), $1,650; 
value of banking house, owned and unincumbered, $5,- 
734.31; furniture and fixtures, $3,523.13; lawful reserve 
with Federal Reserve Bank, $7,924.57 ; cash in vault and 
net amounts due from national banks, $23,358.60 ; checks 
on other banks in the same city or town as reporting bank, 
$273.10; total $23,631.70. Checks on banks located out- 
side of city or town of reporting bank and other cash 
items, $2 ; redemption fund with U. S. treasurer and due 
from U, S. treasurer, $1,250 ; interest earned but not col- 
lected — approximate — on notes and bills receivable not 
past due, $427.27; other assets, if any, $2,248.86; total, 
$135,113.29. Liamitles—C'ei^iinl stock paid in, $50,000 - 
surplus fund, $5,000; interest and discount collected or 
credit in advance of maturity and not earned — (approx- 
imate), $90.34; circulating notes outstanding, $35,000; 
individual deposits subject to check, $42,929.28; certifi- 
cates of deposit due in less than 30 days (other than for 
money borrowed), $1,352; other demand deposits, $208.- 
12 ; total of demand deposits subject to reserve, $44,489.- 
40 ; liabilities other than those above stated, $533.55 ; total, 

Tlie First National Bank of Mays — This bank since 
its organization in ]907 has proved a great convenience 
to the people in the north-central part of the county, and 
has the honor of being one of the few national banks in 
a village the size of Mays in the country. The First Na- 
tional Bank of Mays carries charter No. 8700, and was 
organized in 1907 with a capital stock of $25,000, and the 
following officers and directors : President, Matthew L. 


McBi'ide ; vice-president, Oliver E. Ricli ; cashier, Bevt B. 
Benner: directors, M. L. McBride, AVilliara Kiiecht, W. 
H. McDaiiiel. O. E. Rich, Tliomas H. Eitel, J. W. Rhodes 
and Frank .M. Ilndelsoii. Tlie ])reseiit officers of the bank 
are as follov^^s: President, B, B. Benner; vice-president, 
F. >\T. Hiidelsoii; cashier, Guy ^IcBride; bookkeeper. 
Fern McBride; directors, B, B. Benner, F. M. Hndelson, 
AVilliam Knecht, J. W. Rliodes and Charles McBride. 
The statement of the condition of this bank as of Decem- 
ber 29, 1920, follows: Assets — Loans and disconnts, 
$144,236.26; U. S. secnrities, $26,750 ; other bonds and se- 
cui-ities, $6,500; ovei-drafts, $58.72; Federal Reserve 
Bank stock, $1,050; bankini;' house, $4,000; cash on hand, 
deposit with Federal Reserve Bank, and due from banks. 
$23,085.25; interest earned not collected, $1,000; redemp- 
tion fund with U. S. treasurer, $1,250; total. $207,930.23. 
7. m/;///^?>.s-— Capital, $25,000; suriilus, $10,000; undivided 
profits, $9,808.52; tax account, $235.02; ur.earned dis- 
count, $1,000; circulation. $25,000; deposits, $136,886.69; 
total, $207,930.23. 

Falmouth Bank — The Falmouth Bank of Falmouth, 
the villai>'e in the north(^ast(M'n ])art of the county, lying 
l)artly in Rush county and ])artly in Fayette county, is 
cai)italized at $10,000, and was organized in 1907 with the 
following officers: Pi'esident, Fred "\V. Lightf oot ; vice- 
pi'esidcnt, Fred I, Barrows; cashier, Alva E. Bilby. The 
present officers of the bank are the same as al)ove, except 
that William ^I. Jackson is now vice-pi-esident. The di- 
rectors of the bank are F, \V. Lightfoot, W. M, Jackson, 
Alva E. Bilby, Jacob Grassy and Noah Cummins. 

TJic Glruirood State Bauli — This bank w^as estab- 
lished in 1907 at (Jlenwood, and renders service in a wide 
territory thereabout. B. F, Thiebaud is president of the 
baidv; Jesse .Murphy is the vice-president; T. G. Richard- 
son, the cashier, and Mi-s. T. G. Richardson the assistant 
cashier. The paid-up capital of the bank is $25,000. and 
according to recent report it has a surplus and profits of 


$13,800; deposits, $207,000; resources — loans and dis- 
counts, bonds and securities, $198,000 ; cash and exchange 
and due from other banks, $49,780. 

The New Salem State Bank — This bank was estab- 
lished at New Salem in 1917, and has proved a great con- 
venience in the rich farming region it serves. William 
A. Norris is the president of the bank ; D. D. Barber, vice- 
president ; John F. McKee, cashier, and E. Gwinings, as- 
sistant cashier. The bank's statement shows paid-up 
capital, $25,000: surplus and profits, $2,500; deposits, 
$116,870. Resources— loans and discounts, $128,910; 
cash and exchange, $8,500. 


Occasional references in the newspapers of the 
period give an illuminating reflection of the beginning 
and development of the banking business in Rushville. It 
is noticed that when books were opened for subscriptions 
to the stock of the Rushville branch of the Bank of the 
State of Indiana in the office of the auditor at the court 
house the Republican offered opposition to the plan. 
Evidently this opposition together with the apparent re- 
luctance of the people generally to support the proposed 
bank was effective for a while, for though the subscrip- 
tion books were opened in midsummer of 1855 it was not 
until in April, 1857, that the story of the final organiza- 
tion of the bank was carried in the papers and then as the 
merest incidental mention. In that same year the papers 
called attention to the fact that counterfeit $5 bills of the 
Chippewa Bank of Wisconsin, were in circulation here- 
about, and warning was given that the bills were so skill- 
fully executed as "well calculated to deceive." That was 
in June, 1857, and a story in a pa]3er of the following- 
August detailed the arrest of Doctor Patterson, of Carth- 
age, for passing counterfeit money, the story setting out 
that from letters found in his possession it was believed 
that he was a member of an extensive gang of counterfeit- 


ers, these letters giving clues to others of the gang in 
Indiana and Ohio. In September of that year a story was 
carried, setting out the agitation of the public over "wild- 
cat" money issued by irresponsible banks, and the numer- 
ous failures of such banks over the country as well as 
business failures generally. In the sununer of 1860 men- 
tion was made of the rapid progress being made on the 
erection of the new bank building on Ruth street (now 
Second) under the superintendence of D. ^I. Stewart, the 
statement being made that when the building is com- 
pleted it will be one of the most beautiful structures 
in the state. This is the building that was taken 
over by the Rushville lodge of the Benevolent and 
Protective Order of Elks when the Rushville National 
Bank, the successor of the branch bank, moved into its 
new quarters on the corner. In August, 1865, there is 
mention of the opening of the office of the Rush County 
Banking Company on Ruth street, the statement being 
made that the company is prepared to do a general bank- 
ing business and is able to furnish all kinds of govern- 
ment bonds. The capital stock of the bank was $100,000, 
of which $60,000 is "already paid in." Leonidas Sexton, 
president, and James S. Lakin, cashier, are described by 
the ])apei' as "very liberal gentlemen." In October, 1865, 
a resume of banking conditions in Rushville sets out that 
the total assets of the banks of the city are $149,306.34; 
capital stock ])aid in, $100,000, and dc'posits, $43,397.3(1 
In March, 1870, there was "talk of organizing a building 
association in Rushville." In May of 1877, there was a 
meeting at the court house for the purpose of organizing 
a Rushville building and savings association; articles of 
association were signed and committees appointed to so- 
licit stock subscri})tions, the object of the association 
being "to enable woi'king inen to own homes." The i)roj- 
ect evidently was carried out, for in the following August 
there is an item stating that the first sale of money, the 
amount being $()00, had been made by the association. 


In that same year there was a story of the annual meeting 
of the Farmers' Insurance Association of Rush county, 
an association which had been organized for some years, 
and the membership of which at that time was 207, with 
property insured to the amount of $347,370. In Feb- 
ruary, 1880, notice was given of a meeting to be held for 
the purpose of effecting a definite organization of the 
Citizens Building Association, the stock for which (cap- 
ital $100,000) had all been subscribed; president, J. B. 
Reeve, the other offices of the association being held by 
W. A. Pugh, Edwin Farrar and M. C. Tingley. An item 
in the first week in January, 1871, sets out that the state- 
ment of the banks of Rushville show individual deposits 
of more than $250,000. When the panic of 1873 came on 
Rushville apparently was in a good situation to meet it, 
for an article under the head of "Monetary Panic" 
calmly observed that there was little excitement in Rush- 
ville, and that people here are generally inclined to wait 
patiently until the storm blows over and business resumes 
normal conditions. It was pointed out that the banks 
were known to be sound and under careful management, 
and "so far have been called on, with very few exceptions, 
to meet only the ordinary demands. Under present cir- 
cumstances both banks are refusing to discount, but are 
extending such favors as they can to their customers. 
Grain dealers are not offering to buy, but farmers have 
expressed no disposition to sell in the present condition 
of the market." It is a matter of recollection on the part 
of those who were contemporaries of the great crash of 
'73 that Rushville came through the monetary crisis in 
fine shape. The building and loan idea "caught on" 
here in such a way that company after company was or- 
ganized. In May, 1892, there was a story regarding the 
organization of the eleventh such institution, the Equit- 
able. Early in 1905 the affairs of the Equitable Building 
and Loan Association came under investigation and an 
examination revealed a deficit of about $20,000, the grave 


statement being- made that "of this sum $16,000 cannot 
be accounted for/' Tlie liabilities of the concern were 
stated to be $24,000, with assets of $8,000. The hint was 
carried that the failure was not believed to be due to dis- 
honesty, but "merely defective bookkeeping." In }Jay 
(tf that same year (1905) there was carried the story of 
the failure of a private bank at Arlington, the same hav- 
ing been in oj)eration eighteen months under the direction 
of Horace Goodrich and Oliver Jones, of Pendleton. It is 
set out that people had complete confidence in the bank, 
but that the Rushville banks would not honor checks 
drawn on it just before the end came. According to a 
statement of the owners of the bank the liabilities of the 
concern were placed at $11,000, with assets of $14,000, 
"but citizens say the assets are only $7,200." It w^as 
stated the failure w^as due to the inability of the bank to 
realize on loans which it had made. A week or two later 
it was stated that Frank Downey, as trustee, had wound 
up the affairs of the Imnk, the books of which showed a 
deficit of $6,451.06, "which will be fully met." 




The Press of Rush County 

If tradition be correct the first newspaper published 
in Rush county was printed on an improvised press in 
the clearing that came to be the city of Rushville, the bed 
of this press being a sawed sycamore stump, planed to a 
proper level, the platen a stout board and the "devil's 
tail" or lever controlling the impression of the platen, a 
pole of proper size to give a good hand grasp. At least 
that is Doctor Arnold's story of the creation in the fall of 
1822 of the Dog Fennel Gazette, an apparent forerunner 
of the later Gazette, copies of which, under the manage- 
ment of D. M. Wickham. whom Doctor Arnold credits 
with the publication of the Bog Fennel Gazette are extant 
in the public library. This story has it that Wickham 
presently improved on his stump press and "built a better 
one of timbers." This is an interesting story, and as a 
tradition is one of the quaintest of Indiana pioneer days, 
but it is believed the student of the times would better 
take it with a bit of reser\^e, as many strange and wholly 
imaginative tales are told of the early days of journalism 
in the middle West, and this one possibly has been told of 
other communities than this. Wickham was certainly not 
far from a base of supplies, and it surely would seem that 
the same ox-team that brought his type outfit up here 
could have hauled a small press at the same time, hence 
the suspicion that the sycamore stump story is mythical. 
Certainly his type faces were not whittled out of shoe- 
pegs, and it is equally likely that his press was not cut out 
of a sycamore log. 

The newspaper of pioneer days had a hard row to 
hoe, no doubt. Old files reveal many a plaintive call on 
delinquent subscribers to pay up and other plaintive calls 



on subscribers to brin<>" in farm produce or other mer- 
chantable commodities to apply on their accounts. Of 
course, money was scarce hereabout in those days, and 
barter and trade was common, but some real money was 
essential to the production of a newspaper and the trou- 
bles of the pioneer editor must have been many and bitter. 
As an offset, nature being both j^rovident and prodigal in 
compensatory adjustments, no one but a man of those 
peculiar temperamental qualifications which marked the 
editor of the days before newspai)ers lost their individ- 
uality and became merely commercial propositions would 
have tackled the job of getting out a newspaper in a half 
wilderness, and so the pioneer newspaper man probably 
accepted his fate, was willing to live slipshod "for the 
good of the cause," didn't mind whether he had a haircut 
occasionally or not, and just "took things as they came," 
hanging on until literally starved out and then pass his 
little outfit on to some other ambitious would-be molder 
of public opinion of similar temperamental qualification, 
who would find in turn that the world cared too little for 
mere opinions to be willing to pay for them in printed 
form, and he would starve out and move on, the process 
being repeated until the Civil war period, when the value 
of news began to be appreciated, and newspapers became 
what their name implied instead of mere mediums of per- 
sonal expression. It then was found that people would 
pay for news and the day of the commercial success of 
newspapers hereabout had dawned. 


Xo bettei" or more c()Ui])reh('nsive statemeiit regard- 
ing the early history of journalism in Rush county can be 
given in brief than that of the late John F. INIoses, who 
for many years was a leader in tlie newspa])er field in 
this part of the state, and who in a historical sketch relat- 
ing to newspapers, published in 1908, carried the story of 
The Dog Fennel Gazette, quoting Doctor Arnold, and con- 


tinued as follows: "In September, 1831, he [Wickham] 
issued the first number of the American, its neat appear- 
ance indicating better facilities. He had four four-col- 
umn pages and lasted about two years. He soon made a 
third venture with a paper called the Gazette, of about the 
same size, but not so attractive in appearance. His pa- 
pers favored the policies of Andrew Jackson. Following 
him Samuel Davis and Thomas Wallaace started the 
Herald^ a Whig paper. About 1840, Donovan & Tizzard 
bought it, changed the name to the Rooster and Demo- 
cratic Archive, and switched it over to the Democracy. 
Samuel S. Bratton bought them out and renamed it the 
Jacksonian. He had a long line of successors, among 
them Finley Bigger, George W. Hargitt, John L. Robin- 
son, E. S. Hibben, Lucien Norris, W. S. Conde, James 
Moody and George W. Bates. At the beginning of the 
Civil war William A. Cullen was its editor. Its fortunes 
waned during the '60s, and it was reorganized, shares of 
stock being subscribed over the county by leading Dem- 
ocrats, and Robert S. Sproul was put in charge. George 
H. Puntenney and William E. Wallace bought it in 1873 
and successfully managed it, most of the time in partner- 
ship, for thirty-four years. They started the Daily 
Jacksonian in 1895. Mr. Puntenney retired in 1900. In 
July, 1907, Mr. Wallace sold the office to a new company, 
the Democrat Publishing Company, which had recently 
bought and consolidated the Graphic, the Daily Star and 
the Independent. The Jacksonian was merged with the 
others into the daily and weekly Democrat, and the his- 
toric old name disappeared. The Independent was 
started in 1904 by John Rutledge. P. A. and O. C. Hack- 
leman established the Rushville Whig on April 25, 1840, 
and the former was its able editor. They sold it to R. F. 
Brown in 1844. Granville Cowing and Norvell W. Cox, 
who came next after him, changed its name to the True 
Repuhlican, in 1846. General Hackleman remained as 
editor. At different times since it has carried the names 


of T. A\'allace & Co., Wallace & Bell, Cowing & Kemper, 
Shaddinger, Cox & Cowing, Andrew Hall, L. J. Cox. 
Conde & Shnmm, AVilliani Shnmm, Drebei't & Harrison 
and Frank T. Dreliert. The late George C. Clark was 
editor at one time. In 1876, Mr. Drebert sold to Stivers 
Bros. John F. Moses bought the paper in January, 1877. 
and sold it to U. U. Cole in April, 1881. but resumed 
editorial work in 1888; in 1884 he acquired a controlling 
interest and edited the pai)er until A])ril 1, 1903. when 
Jacob Feudner. who had held an intej'est since 1884. be- 
came sole owner. Mr. Cole retired in 1887. The Rcjmhli- 
cau was made a senii-weeklv in 1891. and Mi-. Feudner 
started a daily in 1904. The Graphic was founded bv Dr. 
S. W. Mc]\Iahan and George W. Campbell in 1882 ; John 
K. Gowdy bought Camjibell's interest in 1886. Newby & 
Butler leased it for some time, after which it was sold to 
Samuel J. Finney. Like the other papers it had many 
owners, aiuong them the Tiames of Ilazelrigg Bros., John 
Q. Thomas, Louis C. Lambert and Thomas A. Geraghty 
are recalled. The latter gentleman also published the 
DaiJij Star, founded in 1891. Both papers have recently 
been merged into the Democrat. The American was es- 
tablished by James E. Naden in 1894, wdio has been its 
only owner up to this time."' And that was the story of 
the local news] )a per field in 1908. Since then the law 
of selectio]) aiid elimination has continued operative and 
there are now in Wushville but three ])apers, the Daily 
J^epuhlicaii, the Daili/ \eirs and the America)), the latter 
a semi-weekly, of which ])apers "more anon." 


So fa)' as kiKiwu the oldest co])y of a newspaper now 
in hand in Rush county is a well preserved copy of The 
ludiaxiait, ))ublished at Rushville in the '^'0s, and which 
is in the possession of Miss Lleanor B. Sleeth, of the 
coimty recorder's office, who has preserved it among 
other ]>a])ers which were included in the collection of her 


maternal grandfather. Dr. William Frame, who prob- 
ably had preserved this particular copy of The Indianian 
because in it was carried the announcement of his candi- 
dacy for the legislature from this district. The Indianian 
was a four-column folio, published and edited by William 
J. Brown, and from the appearance of the time-stained 
sheet probably was printed on a Franklin press with a 
somewhat too loose blanket, or maybe on that type of 
roller press which later became widely popular in rural 
printshops as the old "army" press, of sacred memory to 
that generation of printers now fast vanishing off the 
face of the earth. At any rate, the blanket of the press 
was too loose for the best effect, but the reading matter is 
there, none the worse for the deep impression, and 
mighty interesting reading at this period. This copy of 
The Indiajiian is No. 48, of Vol. I, and is dated May 11, 
1831, hence the paper had been started in the spring of 
1830, but of its eventual fate there is no hint nor clue for 
this is the first mention of this paper that has appeared 
in any of the historical sketches relating to the newspa- 
pers of Rush county. Even the graphic little sketch of 
the press compiled by the late John F. Moses in 1908 is 
silent as to The Indianian, although what otherwise ap- 
j:)ears to have been a complete roster of the papers pub- 
lished in this county is carried through, and it may be 
said that no one in Rush county had a better acquaintance 
both with the facts and the traditions of the press here- 
abouts than had Mr. Moses. Just how The Indianian 
came to be lost even to tradition, can not now be told, but 
that it had been appearing at Rushville for forty-eight 
weeks in the spring of 1831, is evident on the face of the 
interesting little old paper, so highly prized by Miss 
Sleeth and her sister, ]Miss Mary Sleeth, the public libra- 
rian. Under its "masthead" The Indianian carried the 
following: "Notice to Agents — The following gentlemen 
are requested to act as agents for this paper: Abner 
Conde, Esq., Moscow; Nathan Tompkins, p. m., Little 


Flat Rock; Moses Clifford, Esq., near West Liberty; 
Joseph Chapman. Gi-eenfield; John Hawkins, Indian- 
apolis; Col. Thos. Hendi-icks, Greensbur^-; John McPike, 
Esq., Lawrencebnrg. " The paper carries as a sub-title 
the patriotic motto: "Where Lilierty Dwells, There Is 
My Country," and the leading editorial is a flattering 
encomium on Joseph Holman, Esq., whose somewhat tedi- 
f>us letter, announcing his candidacy for Congress from 
the Third Indiana district, filled all but about a "stick" 
of the first page. The second page carries a letter from 
Noah Noble, then candidate for governor and a three- 
column clipping from a Washington paper of April 20, 
covering capital gossip of that date. The only "local" 
item of any consequence is a column story of the organ- 
ization of a Sunday School I'nion at a meeting held at 
the office of Jose])h Xiehohis in Rushville. at which the 
following officers were elected: President, William B. 
Laughlin; vice-president, William Beal, Esq.; secretary, 
Hon. Charles H. Test, and treasurer, Joseph Nicholas. 
Esq. Announcement of the August election carried the 
names of the following candidates: Governor — Noah 
Noble, James Scott, Milton Stapp; lieutenant governor — 
Amos Lane, Alexander S. Burnet, James Gregory and 
David Wallace; Congress — Oliver H. Smith, John Test, 
Joseph Holman and Jonathan Mc(\irty; legislative — 
.Marinus W'illett, William Frame, John Alley, William P. 
Rush, John Wood and William B. Laughlin. Advertise- 
ments cai-ry the business announcements of Lydia JMc- 
Mui-tric, millinery; Joseph True, tailoi'; Eliza Laughlin, 
niaiitua making and millinery; Cassander Barrett, mil- 
linery ; John B. Irvin, tailor, who "is ])repared to do work 
in the neatest manner for the Fai-mer, the Dandy, the 
Methodist and the Quaker." The advertising columns on 
the fourth i)ag(', closed with the <lis])lay announcement, 
that "Sugar will be received in payment for subsci-iptions 
at this office." A column of poetry and the "dead letter" 
list, the latter carrying u}»ward of 120 names, complete 


the last page, the other advertising columns being filled 
with "taken up" notices relating to estrayed animals and 
legal notices. The dead letter list is signed by Marinus 
Willett, postmaster, who also, as noted above, was at the 
same time aspiring to go to the legislature. 

Miss Sleeth also has a copy of the Rushville Whig, 
Vol. VI, No. 9, date of June 27, 1845, which is an earlier 
copy than any on file in the bound files preserved in the 
office of the county recorder, and which she also found in 
the collection preserved by her grandfather Frame, whose 
name appears in this copy as one of the leading commer- 
cial advertisers of that time. The Whig at that time was 
being published by R. F. Brown, whose possible kinship 
to the William J, Brown, of the earlier Indianian, offers 
an interesting conjecture. The Whig of this date was 
printed as a five-column (wide measure) folio and both 
typography and presswork were excellent. Poetry and 
clippings fill the first page and the second page is filled 
with advertising, chiefly of patent medicines of a pecu- 
liarly weird description, and probable potent brew, some 
of these advertisements carrying personal recommenda- 
tions as eloquent and as misleading as are put forth by a 
similar class of advertising carried in some papers today, 
an indication that human credulity is about as open to 
false impressions as in the days of the pioneers. The ed- 
itorial page is given up to articles mostly defensive of the 
principles of the Whig party, and is conducted in the vig- 
orous and rather flamboyant style of the period. Of 
course, as in all papers of that period, politics was the 
uppermost topic and very little attention was given to 
merely local happenings, it probably being taken for 
granted that everybody knew the news of the connnunit}^ 
anyway, so why waste good space in the paper printing 
it? The Whig's "masthead" announced that "White- 
water canal scrip will be received for advertising and also 
for subscriptions." The advertising columns carried the 
business announcements of Worster & Maddux, groceries 


and iiiiscollanios; H. G. & M. Sexton, drugs; William 
Frame & (\»m])any, ])()ots and slioes : Posey & Flinn, gen- 
eral merchants; VI. J^arrow, i^'eneral merchandise; J. AY. 
Ferguson, tailor; T, & K. Pugh, general store; G. & S. J. 
Hiljben, general store ; A. S. & J. Lakin, ])oots and shoes ; 
J. 8. Campbell, hats; B. W. S. Caldwell, cabinet making 
and undertaking ; A. S. & J . H, Lakin, hotel — the Frank- 
lin House — "the three-story frame building in Rush- 
ville;" F. & AY. Crawford, hardware; Kennedy & Hall, 
dry goods ; Isaac Ogden, chair manufacturer, and H. A. 
Norris, resident dentist, "all kinds of merchantable 
produce taken." There w^re also several cards announc- 
ing the professional presence of the lawyers of that 
period and quite a number of legal notices. 


A\''hen the estate of George C. Clark, lawyer, banker 
and ])ublicist, aiid in his generation one of the best known 
and most influential citizens of Pushville, was l^eing set- 
tled in 1900, thei'e was discovered among his effects a 
consi(lera})le collection of old news])a])ers, mostly local 
papers, which had been i)reserved with nmcli care by Mr. 
Clark, and which in the ordinary course of the disposition 
of such effects might easily have gone to the junk man, 
for to most i)ersons a ])a]jer is fit only for the waste basket 
after it is a day old. Happily, one of the appraisers of the 
Clark estate was Ernest B. Thomas, and when he came to 
look ovei' the ])apers he at once recognized their great 
value, for many of these old pajKMs antedated any kept 
on file in the local newspa])er offices and some of them 
were copies of ])apers no longer existing, so that the col- 
lection was recognized as of sufficient historical value to 
w^arrant an effort at permanent preservation. Mr. 
Tlnmias took the matter u]) with the county connnission- 
ers and secured an ordei- for a sufficient sum to cover the 
binding of the old papers, and then turned them over to 
the count \' as a nucleus for whatever collection later 


might be made of a local historical character, a sort of a 
basis for the archives of a possible future Rush County 
Historical Society. With this as a nucleus the commis- 
sioners secured from the local newspapers the files then 
extant in the several offices and gave them space in the 
record room of the county recorder's office, where they 
are secure against loss by fire, and have since then had 
bound files of the several newspapers of the county seat 
preserved and kept in the recorder's office, the law war- 
ranting such action as a means of preserving legal 

The oldest of the papers saved from the Clark collec- 
tion is a copy of The Indiana Jacksonian, published at 
Rushville, this copy being of date March 2, 1854, the issue 
being No. 9 of Vol. IV. G. W. Hargitt is named as editor 
and proprietor and William P. Hargitt as printer. The 
first column of the first page of this paper carries a story 
of a Rush county temperance convention held at the court 
house on February 22, to draft resolutions denouncing 
the evils of intemperance, and for the purpose of appoint- 
ing a vigilance committee representative of all the town- 
ships in the county to exert local influence in behalf of a 
proposed prohibition law. The Rev. James Havens was 
chairman of this convention, and Squire W. Robinson 
was secretary. The paper had a good deal of Cincinnati 
advertising, and carried the common run of patent med- 
icine advertisements of the period. Local advertisements 
were those of William Havens, McCarty's shop, M. Smith 
& Son, Rush & Doggett, J. S. Campbell (postoffice and 
bookstore), Mauzy & Bro., L. H. Thomas & J. Riden- 
baugh, Donaldson & Pugh, L. & T. Maddux, C. S. Donald- 
son, Hibben & Flinn, Carmichael & Abernathy, W. W. & 
H. E. Carr, Bell & Dixon, J. C. Callaghan, E. Armstrong, 
Joel Wolfe— ''The Wolfe House," J. Bacchus— "The 
Hoosier House," Dr. R. D. Mauzy, Carmichael & Rush, 
Ogiesby & Lakin, William J. Porter, Peter Rider & 
Thomas Poe, William Crawford, Poe & jMcGraw, Mar- 



garet Frazior, A. F. Woodcock, B. \V. S. Caldwell, Glore 
& Erieksoii, R. Pomidstone, Hackleman's, George C. 
Clark, Lewis H. Thomas, John Dixon, Dr. William A. 
Pugh, W. C. Sneed and Doctor Moffett. Hard times 
evidently came knocking at the door of the Jacksonian 
about that time, for in February, 1855, Plargitt sold the 
paper, making the announcement in his valedictory ad- 
dress that "there are many — too many — of my subscrib- 
ers who have never ])aid me a cent for five years. A de- 
sire to settle with such delinquents and to get my business 
in a manageable shape has induced me to sell out." Tn 
the next issue announcement is made that B. Burns is the 
editor and proprietoi' of the paper and John L, Robinson, 
corresponding editor, the leading editorial of that issue 
bearing the name of the latter. Whether these gentlemen 
had better luck with their subscriliers than the Hargitts 
had time perhaps developed, though it is not unlikely 
that they also had difficulty in making collections, for 
the lot of the newspaper man in those days was notori- 
ously full of vicissitude, his lal)or too frequently being 
regarded in liis community as a labor of love for which 
mere money would be but an ignominious reward, and 
his pay f<u- valualjle service more often was taken in the 
chips and whetstones of nieichantable commodities rather 
than in the moi-e liquid currency of the realm. The first 
copy of the Rushville RcpubJicau found on file in this 
collection is that of No. 31 of Vol. II of that paper, date 
of August 2, 1854. Cowing & Kemper then being the pub- 
lishers. Reference to the pa])er's "masthead" in the next 
year, 1855, reveals that Shaddinger, Cox & Cowing (N. 
Shaddinger, L. J. Cox, W. J. Cowing) then were the pub- 
lishers. Fiirtlier reference to the various changes in the 
ownersliip of these two old papers is made elsewhere in 
the more detailed accouTit of the liistory of the same. 
With one of the files of these old papers i-escued from the 
Clark collection are several "])osters," announcing polit- 
ical meetings of the period, a copy of one of which will be 


interesting to the present generation, as follows, the same 
carrying date of December 26, 1859: ''Union Meeting — 
In view of the recent events at Harpers Ferry, and of the 
general excitement which exists throughont the whole 
country concerning a question of a nature calculated to 
divide the Union into sections, seriously threatening its 
stability, and in view of the further fact that the friends 
of the Union, in various states, are holding meetings for 
the purpose of strengthening the bonds which unite us 
together as one people, the undersigned hereby call a 
meeting for a like purpose, to assemble at Rushville on 
the last da}'^ of this year, December 31, 1859. All parties 
friendly to the above specified objects are cordially and 
earnestly invited to attend and participate." This call 
was signed by John S. Campbell, Thomas Pugh, Thomas 
J. Meredith, George Hibben, William A. Cullen, Hiram 
Weed, Joseph Hamilton, William C. McReynolds, Lot 
Pugh, John Megee, George W. Sloan, Henry Dixon, E. 
Wagoner, J. J. Amos, Jr., Robert J. Price, Taylor Wad- 
dell, William Crawford, Benjamin Mitchell, C. S. Don- 
aldson, B. F. Johnson, Thomas Matlock, E. C. Hibben, 
John Heaton, James L. Mahan, J. O. Callahan, William 
B. Cassady, Benjamin F. Voiles, Matthew Smith, M. M. 
Fairley, J. L. Winship, J. T, Bigger, James Hamilton, 
D. W. Pugh, David Wiggins and Sampson Cassady. 
And then on through the years of the Civil war period, of 
which the above was just the opening, these old papers 
carry on the local side of the most engrossing story ever 
evolved in this country, glimpses of the bitter dissensions 
of that trying period, reflections of heartaches too poign- 
ant for expression, tales of a time that tried men's souls 
— all lying there bound between the musty covers of these 
old newspaper volumes awaiting a local analysis that 
never yet has been made, an opportunity right at hand 
for the thesis of some ambitious student with an instinct 
for historical expression that ought to carry far along the 
way to the goal of a coveted degree. 



In the public library in the court house there is a 
small collection of unbound newspapers contributed to 
the library by Mrs. Moses, widow of John F. ]\loses, these 
papers, including a number that antedate any in the 
Clark collection, and among which are about twenty 
copies of The True American, published in Rushville in 
the '30s. The oldest of these is No. 9 of Vol. I, of The 
True American, bearing date of November 29, 1831, a 
four-column folio, published by D. M. Wickham. There 
is also Vol. I, No. 1 of the Rushville Gazette, bearing date 
of January 5, 1833, which carries the announcement that 
the Gazette is but a continuation of The True American, 
announcement setting out that "the many attem])ts to 
establish a press in Rushville, and the frequent failures 
which have followed, warns us to be reserved in our 
promises. No doubt can be entertained but that a news- 
paper in Rush county conducted on liberal principles 
would meet with a respectable support. It is the intent 
of the publishei', when patronage will justify, to enlarge 
to a super-royal." The Gazette followed the same form 
as The True American, a foui'-column foli(x In this 
Moses collection there are better than a half-dozen copies 
of the Gazette. Then there is a copv of The True Be pub- 
lican, Vol. X, No. 31, dated December 26, 1849, T. Wallace 
& Co., publishers, and of the same for May 14, 1851, Wal- 
lace & l)a]l then l)eing the i)ublishers. further evidence of 
the changes in editorial management and conti'ol of the 
])a])ers in tiiose days. In The True America)} for A])ri1 
28, 18:^)2, tluM'e is ])nl)lished a ''Regimental Oi'der" signed 
by William I^. Rush, colonel. Forty-seccmd regiment, In- 
diana militia, amiouncing that tlie regiment will mnster 
at .John Smelser's on Oetobei- 20, next; the First l)atallion 
will muster on tlu t'onilh day of May at John Mock's, one 
mile and a half nortlieast of Snu^ser's mill : th(^ Second 
batallion on the fifth day of May at John Walker's in 
Center township and "officers, noncommissioned offi- 


cers, musicians and privates are notified to attend their 
respective musters armed and equipped as the law 
dictates. " 

The Indiana Herald and Rushville Gazette (a 
double-barreled name, sug^-estive of a possible merger of 
two struggling papers), date of May 4, 1839, published by 
Davis & Wallace, carries a page of advertisements char- 
acteristic of the period, a few of which are worthy of 
presentation, as for example: ''Beware of Him! — It is 
deemed a duty to caution the public to be on their guard 
in relation to one Joshua Jones Walton. He is a shoe- 
maker b}^ trade, but for a year or two past has been deal- 
ing out bald-face whisky by the gill, and partakes pretty 
freely of it himself. He is five feet, three or four inches 
high, rather heavy built, with black hair and beard, black 
complexion and large gray eyes. He has a wife and two 
children. He left this place about ten days since, without 
bidding his friends good-by, leaving his creditors minus 
nine hundred or a thousand dollars. When last heard 
from he was making his way to the western part of this 
state. He has proven himself destitute of moral honesty 
and altogether unworthy of confidence. (Signed) Will- 
iam Lower." A supplemental paragraph — "The En- 
quirer, Terre Haute; Journal, Springfield, 111., and the 
Iowa Territorial Gazette are requested to publish the 
above three times and send their accovmt to this office," 
illuminative of the not uncommon exchange practice of 
the newspapers of that period. But would the editor 
treat such an account as other accounts evidently were 
being treated ? In the same issue of this paper is the fol- 
lowing advertisement of J. M. Neely: "Wake Up! All 
persons indebted to me, of whatever age, sex or condition, 
whether halt or blind, rich or poor, are hereby notified 
for the last time that unless their accounts are paid off in 
two weeks from this date, they will on that day be visited 
with the wrath of the law. ' ' 



The Rushville 1h' publican — The Daily Republican, 
successor to the Rushville Whig, which was established 
by P. A. and O. 0. Hacklemau"A])ril 25, 1840, in a few 
years aftei* its founding in March, 1904, won recognition 
as the leading newspaper in Rush county and has main- 
tained that distinction ever since. After Jacob Feudner 
gained control of the ])r()perty Aj^ril 1, 1903, following a 
period of nineteen years, during which he had had an in- 
terest in the newspaper with John F. Moses, rapid ad- 
vancement was made l)y the Republican. It was less than 
a year before Mr. Feudner 's progressiveness manifested 
itself by the establishment of the Vailji Republican, which 
since that time has steadilv gro^ii and prospered. It was 
due to Mr. Feudner 's resourcefulness and natural ability, 
together with his persistence in the effort to ])rovide 
Rush county with a daily newspaper which would best 
express the forwai'd-looking interests of the county, that 
the Republican gradually forged ahead in the local news- 
paper field, and became recognized as one of the best 
county seat newspapers in Indiana. Although capable 
and a))le to take editorial charge of the newspaper, Mr. 
Feudner 's inclinations bent in another direction, and he 
devoted his time to the job department of the business 
and to keeping the mechanical part of the j^lant in per- 
fect order. Mr. Feudner contributed frequently to the Re- 
jmblican after it became a daily, but his services were 
needed elsewhere, and Edward J. Hancock became the 
first editor of the daily. He retired on January 1, 1905. 
after sei'ving for less than a year, and for the next few 
years, Clifford S. Lee, who started as a reporter under 
Mr, Hancock after gi-aduatiiig from the Rushville high 
school in 1904, was in chai-ge of the news depai'tment of 
the paper. When he sought larger fields, going from the 
Re])ublican to the Indianapolis Star, Tom J. Geraghty, 
who had had some local news])aper expei-ience, became the 
editor of the Republican, and remained in that capacity 


until the summer of 1909, when he went to the New York 
Herald. Mr. Geraghty worked on several newspapers in 
.New York, and finally liecame a motion picture scenario 
writer. He advanced rapidly in this work until he was 
made supervising director of the Long Island studio of 
the Famous Players-Lasky corporation. The bulk of the 
reportorial and editorial work was done by Mr. Geraghty 
during the time he spent on the Republican until Claud 
Simpson, a Rushville boy, who was graduated from Indi- 
ana University, went on as a reporter in the summer of 
1908. Mr. Simpson remained only until the fall of that 
year, and was succeeded by Roy E. Harrold, also a Rush- 
ville young man, who had graduated from Wabash Col- 
lege the previous spring. When Mr. Geraghty resigned 
in 1909, Mr. Feudner, realizing the need of co-operation 
in every department of the newspaper, began to for- 
mulate plans to organize a company and permit some of 
the young men in the plant to own stock in the corpora- 
tion. Accordingly, the Republican Company was formed 
April 1, 1910, and incorporated with Jacob Feudner, his 
son. Will O. Feudner, Claud Simpson, and B. O. Simpson 
as stockholders. Claud Simpson, who had gone to the 
Indianapolis Netvs as assistant state editor in October, 
1908, was recalled to become editor of the Republican, 
succeeding Mr, Geraghty. B. O. Simpson, his brother, 
who had been employed in Indianapolis, took charge of 
the bookkeeping and collections, when the company was 
organized, and the younger Mr. Feudner, who had been 
associated with his father in the newspaper business for 
seven years, was in chai'ge of circulation and advertising, 
Claud Simpson remained only a year as editor, and had 
to give up the position due to ill health. He went to Ros- 
well, N, M., during the summer of 1910, and was suc- 
ceeded by Roy E. Harrold, who continues as editor of the 
paper. Mr. Harrold also became a stockholder, taking 
Claud Simpson's stock in the company. The firm con- 
tinued with this organization until the elder Mr, Feudner 


was compelled to retire on account of failing health. He 
went to Denver, Co]., in April, 1914, where he has since 
lesided. On A])ii] 1, 1916, Frank Priest, who had been 
emijloyed as a pressman in the licpiihlican office for 
seventeen years, became a stockholder in the com])any. 
On accf)nnt of his being unable to return to Rushville, 
Jacob Feudner severed his connection with the Bepnh- 
lirfni in ?>iarch, 1918, and sold the controlling interest in 
the C()m]»any to the other four stockholders. The ma- 
jority of the stock was ])urchased by Will O. Feudner, 
who obtaiiied the control previously held by his father. 
It was not long after the Rcpuhlirmi became a daily that 
Mr. Feudner realized the paper w^as outgrowing its quar- 
ters at the corner of ]\[org;ui and Second streets. Tn 1906 
a modern newspaper building was erected by Mauzy & 
Denning at the corner of Perkins and Second streets for 
the Be)n(hh'('a}i and the newsi>a])er was located there for 
ten years. The Repuhlican suffered a heavy loss from 
the serious flood of .Afarch, 1913, and the owners then 
realized that sooner or later the ]ilant would have to be 
moved. When another flood, in 1915, inflicted severe 
damage to tlie com])any, not so serious, however, as that 
in 1913, the stockholders of the company decided to build. 
They bought a site one-half block north of the building 
which the com])any had occupied t'(»i' ten years, and 
erected a modern newspaper jilant, designed with the 
view of obtaining the greatest efficiency in producing a 
newspaper. The ))uil(ling was erected under the general 
direction of Will FeudiuT fioni iilars flrawn by Harvey 
P. Allen, and it has been ])ronouiiced by many visiting 
newsi)a]iei-men as better fitted to meet the needs and re- 
quirements of a news])a])ei- and ] Minting establishment 
than a.ny to be found in any city twice the size of Rush- 
ville. The UcpuhUcan occui)ied its new home August 8, 

The J\*nsli Comity News — This daily 7iewspaper, pub- 
lished at Rusliville, is the lineal descendant of the old 


Jacksonian, as what remained of that historic old paper's 
equipment after its abandonment is being utilized as part 
of the equipment of the News, which also occupies the 
quarters formerly occupied by the Jacksonian's successor 
the Democrat, on North Morgan street. The story of 
the merger, in 1907, of the Jacksonian into the Democrat, 
under the ownership of the Democrat Publishing Com- 
pany, has been told. Two years later, in 1909, William L. 
Newbold, a Rushville attorney, bought the Democrat. He 
continued to publish the paper until 1914, in which year 
he sold it to Lewis Holtman, who presently disposed of it 
to Richard Noyer, under whose ownership it was sus- 
pended under the stress of war times in 1918, and the 
Democratic party in this county thus was left without 
an official and formal medium of expression. This sit- 
uation continued until in the spring of 1920, when the 
party spurred by the needs of the approaching campaign, 
recognized the necessity of resuscitating the party organ, 
and the Riisli County Daily News is the outcome of this 
necessity. The publishers, D. R. Mellett and W. L. Mel- 
lett, of Columbus, Ind., agreed to establish a daily news- 
paper in Rushville to represent the Democratic faith pro- 
viding satisfactory advance assurance could be given of 
proper support. This assurance was given by the secur- 
ing of a substantial advance subscription list assuring a 
sufficient circulation to interest advertisers, and the first 
issue of the News appeared on June 3, 1920, the publica- 
tion office being that formerly occupied by the Democrat. 
What remained of the defunct paper's equipment was 
purchased; a new "intertype" machine was installed, to- 
gether with other modern machinery and equipment, the 
equipment including an up-to-date job-printing plant, 
and the Mellett brothers have been "on the job" since, 
giving the Democrats of Rush county a capable organ. 
The Melletts also own a daily paper at Columbus and are 
trained newspaper men. 

The Rushville American — This paper, a six-column, 


four-page folio semi-weekly, published by James E. 
Xadeii at 121 West First street, was established on "NTo- 
vember 22, 1894, and has never changed hands, still being 
published by its founder. Mr. Xaden grew up to the 
])rinter's trade, beginning as the "devil" in the Brpuh- 
lican office in 1884. After spending three years there he 
transferred his connection to the Graphic office, and re- 
mained there sevei-al years, or until he decided to have a 
news] )a per and ])rinting plant of his own. In the mean- 
time he had been able to save $600, and with this money 
bought a small i)rinting outfit and opened an office in a 
room over what is now the Greek candy shop, on ^lain 
street, Will G. ^^.IcVay, who also had been a printei- in 
the Bepnhlicon office, and who aftei'wai'd became city 
clerk, at that time occupying the ground floor of this 
building as a notion store. At first the American was but 
a small four-column folio printed one page at a time on a 
job press, the subscription price of the same being 50 
cents a year. Job printing became Mr. Na den's specialty, 
and as his business expanded he took all the top floor of 
the building alwve mentioned, save a small room re- 
served as an office 1)y Squiie Poe, and there he remained 
for twelve years, or until his business had so expanded 
tliat it became necessary to find larger quarters and he 
moved to the ground floor of the Tynei- l)uilding, south 
of the coui-t house. In the meantime he had installed a 
ram])l)('ll pi'css and eidarged his ])a])er to a six-column, 
('ight-])age i)ublication, continuing it as a weekly until 
1907, when he changed it to a semi-weekly, six-column, 
four-page folio, which foi-m is maintained. In 1910, ^Fr. 
Xaden moved his plant into the quarters he since has oc- 
cujjied on West First street. From his original invest- 
ment of $b00, Mr. Xaden has developed a piece of news- 
{)a])ei' ])roperty valued at right around $7,000. He has 
ani])]e type equipment and makes a specialty of job 
{)rinting and stationeiy su})plies. 

The Carthage Citizen — This newspaper is the direct 


descendant of the Carthage Clarion, which was estab- 
lished in 1887, by Edward C. Charles, who presently 
found his experiment in village journalism unprofitable 
and sold his subscription list and "good will" to the 
Rushville GrapMc. Some time afterward, however, be- 
coming encouraged by what appeared to be better con- 
ditions in the journalistic field, he revived the j)aper 
under the name of the Carthage Record, and after getting 
the paper "on its feet" sold it to William Allen, who 
made an excellent paper of it until the time of his rather 
sudden death, after which the paper led a somewhat des- 
ultory existence until it fell into the capable hands of 
Lloyd W. Henley, one of Carthage's enterprising young 
men, who had been teaching school in this county, and who 
is now nationally known as "Jack" Henley, the urbane 
secretary of the national Republican committee, and one 
of Indiana's most astute politicians. Henley "carried 
on" with the Record until the lure of wider fields at- 
tracted him elsewhere, and in the spring of 1899, he sold 
the paper and went to Indianapolis, where he became en- 
gaged in newspaper work, la^dng there the foundation 
for the political advancement which later came to him. 
In 1902, Chester G. Plill, of Carthage, bought the Record 
from J. D. Dennis, and was conducting it quite success- 
fully when in January, 1906, his plant was destroyed by 
fire, the loss being total, even to his books and subscrip- 
tion lists. Disheartened for the moment by this loss, Mr. 
Hill made no immediate attempt to revive the paper, and 
for more than a year Carthage was without a newspaper, 
but in May, 1907, Mr. Hill put in a new plant and started 
all over again, reviving the paper under the name of the 
Carthage Citizen, which it since has borne. In 1910, Mr. 
Hill erected a cement building on the town's main street 
for the housing of his newspaper, and has since felt rea- 
sonably secure against further loss by fire. The Citizen 
long ago demonstrated that it "had come to stay" and 
apparently is prospering beyond the ordinary run of 


small town newspapers. Mr. Hill not only is a newspaper 
man, but a ])rinter, and carries, on a considerable job- 
])i'inting business in connection with his paper. 

Tlic Mih'oj/ Press — Milroy has had a newspaper 
since 1882. in wliich yeai- Charles F. Pollitt established 
there the Milroy Afh'crtiser. The paper "caught on" and 
it w^as not long until its proprietor became convinced that 
it was more than an experiment. The name Advertiser, 
seemina" to him to smack somewhat too much of commer- 
cialism he ])]esently changed the name of the paper to the 
Times, and it w^as iDcing published under that name when 
in 1887, George AV. Rowe bought the paper and changed 
the name of it to the Xcirs, whicli it was pi'oudly cai-rying 
wlicn F. C. (Jrccn bdiiglit it and clmnged the name to the 
Pr(ss, under which name the ])ai»er since has been ])ub- 
lished, for some years X'^st under tlie very capable direc- 
tion of Dewey Plagen. a young man who had his news- 
paper training at Flora and Tiouisville, Til., and who u])()n 
taking charge of the Press at Milroy modernized tlie shop, 
putting in new equi]mient of an u])-to-date character and 
installin.g ;it the same time a first-class jolvprinting 
])]ant. It is not too nmch to say that Mr. Hagen is 
widely regarded as a ''phenom" in the field of village 
journalism. Trade journals in Chicago and in the 
Kast liave sent representatives to Milroy to get stories 
of wliat lie is doing there, and his fame as a village 
journalist and ])rinter of iikmc t!i;;ii ordinary ])arts 
has gone far. In addition to publishing the Press 
at Milroy, Mr. Hagen also is tlic publisher of the Laurel 
Revieii- aiid also ])rints school papers for Milroy, Carth- 
age, Manilla .•md Waldron. lie has two late model lino- 
ty]M' inacliincs. a ''Ludlow" and nnich other modern 
('([riipnic'iit not ofte]i found in village newspaper shops. 
He gives the })eo])le of Milroy, iiauicl and vicinities ex- 
cellent ]ia]ieis jiud is "on the job" every miiuite. As his 
"given" 7ianie might indicate, Mr. Hagen is barely twen- 
ty-three yeai's of age. and if his ]»resent energy persists 
his future would seem to be a promising one. 



Just how such a situation came to be is difficult of 
explanation, but it foi'mei'ly was notorious that the news- 
paper man, like the doctor, was the last to be considered 
in the payment of bills. That the newspapers of Rush- 
ville were not exempt from this condition is revealed by a 
perusal of the old files of the papers, many a mouth-fill- 
ing and heaven-rending wail for money from delinquent 
subscribers and advertisers there being voiced. "The 
new advertisements contained in the last Republican, and 
the job work done in this office last week amounted to 
$95. Out of that sum we received $1.25 — all in cash!" 
This was the not wholly unwarranted complaint uttered 
by the Republican in March, 1857. In that same month 
this same i3aper had the following heart-to-heart talk with 
its readers : ' ' Money ! Money ! ! Money ! ! ! We believe it 
has been nearly two years since we asked our friends for 
money. We are not in the habit of doing so, and were it 
not that we need money very badly, we would not do so 
now. But we need money to carry on our business, and 
we must have it. We have over $2,000 coming to us on 
our books, and out of that amount we ought to have five 
or six hundred at once. Come up to the rack, friends." 
Small wonder there were so many changes in the owner- 
ship of newspapers in those days. Business methods ap- 
parently were lacking in the sacred circle surrounding the 
editorial tripod. The subscription rates of the Repub- 
lican at that period were: In advance, $1.50; within six 
months, $2; within the year, $3; for six months in ad- 
vance, 75 cents. Terms of advertising — one-eighth col- 
umn, changeable quarterly, $18; quarter column, change- 
able at advertiser's pleasure, $24 ; half -column, same, $35; 
three-quarters of a column, same, $55.60; one column, 
same, $70 ; or upon the following terms — one square, three 
weeks, $1 ; three squares, same, $3 ; five, $4.50 ; ten, $8.50 ; 
fifteen, $12.50 ; twenty, $16. At that time the paper was 
carrying the following at its "masthead": "The 


Refmhlican has Tlic largest circulation of any county 
newspaper in the state." Fine! The circuhition "boos- 
ter" even then was on the jol^. About this time the 7?^- 
pnhlican carried an editorial asking the attention of oth- 
er publishers over the state in the interest of a convention 
of editors and publishers in Indiana for the purpose of 
securing the adoption of a uniform rate of advertising, 
especially with i-espect to patent medicine advertising, 
the article setting out that newspapers over the state 
were suffering from the operations of "swindling" ad- 
vertising agents. The ' ' get-together ' ' movement thus was 
just getting a start in that day of individualism and it is 
interesting to record that the suggestion for such a move- 
ment came from Rush county. In that same year the 
editor advised his readers that "we are under obligations 
to Mr. James Buchanan (not the president, but a better 
man), for a basket of fine apples. They were the finest 
winter apples we have seen this season." Good work — 
acknowledged a courtesy of a friend and took a "crack" 
at the hated administration all in the same breath. But 
politics was all in all with the news])apers in those days, 
and there were few local items that were not tinged with 
the intense partisanism of the period. For example : In 
March, of that same year (1857), the Rcpuhlicdii carried 
an a])parently innocuous little local item setting out that 
"Klder Drury Holt will deliver a lecture on 'Bible Slav- 
ery' at the court house on the evening of the 1st proximo, 
at early candle lighting. Persons of all i)arties are re- 
spectfully invited to attend. Honorable criticism is so- 
licited, i.ct there l)e a full attendance." Looks harmless, 
doesn't it? and yet here is what the Jarksoniau of the 
following week had to say about it, not even waiting until 
aftci- the lecture to make the "honorable ciiticism" that 
was solicited: "Drui-y Holt, a dyed-in-the-wool abolition- 
ist who. we are informed, got his ])roperty through the 
sale of Jiiggers in Tennessee, is advertised in the Bepuh- 
liran to lectni-e at the coui't house this evening upon the 


subject of 'Bible Slaveiy.' As Hackleman thinks it is 
not necessary for a man to be of a 'legal cast' to compre- 
hend IMcLean and Curtis on the subject of free-nigger 
law, we suppose Drury will demolish the late decision of 
the Supreme Court of the United States. We are sorry 
Hull isn't here to enjoy a feast of fat things; but poor 
Matt had to run away. Hope the Judge and Jo Nicholas 
will not become as envious of Drury as they were of him." 
Sounds terribly remote and far away, doesn't it? And 
yet this is the sort of stuff that filled the newspapers of 
the dear old, hallowed days ; the dear, dead days beyond 
recall — the editors, intent on their petty partisan bicker- 
ings, having neither time nor inclination to give their 
readers more than an occasional fragment of local news, 
or if they did print a bit of news managing somehow to 
hang a partisan stinger onto it. 

It was the common thing for subscribers to the 
papers, particularly the rural subscribers, to pay up with 
commodities of one sort and another, products of the 
farm or chase, and turnips, apples, cordwood or pelts 
were looked upon by the editor as proper exchange, but 
sometimes he got more than he needed, as note the fol- 
lowing printed in December, 1860: "Remember, you who 
are interested, that aftei* the last of next week we will 
take no wood on subscription unless we have specially 
agreed to do so." His woodyard evidently was filled. 
The political reward for service was what the editor for- 
merly looked forward to. On January 22, 1861, it is noted 
that "William J. Cowing, so long connected with the 
Rushville Republican, has resigned its control into the 
hands of Mr. Andrew Hall, who is certified to be a good 
man and worthy of the trust. ' ' And then, in the follow- 
ing June : "William J. Cowing, formerly editor of the Re- 
publican, has been appointed to a $1,200 clerkship in the 
Interior Department, in the Census Bureau. ' ' The Civil 
war period taught the newspapers the value of printing 
more news and paying more attention to local interests 


than to Washington gossip, as witness the following con- 
cerning the announcement of F. T. Drebert on taking 
control of the Hepuhlican on November 6, 1869: "AMiile 
the Be publican, under my control will freely discuss the 
political questions of the day, the advancement of the 
local interests of Rush county will always claim its first 
attention." And the columns of the newspapers from 
that time on began to reflect this change of plan. The 
'60s had passed, a new era was opening ; newspapers were 
beginning to perceive the possibilities of a new and un- 
tried field and when they got into the field they found the 
pasturage immeasurably l)etter. Machinery and print- 
ers' supplies generally began to improve, conditions were 
better for the craft in more ways than one, and the editor 
took heart. The commercial spirit began to take hold of 
him. He no longer lived wholly in his partisan dreams, 
but began to take some outlook upon the practical side of 
his business. The newspapei' was no longer an experi- 
ment or a mere profitless and ineffective medium of 
"reform." It gradually became a business proposition 
pure and simple, and as such today has gained in respect 
even as it has gained in the dignity of its calling — a news- 
I)aper, indeed, instead of a servile mendicant. 


The Medical Peofession 

Rush county has been singularly and most happily 
favored, even from the days of the beginning of organ- 
ized society hereabout, by the high character and lofty 
standards of its medical profession. But it could not 
have been otherwise. The founder of the county seat, 
Dr. William B. Laughlin, not only was a skilled phy- 
sician, but a cultured gentleman in whose presence char- 
latanry and professional quackery could not survive. He 
was quickly followed by such other high-minded and cul- 
tivated physicians as Dr. H. G. Sexton, Dr. William 
Frame, Dr. Jeffeison Helm, Dr. John Arnold, Dr. W. H. 
Martin and those of their type who similarly labored in 
the adjoining counties of Fayette and Franklin, and with 
an association of such men as these working in the public 
behalf the common run of medical quacks that were wont 
to batten on the pioneer communities where they could get 
a foothold simply did not dare to obtrude save in the most 
exceptional instances of effrontery such as that which the 
reader already has noted in the chapter on Bench and 
Bar, which relates how the pretentions of a pioneer 
^' quack" were punctured on the witness stand in a case 
during an early term of court here. And such of these 
gentry as did come in did not remain long. Follow- 
ing these pioneers in the medical profession there natur- 
ally came others of the same high type and this exalted 
standard has been maintained throughout the century. 
For nearly seventy-five 3^ears an active organization of 
the Rush County Medical Society has been maintained 
and under the quiet, though none the less exemplary cen- 
sorship of such a society, there could be no let-down in 
the ethical standards behind which the medical profes- 



sion is marchini!; on. The present membership of the 
Rush County Medical Society (J. T. Paxton, secretary) 
is as follows: L. M. Gi-een, R. O. Kennedy, J. M. Lee, 
J. F. Bowcn, M. C. Sexton, H. V. Logan, eVi. Wooden, 
D. D. VanOsdol, W. C. Smith, J. C. Sexton, F. H. Green, 
J. T. Paxton and F. H. Hackleman, of Riishville; E. L. 
Hume, AV. T. Lampton and C. S. Honghland, of Milroy; 
C. L. Smnllen, of Raleigh; H. P. Metcalf, of New Salem; 
Doctors Mc 'abb and Vandement, of Carthage: Doctor 
Barnett, of Homer, and A. G, Shanck, of Arlington, 
This, however, does not include all the physicians in the 
county, a few ])hysician8 ivmaining aloof from the asso- 
ciation. The General Assembly of 1897 enacted a law 
requiring the registration and licensing of Indiana 
])hysicians in the counties in which they maintained their 
practice, such licenses to be issued by the county clerk 
under the direction of the state board of medical registra- 
tion and examination. The question of whether an indi- 
vidual should be licensed to treat the sick is educational, 
and not sectarian. Hence the statute provides that the 
board "shall not in the establishment of the schedule of 
minimum requirements discriminate in favor of or 
against any school or system of practice, nor shall it pre- 
sci'ibe what system or systems or schools of practice shall 
be taught in any of the colleges or universities or other 
educaticnial institutions of the state." Tlierefore. no one 
is bari'cd fi-oni obtaining a license to engage in tiie ]trac- 
tice of the heaiing art in Indiana on account of the school 
oi- system by wliicii lie ])racti('('S. The issuing of a license 
is based solely upon the iiioi-al a.nd ('ducati(mal fitness of 
the a])]>licant. Practitioners not em])loying drugs in the 
ti-eatnieiit of human diseases are not required to submit 
1o an examination in materin iiicdira. A common exam- 
ination is given to all ap]»li('ants only in the subjects that 
are in conunon tauglit Iw all schools or systems of prac- 
tice. Unde]- llic piovisions of this act of iMarch, 1897, 
the foliowiiig ])ersons have been granted licenses to prac- 


tice medicine in Rush county, the names taken from the 
records in the county clerk's office being set out in the 
order in which they are registered, some of these, of 
course, being the names of physicians who were then and 
perhaps had long been engaged in practice here: Ed- 
ward D. Beher, William C. Smith, William H. Smith, 
Ezra Bufkin, Frank H. Green, Edward I. Wooden, John 
G. Lewis, Charles H, Parsons, Charles H, Gilbert, Frank 
G. Hackleman, Harry J. Bell, Omar Magee, J. E. Mc- 
Gaughey, Alfred S. Hall, John H. Spurrier, Donald H. 
Dean, William A. Johnson, John Moffett, Andrew E. 
Graham, George B. Jones, Donald Kennedy, Charles L. 
Rea, Thomas H. Rucker, James L. W. L. Tevis, William 
T. Lampton, William S. Gordon, R. L. Hudelson, Henry 
P. Metcalf, Charles L. Smullen, Franldin W. Gregor, 
Lot Green, E. J. T. Paxton, Henry V. Logan, Hugh H. 
Elliott, Samuel C. Thomas, John A. Sipe, J. C. Dillon, 
Frank Smith, Henry G. Linn, Orlando S. Coffin, Will- 
iam N. McGee, Harry Eugene Wilcox, Holland P. Long, 
Joseph F. Bowen, William E. Barnum, O. P. Dillon, 
John D. Green, Lucian A. Lowden, Charles S. Hough- 
land, John H. Jones, William J. Porter, John C. Sexton, 
J. W. Shrout, Alpheus Marcellus Smith, J. Levi Lord, 
Roland T. Blount, Elmer M. Druley, James Garfield Put- 
nam, S, Gurney Kreider, F. J. Drake, Dawson D, Van- 
Osdal, Charles A. Guild, Joseph B. Kinsinger, J. W. Es- 
tes, LeRoy M. Coyner. R. H. Elliott, W. B. Gillespie, 
William W. Tindall, William Stoops Coleman, Andrew 
Robinson, Stuart Johnson, Charles A. Carter, Emerson 
Barnum, A. G. Shauck, E. Nave, Auldy Edward Phipps, 
Tell C. Waltermire, W. H. Dent, Earl Dayton Jewett, 
J. Ra5rmond Hume, Lowell McKee Green, Roddie J. 
Hamilton, Justus C. Ferris, Merton A. Farlow, Carl By- 
ron McCord, Daniel Emmett Barnett, Ford Herman Fin- 
law, Caleb J. Horton, Albion J. Miller, Orvall Smiley, 
Henry P. Metcalf, Joseph Edward Walther, Roscoe N. 
Doyal, Robert Otis Kennedy, Carroll J. Tucker, George 


F. Lewis, Jolm .M. J^ee, W'illiani J. Crozier, ALarshall Cul- 
len Sexton, Robert Noel Bills and Edward L. Hume. 
I^fany of these names lon<>- have been honored in the com- 
munity. Many others are so unfamiliar as to suggest 
that they were perhaps those of young physicians who 
registered for practice here and then sought another field 
before they had created an individual im])ression in the 
local field. In 1899, the legislatui*e enacted a law similar 
to that regulating the practice of medicine, covering the 
practice of dental surgery and requiring the registration 
and licensing of dentists. Since that time the following 
dentists have i-egistered foi' license in the office of the 
county clerk: Jesse McGee, Frank M. Sparks, Fi'ank 
Smitli, F. R. McClanahan, C. C. Iteming, Perlv H. 
Chadwick, R. Basil Meek, Wallace G. Campbell, E. E. 
Stew^art, John H. Muii-e, Carl Beher, George ". W;\mian. 
Warren A. Robinson, Henry AVilfred Kelly, Charles 
Kuhn, \A'illiam A. Gant, Ernest F. VanOsdol, Charles S. 
Green, Chailes W. Zike, Alex Ross, Hale H. Pearsey, 
George A^'alter Havens, Verl A. Bebout, Howard 
Thomas and Charles Ernest Eurit. 


Jn an interesting review of the history of the Rush 
Comity Medical Society prepared for publication by the 
late Dr. William A. Pugh in 1879, there are set out in de- 
tail many points of informative interest relating to the 
medical ])rofession in this county in an early day. Doc- 
tor Pugh was born in Rusliville, in 1829, a son of Reu 
Pugh, one of the fii-st settlci-s in the town, and was thus 
thoroughly familiar witli ])ioneer conditions her(\ In 
this review Doctor Pugli ])ointe(l out that "history fur- 
nishes no certain date as to tlie first medical organization 
in Rush county. While first medical men were zeal- 
ous su])))oi-t(M's of such institutions, and for many years 
})elong('(l to district and to other societies, no organiza- 
tion confined exclusively to Rush county existed until 


about the year 1846. Prior to this date, Rush county was 
connected with Wayne, Union, Fayette, Franklin and 
Dearborn counties, forming what was called the Fifth 
Medical District of Indiana, taking its organization about 
1828, and lasting about ten years. The meetings were held 
twice a year at Richmond, Connersville, Liberty, Brook- 
ville, Lawrenceburg and Rushville in turn, the members 
making the trip on horseback from their various points 
to the place of meeting. The prominent members of this 
society were men of merit, and of high professional stand- 
ing. In Fa5^ette county there were Drs. Riland T. Brown, 

Philip Mason, G. R. Chitwood, Miller, Moffett and 

John Arnold. In Union county, Drs. Z. Custerline, Rose, 
Orpheus Everts, Sr. In Dearborn county. Dr. Brower. 
In Franklin, Drs. Heymond and Berry. In Rush county, 
Drs. W. B. Laughlin, Horatio G. Sexton, William Frame, 
Matthew Smith, Jefferson Helm, Ben Duncan and Will- 
iam Bracken. After the demise of this society, an or- 
ganization was effected under a special charter from the 
legislature of the state, possessing powers to examine and 
license candidates for the practice of medicine within the 
limits of the organization. This was called the Indiana 
Medical Institute, and embraced the counties mentioned 
above as constituting the Fifth District Medical Society. 
This institute was short-lived and inefficient, only main- 
taining a very feeble existence which terminated about 
the year 1844 or 1845. In 1846, the first medical society 
confining its jurisdiction to county lines was formed, and 
was called the Rush County Medical Society. Among the 
leading and working members of this society, we find 
the names of Drs. H. G. Sexton, William H. Martin, 
William Frame, William Bracken, John Howland and 
Jefferson Helm. Its juvenile members were Drs, James 
W. Green, Marshall Sexton, Erastus T. Bussell and 
Nathan Tompkins, all young men just entering upon pro- 
fessional life. Dr. John Howland was elected president 
at the organization, and Dr. Marshall Sexton, secretary. 


This society was the first to adopt and accept the Code of 
Ethics as published by the American Medical Association, 
which had just been organized. This first county society 
published this code of ethics in pamphlet form, and dis- 
tributed it liberally among the physicians and people of 
the county. The first board of censors were very liberal 
in their notions of professional qualifications, and conse- 
quently were rather lax in their examinations for mem- 
bership, admitting almost everyone applying. Many 
illiterate, inefficient, unskillful and unprofessional men 
were taken into its fold. It died of its own liberality, it 
fell of its own weight and ceased to have an existence 
shortly after 1850; and though its lease of life was short, 
there can be no doubt that it accomplished much good. 
It was the first to formulate regular medicine and sow 
the seeds of good principles of high professional attain 
ments and of an honorable code among the medical men 
of the country. It had also the good effect of disseminat- 
ing among the people the same principles of justice be- 
tween physician and patient and between the public and 
the medical profession. In the year 1857, the following 
physicians of Rush county met in the court house, in the 
month of May, and organized the present society, calling 
the compact The Rush County Medical Society: H. G. 
Sexton, William Bracken, John Moffett, A. C. Dillon, 
James W. Green, John x\rnold, John J. Dillon, Alvin 
CuT-ley, J. H.- Spurrier, R. D. Mauzy, James Thompson 
and William A. Pugh. Dr. H. G. Sexton was chosen the 
first ]>resident and was annually elected to the same posi- 
tion until his death in 1865, a period of about eight years. 
Dr. -John Moffett was at the same meeting chosen the re- 
coi-ding secretary and was retained in the })lace until 
1874, a ])eriod of seventeen years. For a period of three 
and a half years after its organization, the cai'eer of the 
Rush County Medical Society was in the highest degi'ee 
satisfnctt)ry. Many scientific papers were read and dis- 
cussed, nn incr(>asing taste foi- litei'ary and professional 


work was created, free discussions upon medical topics 
and careful preparation for society work incited the 
members. In addition to all, the secretary gave a very 
careful and close synopsis of the proceedings, papers and 
debates, filling quite a large volume. 

"In the midst of this prosperity, the fire fiend vis- 
ited the town and included in its ravages the office of Dr. 
John Moffett with his whole library, the society records 
and everything belonging to it. At the December meet- 
ing in 1861, the secretary. Dr. Moffett, arose and made 
the following statement: 'Mr. President and Gentle- 
men : I have the unpleasant message to deliver to you this 
morning, that the entire records of this society were con- 
sumed in the late fire which occurred in Rushville. We 
think we can truthfully say, none can more than I regret 
the loss which has come upon us. Many scientific organ- 
izations before this one have met with similar disaster. 
The association has done much to promote the interests 
of the medical profession of Rush county and the com- 
munity in which it exists. For three years and a half it 
has held regular meetings, always having a sufficient 
attendance to constitute a quorum for business. Import- 
ant medical subjects have been closely examined, and ex- 
tended records of its proceedings were kept. This is all 
lost, so far as the latter is concerned, but I trust that most 
of us have treasured up in the storehouse of the memory 
the substantial doctrines which have been passed in re- 
view during the existence of our little band of medical 
brethren. ' ' 

Doctor Pugh's recollections then go on to state that 
a rapid review of the work which had been accomplished 
was given from memory by the secretary, his remarks 
having been carefully written out for the purpose of read- 
ing to the society, and the paper was ordered to be spread 
upon the minutes, so that it should form an introduction 
to the new volume of transactions. After hearing the re- 
marks. Dr. W. A. Pugh offered a resolution to the effect 


that whereas the records and documents of the society 
having been destroyed, that ''we now go into an entirely 
new orgariization, and that no members of the old society 
shall be considered as members of the new one now to be 
organized, who do not enter it in the regular consti- 
tutional wjiy." The story then goes on to say that these 
resolutions having been u.nanimously adopted, Dr. H, G. 
Sexton, the jU'esident of the society, offered a new con- 
stitution which was adoi)ted and the new society got on 
its way. From 1861 until 1876 the organization continued 
with an uninterruiited prosperity, in that year (1876) 
the State Medical Society made a very radical cliange in 
its organic union; and was organized upon a basis of 
representation, the members to consist of delegates sent 
by auxiliary county societies. After much hesitation and 
with much reluctance to change again, the Rush Medical 
Society unanimously agreed to become auxiliary to the 
State .Medical Society, and at once changed its constitu- 
tion and by-laws so as to accord with the state organiza- 
tion. In his comments Doctor Pugh pointed out that 
"the scientific and literary work has been progressive, 
improving and of the higiiest order of merit. Several 
large volumes of transactions have been filled since the 
desti-uction by fire of the first one. ^- * * .Monthly 
meetings are held on the first Monday of every month, 
and very few meetings hiwv l)een missed in the entire 
existence of the society, which eniln'aces in its member- 
ship almost eve]-v i-epuiable practitioner of medicine in 
Rush county, a.nd its influence for good is felt alike by 
the citizens and the profession. As a j-esult of the work 
of this society, the connnunity of Rushville and the differ- 
ent neigh])orhoods of the county have been remarkably 
free from the professional Inckei ings and jealousies so 
common to the })rofessio]i of medicine. The unanimity 
and kindly feeling of Rnsh county physicians toward one 
another aic admired by every one cognizant of the fact, 
and it is in ;i. large measure atti'ibuted to the influence of 


the society upon its members." It is but proper to state 
that the fine spirit maintained by these "fathers" of the 
profession in Rush county has been maintained tlirough 
the years and that there still is a most harmonious una- 
nimity prevailing in the councils of the society. 

Regarding the pioneer physicians of the county 
Doctor Pugh had the following to say: "Rush county 
and Rushville were both named in honor of the renowned 
physician and philosopher of Philadelphia, Dr. Benja- 
min Rush, at the suggestion and through the influence 
of his admiring pupil and devoted friend, Dr. William B. 
Laughlin. Dr. Laughlin played an important part in the 
early settlement of the county. He surveyed the land, 
laid out the county seat, practiced medicine and exerted 
a great influence for good in the community. He was a 
man of fine classical education, of firm religious prin- 
ciples and of delicate and refined moral perceptions. 
These qualities marked him out as a leader in all good 
works, and gave to the society he assisted in organizing a 
high and pure moral tone. He was devoted to the cause 
of education, and, in 1828, opened a classical academy for 
instruction in the higher branches of education. He 
erected, at his own expense, on his own ground, a two- 
story frame building for this purpose. Many men, early 
prominent in the development of the coimty, among them 
Dr. John Arnold, received their early instruction at his 
hands. His high educational, religious and moral stand- 
ard had a decided effect in elevating the tone of the so- 
ciety in Rushville. There were also other physicians 
whose lives and labors were consecrated to the benefit of 
this county, and whose names must ever be intimately as- 
sociated with its development and progress. Dr. H. G. 
Sexton was the next physician to settle in Rushville, in 
1823. He was young, energetic and ambitious, profoundly 
devoted to his ]3rofession, and ever striving to elevate the 
standard of its attainments. He was fully aware of the 
benefits of medical organisations, and would ride through 


the wilderness on horseback to attend a medical meetincj 
at Indianapolis, Lawrenceburg-, Brookville, or other 
equally distant points. When the legislature divided the 
state into medical districts, he was one of the first to come 
forward to organize the society of the Fifth Medical Dis- 
trict of Indiana. Dr. A\^illiam Frame was the third 
physician to settle in Rushville. He was a cautions, pru- 
dent, skilful practitioner, and largely enjoyed the confi- 
dence of the community. He helped, by precept and 
example, to impart a high tone to society. Dr. W. H. 
]\Iartin, though coming somew^hat later, is justly entitled 
to rank as one of the pioneer physicians and public-spir- 
ited men who contributed largely to the development of 
the county. Dr. Jefferson Helm was a talented man of 
suave manners, who exerted a wide influence for good in 
the comnmnity. He bore his part in all private and pub- 
lic enterprises for the development of the resources of 
the county, and was the preceptor and first partner of 
Dr. John Arnold. Dr. Philip Mason, a giant in intellect, 
James Ford, Samuel Miller, David D. Hall, and the later 
justly celebrated geologist and teacher, Ryland T. Brown, 
all of Fayette county ; Drs. Daniel Cox, Cogeley and Rose, 
of Union ; Dr. John Howland, of Franklin, and Dr. Pen- 
nington, of Wayne county, were the members of the Fifth 
]Medical District from the counties other than Rush in the 
year 1836. All these labored to develop the truths of 
medical science, and all made an impression for good on 
those surrounding them. The devotees of medical science 
have always contributed their quota to the general 
amount of human knowledge, and w^e see how closely con- 
nected the medical profession is to the people in all prog- 
ress in science, education and material prosperity." 


In view of the fact that some newspapers of cui-rent 
date continue to piiiit "])atent" medicine advertisements 
it perhaps is hardly proper to refei* to the weird an- 


nouncements of the manufacturers of "cure-alls" which 
were carried in the newspapers of the '50s, as noted in 
the files of the local newspapers preserved in the county 
recorder's office. Human credulity was played upon 
then, even as now, and the shelves of the druggists were 
lined with "remedies" of many sorts, the flashy titles of 
which evidently caught the fancy of the ignorant and 
credulous of that day. It is apparent from a glance at 
the advertising columns of the newspapers of those days 
that a good portion of the revenue of the papers was de- 
rived from these "cure-all" manufacturers. The physi- 
cians of that day, too,, were a bit more free to approach 
the people through the columns of the newspapers than 
would be regarded as strictly ethical today. In the col- 
umns of the Rushville Republican in the spring of 1857, 
over the signature of J. C. B. Wharton, there is the fol- 
lowing: "Dr. Wharton would say to his old friends and 
patrons that he expects to be absent from home for the 
space of three or four months for the purpose of further 
investigation upon all the different departments of his 
profession, at the expiration of which time if his life and 
health be spared, he expects to return to Milroy and as- 
sume the practice of medicine as heretofore." Then fol- 
lows a paragraph of instructions regarding the settlement 
of accounts due him. In May, 1860, a notice states that 
"the Rush County Medical Society convenes at Manilla 
next Monday. The public is respectfully invited to at- 
tend. There will be an address suited to the public ear." 
This notice is signed by John Moffett, secretary. In 
August of the same year it is announced that "Newton 
Harris, a young dentist, has permanently established 
himself in practice over P. W. Rush's drug store." In 
November of that year there is a story to the effect that 
"the scarlet fever is prevailing to a considerable extent 
among the children of this place. It has proved fatal in 
but very few instances. The people of Washington town- 
ship are suffering from diphtheria, or putrid sore throat. 


It seems t(» be rai>ir;i;- to a fearful extent ii^ the north- 
eastern ])art of the eonntv. We hear of one ])erson who 
lias lost four children, ajiother, three, while many others 
lost from one to two during the past eight or ten days." 
In November, 1861, Dr. John Moffett, secretary of the 
society, in an announcement of the coming meeting of the 
Rush Oonnty JMedical Society, sets out for the benefit of 
the members that "the subject of 'Tuberculosis' is being 
discussed; a matter of interesting moment when it is 
known that one-seventh of the total mortality is owing to 
its wasting effects in a large ])ortion of the civilized 
woi'ld. * * The inteiest of the society requires every 
member to be found in his place so far as will compoi't 
with professional duties. ■• * it is well known that there 
are many subjects in medical science undergoing 7'evolu- 
tions day by day. whicli creates the necessity for the pi-ac- 
titioner to be active in t!ie study of medicine to keep him- 
self familiar witli the latest teachings and most approved 
methods of treatment of disease. Then it is uimecessary 
to urge upon any member of the association the fulfill- 
ment of the im])erative obligation whicli has been assumed 
voluntarily." In the spring of 1868 the newspapers car- 
ried stories of the prevalence of "spotted fever" in the 
commnnity. Comment was made that "this dangei'cnis 
disease seems to be doing great damage in our connmmity. 
It has been contended that the disease is not contagious, 
but it is giving the appearance of being so." In the spring 
of 1872 the ])apei- carried quite a story regarding the sev- 
enteenth annual meeting of the Rush County Medical 
Society and points out regai'ding this society that "its 
career has been one of unprecedented success. It has 
steadily grown in strength and usefulness and is now one 
of tlie oldest and most efficient county organizations in 
the state. The monthly meetings are regularly kcyit up 
and well attended, and no one is allowed to go by without 
an essay, report of case or cases, and a discussion upon 
some medical to])ic. * * Eacli yeai has been marked by 


progress in the character of its papers, as to their literary 
and scientific merits ; as, also, the marked improvement 
of members in being able to discuss the various subjects 
which come up for consideration. We are told that the 
productions of this body will compare favorably with 
similar documents in the state society. Some people have 
the very foolish impression that the only object of this 
and similar associations is to arrange fee-bills and con- 
coct plans whereby to swindle people by extravagant and 
extortionate charges for professional services. This so- 
ciety eschews all such unholy motives, and, as will be seen 
by the above narrative of its objects and doings, it de- 
votes the whole meetings to matters which mutually im- 
prove its members and thereby add to their own personal 
knowledge and usefulness, and hence, is for the benefit 
of the community at large." Along in the early '90s at- 
tention began to be paid to the necessity of public sanita- 
tion, and in April, 1893, Yf . C. Smith, city health officer, 
gave notice, through the Rushville papers, of the impera- 
tive necessity resting upon all to observe the ordinance 
against acts contrary to approved sanitary practices, 
pointing out that "no dead animals, slops, waste or trash 
shall be thrown in alleys or streets," and also that no hog 
pens would he permitted within the city limits "unless 
perfectly clean." The annual report of Dr. Lot Green, 
secretary of the county board of health, published in Jan- 
uary, 1894, gave the following statistics for the preceding 
year: Births, 265; marriages, 146; deaths, 101; conta- 
gious diseases, 46. In the spring of 1902, the newspapers 
called attention to the fact that the death rate in March 
in Rushville was 12.9 per 100; Rush county, 16.3, as 
against the average for the state of Indiana of 14.2. 
Evidently the ordinance designed to create better sani- 
tary conditions in the city was not being observed as it 
should have been, for in the spring of 1905 Dr. W. C. 
Smith, city health officer, declared his intention in a pub- 
lic announcement through the newspapers to enforce the 


ordinaDce, and to take action against persons who were 
keeping unsanitary liog pens within the eity limits, an- 
nouncing that he would have them declared public nuis- 
ances and thus abate them. The further provisions of the 
ordinance against garbage in the streets and alleys also 
were emphasized and notice given that the ordinance 
would be enforced. And thus the campaign against filth 
progressed. That it became effective with the jjassage of 
the years is fully apparent, for Rushville long has prided 
itself upon the neatness and cleanliness of its streets and 
alleys, while as for hogs on the streets or hog pens within 
the city limits — well, that abominable nuisance long ago 
passed forever. And, as in Rushville, so in the several 
villages of the county. Modern sanitation and general 
recognition of the necessity of maintaining proper con- 
ditions along this line have resulted in such improve- 
ments as hardly would have been regarded possible by 
those who patiently endured such conditions in this re- 
spect as those whose memories go back to the '50s and the 
'60s recall with regret. And the Rush County Medical 
Society, with unselfish devotion, is ever alert to further 
progress along this essential line. 


The Schools of Rush County 

There are several communities in the county which 
lay claim to the honor of having been the scene of the 
first school taught within the confines of Rush coimty, 
so easy it is to confuse tradition with fact, but the best 
evidence at hand points to the conclusion that the first 
school that properly could hold the name was that organ- 
ized by Dr. William B, Laughlin, in the new county seat 
town of Rushville in 1822, not long after the place became 
a settlement following the adoption of the site as the 
county seat. This is the conclusion reached by John L. 
Shauck, former county superintendent of schools, and 
who is still actively engaged in school work, whose full 
review of the history of the schools of Rush county pub- 
lished in 1888, and revised by him for republication twen- 
ty years later, is accepted as authority on questions af- 
fecting school history in this county. This conclusion ]Mr. 
Shauck bases upon statements of Harmony Laughlin, a 
son of Doctor Laughlin and one of the pupils attending 
that first term of school, and further confirms it by a 
statement of Doctor Arnold, who has so frequently been 
quoted in this work, "than whom." Mr. Shauck says, 
"there is perhaps no better authority." Concerning this 
fact Mr. Shauck declares that "the city of Rushville was 
the scene of the earliest schools of the county. Scarcely 
had the smoke begun to ascend from the first settler's 
cabin in the surrounding forest ere arrangements had 
been commenced to educate the pioneer youth. Dr. Will- 
iam B. Laughlin was the prime factor in all matters that 
pertained to the general welfare of the community, and 
in school affairs he was long the unquestioned authority. 
He was a man of liberal education and possesed of all 



those qualities that adapted him to lead in all the business 
of a new coniitry. Having a large family of his own he 
took early ste]!S in his new home in the wilderness to give 
them the advantages of education. It is said that he lo- 
cated here in the winter of 1820-21, and that his family 
soon after appeared upon the scene. The town of Rush- 
ville was laid out in March, 1822, and being the capital 
of the recently oi'ganized county, innnigration at once 
began. By the fall of 1822. several families had located 
here, and some were scattered around the adjoining 
country. In the midst of his manifold duties Doctor 
Laughlin undertook to instruct the children of the neigh- 
borhood, in addition to his own. For tliis pu]'])(^se a log- 
cabin was erected a few rods from his own house on the 
ground now (1888) occupied by the Presl)yterian chui'ch 
(now occupied by the Improved Order of Red ]^len). It 
was there, late in 1822, that the first school in Rush 
county was taught. * * Doctor Ijaughlin continued to 
teach there during the winters for several years, giving 
instruction in the common bi'anches as the custom pre- 
vailed in those times." 

In an admirable l)rief prepared for publication in 
the twenty-eighth l)iennial re])ort of the Indiana state 
dei)artment of ])ublic education (1917), C. M. George, 
county superintendent of schools of Rush county, gives a 
different versi<m of the story relating to the first school 
taught in the county. This brief contains so much in 
little that it is herewith reproduced as an introduction to 
the more detailed statement regarding the schools of the 
county. "The first school in Rush county," says T^^Ir. 
Oeoi'ge's l)rief, "was taught by Isaac Phip])s in Xoble 
townshi]) in 1S20-21. This school was taught for the 
Sfjuatters in a log cal)iii on section 19, township 13 noi'th, 
I'ange 10 east. One of the early school houses is described 
as having neithe]' chimney nor fii-eplace. It was heated 
by piling coals on a rock oi- mound of mud. The floor 
consisted (»f the bare ground. 



''The town of Rushville was laid out in 1822 and 
Dr. William B. Laughlin undertook in addition to his 
many other duties to instruct the children of the neigh- 
borhood together with his own children. In 1828 he 
opened a school for advanced pupils. The course of study 
included many of the higher branches, and was designed 
to prepare the students for entrance into college. This 
was the first school of the kind in the county. 

"In 1838, the county commissioners purchased two 
lots in Rushville at the southwest corner of Third and 
Julian streets, on which was erected the county seminary. 
This school was maintained by private tuition until it was 
sold under the acts of 1852. The Fairview Academy be- 
gan to receive students in 1849. The Friends Academy at 
Carthage was a log cabin. Here Henry Henley taught a 
school in 1830 or 1831. The academy was a sectarian 
school, and was taught in strict conformity to the views of 
Friends. The academy was continued in various build- 
ings in Carthage as a sectarian school until 1879, when 
it was merged into the joint graded public school. The 
Little Flat Rock Seminary was built in 1856, and stood 
one-half mile south of the Little Flat Rock Christian 
Church in Noble township. It was a two-story building, 
and was presided over for several years by Josiah Gam- 
ble, who afterward was superintendent of the Fayette 
"county schools. In 1847, Thomas B. Helm founded the 
Farmington Academy in a tavern now used as a dwelling 
on the northeast corner of the cross roads at Farmington. 
The United Presbyterians formed a stock company and 
established the Richland Academy in the village of Rich- 
land, which began its career of usefulness in 1855. It 
continued until 1861, when the principal, John McKee, 
recruited a company of soldiers which became Company 
K, Thirty-seventh Indiana Infantry. The buildings and 
grounds were sold April 29, 1885, to Richland toAvnship 
for public school purposes. 

"Rush county claims the distinction of having the 



first consolidated school \n the LTiiited States. William 
S. Hall, in 1876. abandoned five school houses and erected 
in the village of Raleigh, which is located in the center of 
the township, a graded school building. This building 
was opened in 1877, with J. T. Kitchen as the first prin- 
ci])al. At the present time (1917) all the townships of 
the ('(»unty have conscdidated schools except Richland. 
* * With consolidation lias come ])etter school build- 
ings, better equi]»ment, longer tei'in. a gi'aded system, 
higher branches taught, better qualified teachers, closer 
supervision and more efficient work generally at slightly 
increased cost. ' ' 


In the introduction to the state report here alluded 
to, Charles A. Greathouse, then state superintendent of 
public instruction, observes that "the century has wit- 
nessed a marvelous develo])ment in everything that has 
made for efficiency and stability of education. But let 
us not underrate the value of the education conferred 
upon the pioneer boy and girl by the crude schools of a 
century ago. They served their purpose well and were 
the foundations upon which later generations have 
reared the magnificent system of ])ublic schools of 
today. ' ' And it is so. 

The early schools of Rush county were like tlie first 
schools (»f most other counties here in the middle West, 
and the old settler has so often and so well told the old 
story of I'ude ])iniche(>n benches without ])acks, the writ- 
ing desk at tlic wall supplied with the goose quill ])en, and 
the many 1'a.miliar facts relating to the ])rimitive schools 
that there hai'dly is call here foi- a descri])tion in detail, 
})Ul lest the ]Mi]»il of today, sui roinidcd as he is by the con- 
veniences of school life ]irovide(l in the well-furnished 
and fully e(|uij)ped schools of this generation, fail to vis- 
ualize the little log school house in which his grandfather 
acfpiii-cd th.e rudiments of a ])retty effective education a 


little pen picture of the old school house in the clearing, 
together with a bit of detail relating to the manner in 
which such schools were conducted, may not be amiss. As 
Mr. George has set out above, some of these primitive 
school houses had a dirt floor, and were without a fire- 
place, the chill of the room being somewhat reduced by 
charcoal fires burning on the floor or in a brazier, formed 
by a big iron kettle set in the middle of the floor. 
Spellin', readin', 'ritin' and 'rithmetic constituted the 
curriculum. Text books were the rarity, usually one book 
being deemed sufficient for the entire family, the Testa- 
ment often being the only reader in the schools. Few of 
the pioneers had "cumbered" themselves with books upon 
starting on the trip into the wilderness and more often 
than not the schoolmaster 's entire library was in his head. 
In the genealogical records of the Hilligoss family, 
published at Rushville in 1913, there is a quite illumina- 
tive paragraph along this line touching on conditions in 
the family of Conrad Hilligoss, which came up here from 
Kentucky in 1824 There were ten children in this fam- 
ily, hence the schooling problem was one that had to be 
faced along with others of a pressing character. "The 
family library," this narrative goes, "consisted of one 
reader and two spelling books, which they studied after 
the day's work was done. " Equally illuminative is a fur- 
ther bit of description: "When they moved to Indiana 
they cleared eight acres and planted it to corn and wheat. 
When the wheat was ripe they cleaned it with a turkey 
wing. Their clothes were washed by rubbing with the 
hands and batting them with a paddle on the top of a 
smooth stump. After a time a wooden washboard was 
bought, which was used by four families that had settled 
in the neighborhood of the little town of Vienna, where 
there was one store. Vienna is now Glenwood. There 
were many panthers in those days, and few people ven- 
tured out at night. " With panthers lurking in the woods 
it perhaps was no difficult task to keep the children home 


evenings, and with no "movies" to tempt them out they 
perhaps became well grounded in the contents of that 
reader and of the two spellinG: books and thus were able 
easily to fall into the reading habit when c(mditions of 
living became less rigorous in their neighborhood. This 
lack of books in the early schools was, of course, a serious 
handicap, l)ut the overcoming of handica])S was a part of 
the pioneer's job, and his children usually became quali- 
fied in the "rudimen's." Unhappily, the teacher oft- 
times was what the youngsters of today would call a 
''boob," and this was a more serious handica]) to the 
ambitious youth than lack of books; but again there were 
among these pioneer teachers men of true intent whose 
souls were aflame with the desire to hand on the torch of 
learning, and who came into the conununity with richly 
charged minds prepared to impart to their pupils the best 
they had. Rush county's record is rich in such instances 
and the influence of these men of rii)e mind and over- 
flowing soul has been felt in all the succeeding genera- 
tions, and will continue to be felt. 

Of course, no license was required of the teacher, and 
it has been said that anyone who could spell February 
and did not have anything else to do could teach school. 
The early teachers were strong on discipline and reli- 
giously followed the principle of "no lickin', no larnin', 
and upon the slightest provocation denumstrated that 
axiom. Tlie uiaji oi- woman — generally, however, a man 
— who felt the urge to become an instructor of youth 
would get up a wi'itten agreement, called a subscription 
paper, and pass it around among the people of a certain 
neighborhood for signatures. The agreement usually 
called for a certain numl)ei" of pupils at a certain price 
the i'iij)il. and when the required niunber was obtained 
the school would begin. The ruling ])rice for a term of 
three months was $2 a pu])il, the munber of pupils to be 
taught generally not fewer than twenty. The board and 
lodging for the teacher was ]>rovided by the patrons of the 


school, each one in turn famishing a share of entertain- 
ment during the term, or if the teacher preferred, which 
generally was the case, he might choose a boarding place 
and remain there during the term for a small compen- 
sation to the patron of the school, whose home was se- 
lected. Edward Eggleston's ''The BLoosier Schoolmas- 
ter" of course is familiar to all Rush county readers, for 
the scene of that masterpiece of delineation and descrip- 
tion of pioneer conditions was laid in the neighboring 
county of Decatur, down in the Clifty neighborhood, it is 
said, and the conditions with respect to the schools there 
set out were perhaps equally typical of conditions in 
Rush county, so that for a more comprehensive descrip- 
tion of these conditions the reader is recommended to 
brush the dust off his old copy of "The Hoosier School- 
master" and read it again. 


Even before the beginning of the school the first 
matter of importance, of course, was to provide a build- 
ing for the accommodation of the teacher and his pupils, 
but this was an easy matter for the pioneers. The set- 
tlers of a neighborhood would get together on a specified 
day and begin the erection of a school house at some point 
as nearly central as a site could be procured. This was 
always easy to obtain, as land was worth but $1.25 an acre 
and a suitable site could be found where the owner of the 
land, especially if he had children of a school age — and 
he generally had, for large families were in fashion in 
those days, — was only too willing to donate an acre or 
half an acre of his land for the purpose. With this detail 
of location fixed, the settlers would gather on a day for 
the "rollin' " of the logs essential to the structure and on 
another day for the "raisin' " of the same, and thus about 
the third day the school house would be completed. The 
typical pioneer school house in this region was made of 
round logs, or if the settlers were particularly nice about 


it they took tlie further troulile to hew the h)gs, as giving 
a better "finish" to the job; these logs were notched at 
the ends to form a mortised jointure and the s])aces be- 
tween the k)gs were fiUed or "chinked" with sticks and 
daubed with clav. The roof consisted of clapboards, held 
in place by poles extending across the roof, called weight 
poles. Tlie floor was of puncheons, or j)lanks split from 
logs, two or three inches in thickness and hewed reason- 
ably smooth on the up])ei' side — this, of course, in the 
days before the portalile sawmills come lumbering in. 
The fireplace was about six feet wide, made of logs lined 
with clay or undressed limestone, if there chanced to be 
a quarry nearby. The chimney was made of stone and 
split sticks plastered with clay. A stout door hung on 
wooden hinges and was fastened with a wooden latch. A 
log was cut out of one side to form a long window and this 
open space w^as covered with paper greased to make it 
transparent. Long wooden pins were diiven in the log 
under the window, and a broad plank was laid on these 
pins to serve as a waiting desk. The seats were made of 
half a ])oplar log, smoothed with an adz and sup])orted on 
legs driven into the round side. An unlooked-for splinter 
in these seats might often create an unexpected diversion 
in the school as some uiiha])i)y wdght would feel its pierc- 
ing presence in his quivering anatomy. 

The more formal diversicms of the school consisted 
of ciphering matches, spelling bees, "town ball," Friday 
aftei'noon or evening "literary," and the barring-out of 
the teacher at Christmas time, to compel him to "treat," 
all occasions of excitement and merriment. The spelling 
and ci})hering matches and the "literaries" would be par- 
ticipated in ))v the wliole neighborhood and tlie excite- 
ment not infrequently would be accentuated by the ad- 
justment of ])hysical as well as mental rivalries, these 
personal and private physical readjustments often as not 
terminating in a "free-for-all" fight that would clear the 
neighborhood atmosphere for weeks to come. But why 


continue this description ? It is a story that has oft been 
told, an inseparable part of the wondrous mosaic of our 
common life, the pattern of which is familiar to all. Yet 
it is well, "lest we forget," formally to recall to each re- 
curring generation the days of old and nothing is more 
important in making up a definite history of the county 
than the retouching of the old familiar picture of the 
little pioneer school. The history of these schools lives 
only in the memory of persons who received what little 
education they were fortunate enough to secure from 
teachers who are now sleeping in some secluded spot their 
last long slumber: but they more often than not, left 
behind a memory that has grown brighter through the 
lapse of years. The history of one Hoosier school is the 
history of all with different persons in direction and dif- 
ferent hardships to overcome, all based upon the immor- 
tal Ordinance of 1787, creating the Northwest Territory, 
which declared that "religion, morality and knowledge 
are essential to good government, and the happiness of a 
people, and that schools and the means of an education 
should forever be encouraged in the new territory. " And 
it is so. The relays of the torchbearers are ever alert; 
the torch is never allowed to drop; the sacred flame is 
ever kept alive. 


For many years the primary declaration embodied 
in the ordinance above quoted regarding the encourage- 
ment of schools was a mere "glittering generality," such 
"encouragement" as was given having little behind it to 
make it effective and each neighborhood naturally be- 
came a sort of a law unto itself in the matter of its schools. 
The action of the Federal Government in setting off to 
the cause of common school education the sixteenth sec- 
tion in each township was not given executive force and 
the provision was further complicated when the Indiana 
state constitution of 1816 provided that none of the lands 


uranted by tlic ,i>x^neral Government for school purposes 
should be sold before 1820. As a matter of fact, it is 
stated, none was sold imtil eight years later, so that there 
really was no public fund from which to draw for school 
"encouragement" until about the beginning of the '30s. 
The legislative act of 1824 i)rovided for the organization 
of school districts, the appointment of- three trustees in 
each district, and for the erection of "suitable'" school 
houses apparently was executed or not, at the whim or 
discretion of such trustees as might be holding the offices 
at the time, and the provision of the law requiring the 
trustee to "examine" a teachei- as to his qualifications 
genei'ally w;;s a farce, usually the whole matter being 
turned ovej' by two of the trustees to the third, who was 
left to carry on the school in his own way, and who usually 
was wholly incompetent to "examine" the teacher, even 
if such an examination were made, the effect in general 
being confusion, maladministration and woeful neglect 
of the state's most important function, a situation that 
was years in clearing up. After 1833 tlie district trustees 
were elected by the voters of the districts. In 1836, any 
individual might hire a teacher and draw his part of the 
school fund for maintenance. Then, as Doctor Esarey, 
in his "History of Indiana" so \ividly sets out, "there 
was (»i;ly one more step that could be taken, and this was 
taken in 1841, when the qualificati(ms of the teacher were 
left to the district trustees, it is not straiige that under 
these ciicumstances the teaching })rofession disappeared. 
Men of high education and of greal ] tower filled the 
ranks of tlie ])reachei'S and lawyers, but the teacher of 
this period was not unconunouly the laughing stock of 
the neighborhood. While other iustitut ions of tlic state 
were taking on cfficici^t state-wide organization, tlie 
schools, under the i-uinous idea of loc;>l self-government, 
were struggling hopelessly with nncqnal lengths of terms, 
inca])able teachers, dishonest tiustees. diversity of text- 
books, lax enforcement of school laws and school disci- 


pline, neighborhood quarrels over school sites, narrow 
views of education and lack of wise leadership. This sit- 
uation lasted until the revision of the school law of 1843. 
The latter date perhaps marks the lowest level of general 
intelligence ever reached in the state. The harmful ef- 
fects of the failure to organize were felt in all classes and 
fields of social life. Despairing of any relief from the 
public schools, the churches, each in its way, tried to solve 
the problem of popular education. Almost every 
preacher was a school teacher. The Catholics had a large 
mimber of fairly good schools, at which not only their 
own, but Protestant children received iustruction. 
Hundreds of private subscription schools were founded 
and continued for uncertain periods. Such schools de- 
pended so completely on the teacher and local conditions 
that no history of them can be written. Any native of 
the state past the age of seventy can describe a pioneer 
school; no one can describe the pioneer schools." 

And the situation thus set out by Doctor Esarey was 
exactly the situation in Rush county during that period. 
The public schools were but grim jokes, save in excep- 
tional cases where men of wide vision chanced to get in 
control. Those who could sent their children to such of 
the local sectarian seminaries or academies as conformed 
in their form of instruction more nearly to the religious 
beliefs they held, and there were several such schools in 
the county, the seminary at Rushville, the Rev. D. M. 
Stewart's private school for boys, the Fairview Academy, 
the Richland Academy, the Friends Academy and the 
Flat Rock Seminary, all filling functions that properly 
devolved upon the state. The reminiscences of Barnabas 
C. Hobbs, one of the most effective factors in the salva- 
tion of Indiana's school system from the blight which had 
fallen upon it, gives a characteristic picture of conditions 
under the old trustee-examiner system. "The only ques- 
tion asked me at my first examination." wrote he, "was 
' What is the product of 25 cents by 25 cents '? ' * * We 


Imd only Pike's Arithmotic, which gave the sums and 
rules. These were eonsideved euou^'h at that day. How 
could I tell the, product of 25 cents hy 25 cents, when such 
a problem could not be found in the book? The examiner 
thouuht it was G^ 4 cents, but was not sure. T thouc;ht just 
as he did, Init this looked too small to both of us. AVe dis- 
cussed its merits for an hour or more, when he decided 
he was sure T was qualified to teach school and a first- 
class certificate was given me. ' ' 

A reminiscent letter from the ])en of a woman whose 
grandfather was one of the pioneers of Rush comity, and 
reproduced in the "Historical Sketch'' by John F. ^Moses, 
says: "The two first schools I attended were taught in 
private houses. The first was in a vacant house on Tsaiah 
Sutton's farm, the other in John Smith's kitchen. Both 
schools were taught by Uncle John AYalker. He kept 
what was called a 'loud' school, that is, we were permitted 
to read and spell as loud as we pleased. The first one to 
reach the school house recited first. How we used to run 
when we saw the others coming, to beat them there, and 
boast of it if we were first. AVe had no bell, and had 
never heard of such a thing. AA^hen play time was over, 
the teacher would come to the door and cry 'Books!' and 
then such racing to the door! \A^hen we were seated, 
l^ncle John would take a long beech switch and march up 
and down ))etween the bench(>s. If he caught anyone 
wliis])ei'ing or sitting idle, he gave them a tap. There 
were very few classes, foi- hardly any two had books alike. 
Hear Uncle John! how I love him yet, though he went 
home long yeai's ago. He was a good teacher and a good 
man." in Elijah Hackleman's "lieminiscences" the fol- 
lowing additional sidelight is thrown upon conditions of 
that period : " Aly recollections carry me back to the time 
when spelling, reading and writing were about all that 
were required. T have seen the excitement of districts 
when other branches were attem])ted to be tacked on to 
these, and seen the frowns of patrons when such stuff as 


grammar and geography were attempted to be taught; 
and when algebra and trigonometry came in, then the 
climax had been reached. I recollect at one time when I 
was a full-fledged pedagogue, that one morning one of my 
patrons came to the school house with his two boys and 
about the first word when he came in was ' Hackleman, I 
want you to teach my boys common learning, for I 
wouldn't give the toss of a copper for all your 'high dick' 
or for your ' classics. ' ' ' 


As has been set out, the private school w^as essential 
to the development of the community along educational 
lines in view of the ineffectiveness of the ambling public 
school system. The first of these private schools seems 
to have been that established by Dr. William B. Laughlin 
at Rushville in 1828, and of which mention previously has 
been made in this work. Doctor Arnold's recollections 
have it that Doctor Laughlin "impressed with the need 
of higher education, and being devotedh^ attached to 
teaching, erected a two-story frame building on his land 
and opened a school, where in addition to the common 
branches there was taught Latin, Greek, higher mathe- 
matics, history, etc. The upper room was devoted to the 
advanced pupils and the lower room to the lower grades. 
The school was conducted with eminent success for two 
or three years, and gave an impulse to loftier aspirations 
for learning among the young." 

The beginning of the Friends Academy at Carthage 
was a log cabin, which stood about a square south of where 
the railway station now stands. In this buildidng Henry 
Henley conducted a school in 1830 or 1831. The second 
building was a one-story frame on the farm of Abraham 
Small, southeast of the village. This building, in 1840, 
was moved to a lot opposite the Friends meeting house, 
and later was moved farther up Main street and about 
1849 gave way to a more pretentious frame building, 


which ill Turn was succeeded by an excellent brick build- 
iuf;- which supplied the needs of the town for school ])U]-- 
poses until the present acbnirable public school building 
was erected. In the days when this school at Carthage was 
conducted as an academy it was a sectarian school, con- 
ducted in strict conformity to the soni.ewhat ligid views 
of the Friends. 3 lost of the pupils were children of 
Friends' families, and every Fifth-day morning at 11 
o'clock weie marched across the street to the meeting 
house to listen to a sermon. This old academy was con- 
tinued as a sectarian school until its merger in 1878-79 
into the joint graded public school. Besides the academy 
the Friends .Meeting supijorted a school for the children 
of the negroes who liad been brought in there during the 
days of the "underground railroad," this colored school 
having been about three miles south of the village. Fol- 
lowing is given a list of the principals of the old Carthage 
Academy, in the order in which they served: Henry 
Henley, Levi Hill, Nancy Henley, (Jeorge Hunnicutt, 
William Johnson, Lewis Johnson, Dizah Thornburg, 
David Marshall, Eli B. Mendenhall, Jemima Henley, 
Martha Clark, Hiram Hadlev, Samuel Crow, Tristram 
Coggshell, llezckiah Clark, Thomas T. Newby, Allen Hill, 
Kdward Tiuiberlake, Samuel H. Macy, Kate Steere, 
Lydia A. Bui'son and Edwai'd Taylor. 

The Little Flat Rock neighborhood in Noble town- 
ship early became an educational center through the work 
and personal influence of Elder Benjamin F. Reeve, a 
cultured minister of the Disciples of (^hrist, who came to 
this county from Kentucky in 1888. Not long after his 
arrival Eldci- Reeve had set u]) a school in the little old 
Baptist church on iJttle Flat Rock, later occupying the 
Gregg school house, and still later a I'ooiti iu the h(mse of 
Mrs. Xnucy Ix'wis, donated to hiui for the ])ur|)()se, but 
presently he was able to caus(» the erection cd' a small 
frame school house or "academy" adjacent to the kittle 
Flat Rock <'hi'istiai! church which had become the com- 


munity center for that neighborhood, and to which pupils 
of both sexes came from miles around, receiving from 
this consecrated man instructions in both the primary and 
higher branches of learning. It has been written of Elder 
Reeve that "teaching was his passion and he made this 
little country school locally famous, awakening in his 
pupils a thirst for knowledge, while at the same time cul- 
tivating in them a taste for literature and a high stand- 
ard of living. In those old years he set in motion helpful 
influences which have long outlived him and which will 
endure so long as there remain descendants of his pupils 
to hand down traditions." This old Reeve school be- 
came the social center of the community. Elder Reeve 
had a well-stocked library, which was feely open to all 
callers and in his home was held the weekly meeting of 
"The Circle," a literary society which included in its 
membership the thoughtful young people within a circle 
of eight or ten miles thereabout. One of the students who 
thus came under this refining influence was Elijah Hack- 
leman, who has so frequently been quoted in this centen- 
nial history, and who there qualified himself as a teacher 
and for some time conducted a school in that same 

The formerly locally celebrated Little Flat Rock 
Seminary was a worthy successor of the Reeve school. 
This seminary was erected in 1856, at a point a half-mile 
to the south of the Little Plat Rock Christian church, and 
of the old Reeve school and was a two-story frame build- 
ing, the top floor — as was the custom in those days — being 
used for the advanced pupils and the lower floor for the 
primary and intermediate grades. This school was main- 
tained as an academy for many years, but dwindling at- 
tendance finally caused it to be abandoned for school 
purposes, and it finally was sold and dismantled, the ma- 
terial in it being used to build a barn. Among those 
whose influence as teachers was felt in this school were 
John Guff in, Josiah Gamble, Walter S. Tingley, John A. 


Roberts, John R. Hunt, Ooorgo Guff in, Thomas B. Rob- 
inson, Selina Onlvor, Sainiic] Vandervort, Amanda Hunt, 
K. M. Hunt, Jesse Rolnnson, Charles Poston and James 

ITndei- the act of 1824 effect was i2,iven to the consti- 
tutional provision for the erection of county seminaries, 
hut it was not until nearly twenty years later that Rush 
county availed itself of this provision, it having- been in 
1842 that the county commissioners appointed a board of 
seminary trustees to take steps toward the erection of a 
county seminary in Rushville. This board consisted of 
George B. Tingley, Pleasant A. Hackleman, John \V. 
Barbour, William McCleary and George Hibben and in 
the following year, at the March term, 1843, reported to 
the c(nnmissioners that they had bought two lots in Rush- 
ville and on them had erected a brick seminai-y, 33 by 53 
feet, two stories high, "completing the same in order as 
an institution of learning, with stoves, etc., fencing, sinks, 
wells, wellhouse, and other converdences and a))solute im- 
provements," at a cost of $3,673.97. This report shows 
that the ti'ustees "fui'ther state that there are now two 
schools taught in said seminary, free to all children of 
Rush county for admission: but no ])a]-t of the principal 
or interest of said fund has been ex])ended for tuition," 
thus showing that it was not a free school. Only the com- 
uioii blanches were taught in this seminary. Tlie first 
})rincii)al is said to have been Joseph Nichols, with John 
W. Barbour as assistant. When under the new state con- 
stitution the legislatui-e in 1852 directed the sale of all 
county seminaiy property, the pi'oceeds to apply to the 
permanent school fund, the Rush (\mnty Seminary was 
sold to the indeix'udent s(-hool cor])oration <»f Rushville 
and was used as a ])ublic school building until 1866, when 
the school board sold it as being no longer serviceable for 
school ]>urj)oses and it was ccniverted iiito a dwelling, still 
serving this hitt<'i' pui'|»ose, standing at Ihe southwest cor- 
nel- of '{'hi I'd and .Julian streets. 


It was in 1843 that what came to be known as Farm- 
ington Academy was established b}^ Thomas B. Helm, a 
teacher of wide popularity at that period, at the cross 
roads, four miles east of Rushville, the school being held 
in a two-story frame tavern building, which had been 
erected there by Alexander Luse, of Cincinnati, who had 
platted at the cross roads a townsite, which he called 
Marcellus, but which never developed beyond the paper 
stage. Dr. Jefferson Helm owned the land on which the 
tavern was located, and Thomas B. Helm was his nephew. 
Elder Ceorge Campbell, a minister of the Christian 
church, who had been doing missionary work throughout 
this section of the state, was installed as principal of the 
Farmington Academy and with his family occupied part 
of the house, some of his pupils boarding with him. Both 
Elder Campbell and his wife were cultured people, and 
their school soon became a social, educational and re- 
ligious center which attracted many thoughtful young 
people. Leaders of the Christian church patronized the 
school, and under such auspices Elder Campbell began a 
movement for the founding of a college or university to 
be under the direction of the Christian church. Doctor 
Helm offered to donate land for the purpose, and site was 
chosen on a knoll just east of the tavern building, but for 
some reason the project fell through, and in 1848 Elder 
Campbell moved to Ohio and Farmington Academy was 
closed. The next year, however, he returned to become 
pastor of the Fairview Christian church in this county, 
and was helpful in promoting the movement which pres- 
ently resulted in the establishment of the old Fairview 
Academy. It must be said of Elder Campbell's experi- 
ment in university work at Farmington that it was not 
wholly abandoned and that the impulse in that direction 
there created was revived a few years later by the leaders 
of the church and in 1852 resulted in the establishment at 
Irvington, a suburb of Indianapolis, of the Northwestern 
Christian University, which later became Butler College, 


an institution of much present power which thus is seen 
really to have had its inception in Rush county. 

it was in the winter of 1848-49 that Klder Henry R. 
Pritchard, of the Christian church, and Woodson W. 
Thrasher conceived the notion of an academy at Fair- 
view, on the Rush-Fayette county line, and presented the 
idea in such attractive guise that $1,200 was raised by 
subscriptions to foster the plan, a board of trustees of 
Fairview Academy was elected, with John Shawhan as 
2:>resident, and William and Nancy Shawhan, for a con- 
sideration of $75, deeded to this board and its successors 
two and one-half acres of land adjoining- the village of 
Fairview on the Rush county side. Allen R. Benton, an 
alumnus of Bethany College, was secured as principal of 
the academy, and classes were begun before the academy 
building was C()m])leted. Dr. Ephraim Clifford's office at 
Fairview^ being utilized as a schoolroom. The ministry 
of the Christian church warmly supported the new 
academy, a curriculum equal to that of a college course 
was provided, young people of both sexes were attracted 
to the academy and in the palmy days of the institution 
there were as many as seventy students in attendance. 
Upon the organization of the Northwestern Christian 
University at Irvington, Principal Benton was called to 
that institution, and he was followed by Amaziah Hull, 
who was succeeded in turn bv Jasper Hull, Daniel Van- 
Buskirk, William .M. Thrasher and Sterling McBride. 
The panic of 1H57 affected the fortunes of the school, the 
coming of the Civil war affected it still more, and with 
the advancement of the public schools it presently was 
abandoned and the old academy building turned into a 
dwelling house. The Rushville RejiuhUcan, in the spring 
of 1857, carried an advertisement signed by W. W. 
Thrashei', ti-easurer of the institution, setting out that 
"the trustees of the Fairview Academy take this method 
of announcing to the patrons of said institution, and to all 
who wisli to avail themselves of a good school, that we 


have engaged Mv. Sterling McBride, of Bethany, Va., to 
take charge of the school — a gentleman fully competent 
to teach all the branches usually taught in an academic 
course. We therefore can confidently assure the public 
that we will fully meet any reasonable requirement. As 
the school has been in such successful operation for seven 
years, we think it has fully recommended itself. ' ' 

In 1849 two institutions for higher education for 
young women were established in Rushville and both for 
some years filled an important place in the cultural life 
of the community. The first of these, established early 
in 1849, was the Rushville Female Institute, which was 
organized under Presbyterian auspices with Dr. Horatio 
G. Sexton, Joel Wolfe, Dr. William H. Martin, Rev. 
David M. Stewart and Jesse D. Carmichael as trustees. 
Miss Carrie R. Warner, an Eastern teacher of reputation, 
was secured as principal of the institute, and classes were 
held in the basement of the old Presbyterian church. In 
1850 Miss Warner was joined by her sister, Lydia( after- 
ward Mrs, Leonidas Sexton), who brought with her the 
first piano seen in Rushville, and these two talented 
young women conducted the school very effectively for 
the three or four years it continued. In 1851 the Misses 
Warner were succeeded in the direction of the institute by 
Miss A. E. Sherill, of New York, and Miss Jennie Lan- 
don, of Vermont, and in 1852, Miss Lucretia Cramer, of 
Granville, N. Y. (afterward Mrs. H. G. Sexton), became 
principal. In the meantime, late in 1849, a rival to the 
institute v^as established, the Rushville Female Academy, 
the first board of trustees of this school being John W. 
Barbour, John S. Campbell, Amon Johnson, John Dixon 
and Dr. Samuel Barbour, who, it seems, were not in sym- 
pathy with the sectarian views of the other finishing 
school for young women. This latter school was under 
the direction of the four sisters Morley, who had come 
from Somerville, Mass., to take charge of the same, and 
whose influence in the social and cultural life of the town 



was a happy one. It has been written that ''both of these 
schools wore conducted witli ability by the accomplished 
ladies at their head and did good work." 


Of all the old time schools which aided in extending 
the fame and name of Rush county during the '50s and 
^60s, none perhajjs exerted a wider influence than Rich- 
land Academy. This also was a sectarian school and 
throughout its course the rigid old Scotch Seceder influ- 
ence was manifest in its works. Prior to the union of 
1858, when the Associate (Seceder) and Associate Re- 
formed chui'ches were merged into the United Presby- 
terian church the school was under Associate Reformed 
auspices, having been organized by the Rev. A. S, Mont- 
gomery, who was sei'ving as pastor of the congregation of 
the Associate Reformed faith at Clarksburg, and whose 
])astoral charge extended over into Rush county to take 
in those of that faith who dwelt in the neighborhood of 
Richland. When in 1855, Mr. Montgomery made a pro- 
]!Osal to establish an academy in the then new and prom- 
isin.g village of Richland the proposal was accepted, 
stock to the amount of $2,000 was subscribed, the Rich- 
land Academy Association was organized and until a 
building suitable for academy ]>ur])oses could be erected 
school was opened in the Presbyterian (O. S.) church at 
Richland. Most of the subscribers to this project were 
residents of Richland township, but some were from No- 
ble township and some from the neighboring county of 
Decatur. Though steps were at once taken for the erec- 
tion of an academy iMiilding. the edifice (a picture of 
which is picsentcd in tin:-' volume) was not completed 
until late in 1856. From that time on until the operations 
(tf the scliool were interru])ted by the Civil war the school 
flourished. As iVh'. Moses has wi'itten : "Those were 
rai-e days for Richland. The academy inspired a taste 
for intellectual things. The attendance was above sixty, 


and the presence of so many interesting young people 
brightened social life and gave it a marked literary tone. 
Former students still fondly recall the charming old 
academy days," John McKee, who had succeeded Mr, 
Montgomery as principal of the academy in 1857, con- 
tinued until the breaking out of the Civil war, when he 
recruited a company (K Company, Thirty-seventh reg- 
iment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry), half of the members 
of which had been students at the academy, and went to 
the front, presently to return wounded. Incapacitated 
for further service at the front he resumed his place in 
the academy, but in 1864, resigned to take a place in the 
United Presbyterian College at Monmouth, 111. His suc- 
cessors, as shown b}^ old records, were Mrs. Margery A. 
Rankin, W. A. Pollock, Rev. William Wright, J. C. 
Gregg, J. M. Craig, Robert Gracey and Robert Gilmore. 
The Rev. N. C, McDill, for many years pastor of the 
United Presbyterian church at Richland, also had served 
as principal on two occasions to fill out unexpired terms. 
During the latter '60s the fortunes of the academy began 
to wane, debts overtook the institution, attendance 
dwindled owing to the growth of better conditions in the 
public schools of the state, and the academy was aban- 
doned in the early '70s, the building presently being sold 
to the township trustee, who in 1885 tore it down and 
erected on its site a handsome public school building. 
The board of trustees of the academy which made the 
quit claim to the township was composed of D. M. Mc- 
Corkle, James W. Anderson, Jacob Fisher, Alexander 
Shannon, George W. Boling and A. E. Graham, the last 
official representatives of the institution which in its day 
had exerted a large influence for good throughout this 
section. A copy of the year book of Richland Academy 
for the year 1861 (a publication of forty-eight pages) has 
the voluminous title of "The Students' Offering and 
Catalogue of Richland Academy ; Containing Essays and 
Orations, Prepared for the Annual Exhibition of March 


21, 1861, and a Catalogue of the Officers and Students of 
the Academy, Extending from Its First Year, 1855, until 
the Present" Year, 1861/' The "Students' Offering" is 
printed by Applegate & Company, Cincinnati, and the 
title page is eml^ellished with the motto: "^llaec o1im 
weminisse juvabif/' As an introduction there is printed 
the following unsigned poem : 

Though small our village, and unlcnown to fame, 

Our toAvnship's only worthy of its name. 

No more, — for in an unromantie mood 

Dame nature gave us trees and rich hiark mud, 

But pil 'd no mountain 's Alpine turrets high 

To l)reast (he storm-cloud and salute the sky; 

Nor hurl 'd the thundering eatariict down the steep, 

Nor grotto earved, luir hewed tlie cavern deep, 

Nor sent the mighty river rolling near, 

^V^lose breast miglit well the wealth of nations bear; 

But sent the silver brooklet dancing by 

Wliose grace attracts the schoolboy poet 's eye. 

Though history has left no record here 

Of warlike deed or bloody conqueror; 

No hoary l(>gend tells of bloody fray 

When Indian braves would drive their foes away; 

Though nought antique or curious or great 

Attracts the tourist's or the poet's feet; 

In short — though neither beauty nor renown 

Exalt the credit of our dull flat town. 

Yet Richland sliall in pleasant memories live 

When fairer spots have found oblivion 's grave. 
' Not places decked by nature 's lavish hand, 

' With every beauty nature can command; 

Not princely houses, with parks .and gardens rare, 
' Which art and nature vied to render fair. 

Can claim that memories love to linger there. 

But where the soul has felt and toiled and won, 

Its earnest efforts made — its duty done ; 

At truth's fair form has looked with rajitured gaze, 

And truth 's great .'luthor learned to love and praise, 

Derived new powers from its jir()])er food. 

Its feasts — the tni(>, the beautiful, the good. 

Hence, modest IJichland is Ji hallowed shrine. 

Where memory's sacred wreaths, fond hearts entwine. 

For six bright years will soon be times that were, 

Since youtlis and maidens first assembhnl here 

To seek tlie gems of learning rich and rare. 

Kind friends have cheer 'd us on our toilsome way — 

With song we've lighten 'd lalior every day. 

fiood will and confidence our teachers show, 

And for each other friendship's (>mbers glow. 

A few have felt the ra])turous dream — ahem, 
(But out of school I'll not tell tales, not I.) 

Suffice to say that all have not the name ' ' 

That Prof, of mornings used to call them by. 

And now this nuuuiment we jointly rear. 

To keep in memory of our labors here, 

And mi'.-in, while life and memory shall last. 

To cherish this memorial of the happy past. 


The "essays and orations" carried in the body of 
the "Offering" and which apparently had been delivered 
in the annual exhibition of the preceding March, are not 
signed, nor are the names of those who composed the class 
of that year given, but the titles of these efforts will re- 
flect something of the trend of thought of the day, includ- 
ing as they do such subjects as "Libert}^, the Nurse of 
Genius," "Parting Hour," "The Scholar's Hope and 
Mission," "The Flower of an Hour," "Sympathy," "In 
What Do We Boast?" "Golden Links in the Chain of 
Life," "Service the End of Living," "What Think Ye^' 
"Our Union, Shall It be Preserved?" "Student, What 
Is Thy Hope?" "The Nineteenth Century," "Hope," 
"The United States of America," "The Orphan, or the 
Endearments of Home," "Error, Its Causes and Conse- 
quences," "Who Would Live Always?" "Our Coun- 
try," "The Realities of Life," "The Thinking Principle 
in Man Never Annihilated," "The Love of Fame," 
"Death," "A Good Cause Makes a Stout Heart," "Be 
What You Seem to Be," "Silent Power," "Diversity of 
Pleasure in : ature," "Education the Basis of Liberty," 
"Look Well to Your Reading," "Creation a Boundless 
Field of Investigation," "Look Onward" and "Let Us 
Live That the World May Be Better for Our Living." 
The officers and the members of the boards of trustees 
who had served from the time of the organization of the 
academy in 1855 to the date of the publication of the year 
book (1861) were given as follows: Presidents, James 
McCorkle, W. C. Stewart; clerks, T. M. Thorn, A. P. But- 
ler, J. D. Thorn; treasurer, C. Doling; trustees (beside 
the above), W. R. Alexander, W. R. Alexander, G. Bo- 
ling, W. H. Bonner, D. Bowlby, Thomas Butler, S. H. 
Caskey, H. B. Cowan, J. H. Fitzgerald, James Foster, 
A. E. Graham, William Patton, N. S. Patton, T. L. Stew- 
art, J. S. Stewart and William Wright. Instructors — 
Principals, Rev. A. S. Montgomery (1855-57), John Mc- 
Kee (1857-61); teachers. Rev. R. E. Stewart, rhetoric; 


Rev, N. C. McDill, vocal music and higher mathematics; 
Helen Ballard, Jenny Howell, Anna E. Cooper, Laura A. 
Wolfe and Mai'gery A. Cowan, instrumental music; W. 
C. Price, arithmetic; Anna E. Cooper, aritlmietic, alge- 
bra, geography and history ; J. W. Rankin, Latin ; J. S. 
McCullough, algebra; Miss N. McKee, arithmetic, his- 
tory and geography; Sallie McKee, arithmetic: J. E. 
Brown, Latin, and W, A. Hutchinson, algebra. A sum- 
mary of attendance showed that in the year 1855-56 there 
had been enrolled in the academv thirty-nine pupils; 
1856-57, 53; 1857-58, 66; 1858-59, 65; 1859-60, 69, and in 
1860-61, 41, with the explanatory note that the number for 
the total of the latter term is only the total for two-thirds 
of the year. The terms of tuition are set out at $6 in the 
primary department for the session of fourteen weeks; 
$7 for the academical department for the same period; 
$8 for the classical or German, with piano, $11 extra and 
guitar $8 extra, with an incidental charge of 50 cents the 
session. Boarding, including room, lodging and fuel 
could be had "eithei* in the village or the country," at 
from $1.50 to $2.50 the week. Religious exercises were 
provided for each morning, and a concluding note under 
the head of "Moral Surroundings" pointed out that "a 
decidedly moral tone pervades the surrounding commu- 
nity. No haunts of dissipation or organized temptation 
to vice or idleness are to be found in the village or neigh- 
borhood. In this respect, indeed, it is ]i(>lieved one en- 
joys an exemption unsurpassed ])y any other in the land." 
The history of the academies of Rush county would 
not l)e complete without I'eference to a normal school, con- 
ducted in Rushville for two years (1883-84), by David 
(iiaham, on North Main sti-eet and of the academy opened 
by Andrew H. (Jraham and David Graham on East Ninth 
sti'eet in 1890. The next year Andi-ew Graham withdrew 
to accept the supei'intendency of the Indiana State Sol- 
diers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home in Center township, 
being succeeded by A. P. Stewai-t, who, with David Gra- 


ham, continued it for two years longer, but finding it 
unprofitable they closed it. An unsuccessful attempt 
later was made to start a commercial college in the build- 
ing, but this latter venture also soon was abandoned. The 
building was destroyed by fire in the fall of 1894. 

The innovation of the free schools apparently was for 
some time the object of mistrust among those who de- 
sired for their children something more in the way of 
educational facilities than they believed possible under 
the new system and the "seminary" idea persisted. The 
people in the neighborhood of Milroy apparently were 
thus mistrustful, for there is on record in the office of 
the county recorder a copy of the articles of association 
of the Anderson Township Educational Society, received 
for record on January 2, 1860, as follows: "It is pro- 
posed that the citizens of Anderson township and vicinity 
build the second story on the township school to be built 
in Milroy, Rush county. Ind., the association to be called 
the Anderson Township Educational Society ; twenty-five 
dollars will constitute one share of stock, and entitle the 
person paying said twenty-five dollars to vote in the man- 
agement of the business of the institution. A constitu- 
tion, by-laws and rules for the government pf the same to 
be located and adopted at a regular meeting called by the 
subscribers to this instrument. Therefore, we are re- 
solved and firmly obligated to pay the amount opposite 
our names, one-half April 1, 1860, the other half Decem- 
ber 25, 1860, for the purpose above specified; provided 
the amount of twelve hundred dollars is subscribed. 
Milroy, Ind. [month missing], 1859." These articles of 
association were signed by Deliscus Lingenfelter and 
forty-one others. Something more than two years later 
there was entered for record a mechanic's lien in favor of 
Henry Long against "the trustees of the corporation 
known as the Anderson Township Educational Society," 
giving notice "that I intend to hold a lien on the lot of 
ground in which said building stands and also the build- 


iiig thereon for the sum of $80.78. due me this day from 
you for lahor done and performed therefore by me at 
3'our request, towit, for plastering said ceminary (sic) 
belonging to said corpoi-ation." etc. Trouble in the mat- 
ter of collecting subscriptions evidently had been en- 
countered somewhere along the line. 


^ienti(m previously has been made of the fact that 
the idea of centralized township schools originated in 
Rush county, and was fii'st put into practice by William 
S. Hall, Avhile serving as trustee of ^A'ashington town- 
ship. Concerning this interesting historic fact, John L. 
Shauck, former county superintendent of schools, in a 
historical sketch of the schools of Rush county, written 
l)y him in 1907, stated that ''William S. Hall is the first 
school official of the Ignited States who, while trustee 
of AVashington tow]i.slii]). saw the benefits of consolida- 
ting weak schools, and wlio put into execution plans for 
bringing it jibout. He abandoned five school houses and 
erected at the center of the townshi]) at Raleigh a graded 
school building, which was opened in 1877. " J. T. 
Kitchen was the first principal of this historic school, 
and he was followed 1)y John T.. Shauck and he in turn by 
Will S. .Meredith and so on down through an honorable 
succession of principals and teachers to the present day. 

In an ai>]n'eciation of William S. Hall written after 
his death in the spring of 1905, he then being past ninety- 
one years of age, Mrs. Ida M. Shepler observed that Mr. 
Hall "was a remarkable man — remarkable for his stanch 
integrity, his firm convictions, his hatred of corruption in 
high ]'laces, a man with I'emaikablc force of character 

and will power He kept up his interest in life until 

the very last day of it, thoughtful always for the comfort 

of others, and fearful of giving ti'ouble Mr. Hall 

from youth to old age was strongly intei'ested in the polit- 
ical and educational institutioiis of oui- land. From the 




day of his young manhood until past middle age he held 
many positions of trust and no man was guardian for 
more children than himself. He was elected township 
trustee in 1853, which position he held, with the excep- 
tion of the years he was in the state legislature, until the 
year 1878. His interest in the country schools and the 
study of how to better them to the better educating of the 
youth, amounted almost to a passion with him. Feeling 
that the country child, even to a few years back, was yet 
hampered as he had been in his chance for a good educa- 
tion, with prophetic foresight, he early dreamed of creat- 
ing a township centralized school that would, without 
private outlay, give it an education the equal of an 
academy or high school in the city. He was the pioneer of 
the centralized country school system and holds the honor 
of having established the first school of that kind in the 
United States, and at the little town of Raleigh." 

And there were others who exerted a strong and no- 
ble personal influence in behalf of the schools here in a 
day when it required much more to arouse an interest in 
the public schools than it does now. As Mr. Shauck in 
his sketch of the schools of Rush county above alluded to 
says : ' ' There were many excellent teachers among these 
pioneers. As long as the hearts of men are grateful and 
true worth recognized the names of Benjamin F. Reeve 
and Elijah Hackleman will be spoken reverently, Mr. 
Reeve was a teacher in Noble township. He came from 
Kentucky to Indiana when the work which he was able 
to do for the young people could be more lasting and 
beneficial. Peculiarly endowed by nature it seems now 
that no man better fitted for his task was ever sent among 
a people in a new country. He began teaching in Noble 
township in the fall of 1833. The primitive structure in 
which he taught had neither chimney nor fireplace. 
There was a sort of a platform of rock and mud on the 
ground, on which coals were piled. I cannot dwell upon 
a theme so fertile as the work of Benjamin F. Reeve 


among the people of his day. In the language of Elijah 
Hackleman in a note to me some years ago, 'I need not 
attempt to tell you of Mr. Reeve's career in Rush county, 
for a history of him would be a history of the county dur- 
ing the period of his residence as one of its citizens.' 
Hon. E. H. M. Berry, of blessed memory, once said to me : 
'Benjamin F. Reeve and Elijah Hackleman tower above 
all others who were their contemporaries in their efforts 
to enlighten the minds of the young, both as to scholastic 
and moral attainments.' " 


It may not be foreign to a work of this kind to say 
that there is still some doubt as to the real benefits ob- 
tained by consolidation of schools. The district school 
was a community center, at which for years spelling con- 
tests, literary and debating societies, and not infrequently 
religious services were held. 

The spelling contests made the past generation 
adepts in the art of spelling. Very few terms of school 
were held without at least one such contest. Frequently 
one disti'ict would challenge a neighboring district, in 
w^hich practically all of the parties attending took part, 
and as one contestant missed a word he would be seated 
and the last I'emaining standing was called the champion 
for that evening. It was not always the most difficult 
word that was missed. In one such contest the word 
''Betsey" caused the downfall of a supposed champion, 
lie having s])elled it "B-e-t-s-y." Some years ago a 
county spelling contest was held in which the winner in 
the different townships met in a county contest, at the 
old court house. The winner on that occasion was Ttha- 
nier V. Root, of Milroy. and he wns given a copy of "Web- 
stei*'s unabiidged dictionary foi- a prize. The fatal word 
on that occasion was "coffee," in which one "f" was 
omitted and Mr. Root s])elled it correctly. These spell- 
ing contests in addition to the educational value, had a 


social value. It gave the people in the rural communities 
entertainment and frequently brought together people 
residing in different neighborhoods, who would not other- 
wise get acquainted. In such communities there was no 
desire nor need to hunt the "white lights" of larger 
cities, nor the "dimmer lights" of the villages. 

In these country school houses were frequently held 
literary clubs and debating societies, the latter deciding 
a large number of important questions, such as "Re- 
solved, that Lincoln, the saviour of his country, was a 
greater man than Washington, the father of his coun- 
try;" "Resolved, that fire is more destructive than 
water;" "Resolved, that the South was constitutionally 
right in the Civil war controversy;" also a number of 
othej burning questions were settled for a time at least, 
such as the question of baptism, predestination, foreordi- 
nation, free will, local option and prohibition, moral 
suasion, legal suasion, etc. And a number of other im- 
portant questions were discussed. While the questions 
in a large number of cases were not important, yet the 
training obtained by the various speakers assisted them 
materially in taking part in public gatherings, such as 
conventions, old settlers' meetings and church affairs. 

An additional entertainment held in the district 
school was the school "celebration," consisting of dia- 
logues, speeches and debates, usually held the last day of 
school or the night following the last day of school. The 
dialogue has lost its name at present and has become a 
"play," but in the earlier time there was great doubt 
about the morality of a "play" as it sounded too much 
like a "theater," but the dialogue could give the same 
performance without criticism. On one such occasion, a 
celebration was held at the Beaver Meadow school house 
in Posey township, which caused a controversy contin- 
uing for a number of weeks in the newspapers, because 
some of the pupils taking part in the dialogue had their 
faces blacked to represent negroes, and the weekly news- 


papers for some weeks carried the articles by promiiieut 
])('()] )lo. discussing' the merits of such an entertainment; 
under the titk' of "Beaver xMeadow and Burnt Cork 

Not infrequently traveling' shows gave entertain- 
ments in these school houses, which wei'e perhaps the only 
shows the children in tliat community could attend, or 
had opportunity to attend, until they were sufficiently 
large to get to the county seat where they frequentl}" 
gained admission to a cii'cus by carrying water to the 
ele])hanT. It was not un.usual for i-eligious societies to 
hold a series of meetings in these district schools, and in 
a number of cases these meetings I'csulted in the estab- 
lishment of a church in tin community. 


Reference has been made to the law of 1824. under 
which teachers were "examined" by the three trustees 
elected in each school district and the manner in which 
such a system worked out. This ineffective law stood 
until 1838, when the legislature eiuicted ;i law ])rovidir;g 
for school examiners, three of then! in each county, and 
this ])i-ovision stood until 18(>1, when it was decided that 
one examiner would serve ])ro))a])ly more effectively and 
in the e;irly *7()s the office of "examiner" was changed to 
thr.t of county superintendent of schools, the functions 
of this office being, with modificntions necessitated by 
changing eonditions, pi-actically that of the same office 
today. The e(niiily superintendent of schools is elected 
by the townshij) trustees, constituting the county board 
of education, on the first Monday in June for a term of 
four years, beginning August ^^'\ following his election. 
The county auditor is clerk of the ele<'tion and in case of 
a tie casts the decisive vote. !'(» he eligible for the office 
of county sui)erintendent, a candidate nnist have been 
actively engaged in sclutol work for two years out of the 
ten vears precediuir his election, and must have a three 


years' state license, or a life or professional license. The 
county superintendent has general supervision of the 
schools of the county ; he is a member of the county board 
of education, attends the township teachers' institutes, 
conducts teachers' institutes and associations, visits the 
schools of the county, examines applicants for grad- 
uation and teachers' licenses, attends school commence- 
ments, reports the enumeration of school children and 
other school statistics to the state superintendent of pub- 
lic instruction, decides local controversies in the school 
law and carries out the oi'ders of the state superintend- 
ent of public instruction. 

From the records it is noted that Stephen Sims was 
appointed first commissioner of schools for Rush county 
in 1829, In 1834 he was succeeded by Alanson Thomas, 
who in turn was succeeded by Adam S. Lakin in 1836, the 
next incumbent being Claborn L. Donaldson, who served 
from 1848 to 1851, and was succeeded by Richard S. 
Poundstone, who was holding the office when in 1853 the 
board of school examiners was created, and he turned 
over to the board of county commissioners the records of 
the office to be delivered to the new board of school exam- 
iners, the commissioners api3ointing to this post D. M. 
Stewart, of Rushville; Joseph Young, of Carthage, and 
E. H. M. Berry, of Milroy, all to serve until March, 1854. 
The succeeding boards of examiners were as follows: 
Joseph Young, Lewis H. Thomas and John B. Wallace, 
1854-55 ; D. M. Stewart, Gabriel F. Sutton, A. S. Mont- 
gomery, 1857 ; D. M. Stewart, G. F. Sutton, H. H. Cam- 
bern, 1858 ; D. M. Stewart, G. F. Sutton, John McKee, 
1859; Josiah Gamble succeeding McKee in 1860; E. H. 
M. Berry succeeding Gamble in 1861 ; Stewart and Sutton 
continuing to serve. In 1861 the system of having but 
one examiner became effective, and the first to hold this 
office was D. M. Stewart, whom the county commission- 
ers appointed in June of that year to serve for a term of 
three years. William Cassady was appointed in 1864 to 


succeed ^Ir. Stewart and he was succeeded by George 
Campbell (1865-68), the last year of Mr. Campbeirs term 
being filed by his son, A. B. Campbell, who in 1868 was 
succeeded by J. M. Hodson, who retired a year afterward 
and was succeeded by Waltei* Smith, who resigned in 
1870, and was succeeded by David Graham, who served 
for three years or until in 1873, when the county super- 
intendent law necessitated another revision in the man- 
ner of conducting the schools. The county board of ed- 
ucation, consisting of the trustees of the several town- 
ships, elected W. T. ]\Ioffitt to this position for a term of 
two years, and in 1875 he was succeeded b}^ the Rev. A. E. 
Thomas, a Presbyterian clerg\Tnan, who in 1877 was suc- 
ceeded l)y the Rev. J. B. Blount, a clei'gyman of the 
Christian church. In June, 1881, the county board of 
education elected a teacher, John Ij. Shauck, to the office 
of county superintendent and since then teachers very 
jiroperly have held the office, Mv. Shauck having been 
succeeded by William S. Meredith and he in turn by 
Robert F. Couover, I. O. Harrison and A. L. Gary, the 
latter of whom served from 1897 to 1902 when he resigned 
W. S. Stockinger being appointed to fill out the unex- 
pired term. Mr. Stockinger was succeeded in 1903 by 
\V. O. Headlee, who served for six years or until com- 
pelled to resign, by reason of ill health. He was suc- 
ceeded by Orlando Randall, who served but a year of his 
term when he also was compelled to retire on account of 
the state of his health, and in 1910 ( \ M. George, the pres- 
ent (1921) incumbent, was appointed to fill the vacancy. 
Mr. George has been retained in office by successive re- 
elections and has thus held this office for a longer ])eriod 
th;m any otlwr incunibciit. On .luiic (), 1921, Angus 
W'agonci* \\'as elected to succeed Mi*, (leoigc in the follow- 
ing August. 

.It manifestly would be impossible to carry in this 
connection a complete I'oster of the teachers who have 
served the people of Rush county during the hundred 


years the work of the school has been carried on here, but 
it will be well for historical purposes to mention a few 
of the pioneers in the local field of education. With ac- 
knowledgments to My. Shauck's historical sketch of the 
schools of the county heretofore referred to, the names 
of the following early teachers should be mentioned : In 
Anderson township, John W. Tompkins, Lot Green, 
Nathan Tompkins, Milton Wagner, William Wheeler., 
Barker Brown, Sallie Bartlett, Celia Hunt Winship, E. 
H. M. Berry, Harvey Hedrick, I. P. Root, Dr. O. F. 
Fitch, Mrs. S. C. Thomas. It is a matter of note that 
Doctor Woodburn, head of the department of history in 
the Indiana State University, taught his first school in 
Richland township. Other teachers there during the 
early days were Alexander Fisher, W. P. Andrews, Janes 
^IcConnahay, William J. Brown, Samuel Tarr and Har- 
riet Posey Flynn. Some of the old-time teachers in 
Orange township were Lloyd Bishop, John Allison, Alviu 
Cass, James McDuffy, Hiram Kelly, Harriet Keller, 
William Richey and Nathan Thomas. Among those men- 
tioned as having taught in Posey township during pioneer 
days were Elder Gabriel McDuff ee, John W. Whitesides, 
William Brunt, Elder Drury Holt, Richard M. Clark and 
John Wood. In Jackson township among the early 
teachers were William Moffett, John Lewark, Larkin 
Kendall, Ezekiel Hinton and Stephen Wilson. In 
Walker township there were Reuben Hefflin, Ross Davis, 
Judge Blair, Eleanor J. Kerrick Mull, Elias Baker, 
James Remington, John W. Macy, A. G. Mauzy, Ephraim 
Wright, Harvey Stewart and Roland Haywood. In 
Ripley township there were besides those heretofore men- 
tioned in connection with the old Carthage Academ}^, 
Joshua Pool and Judith Henley, the latter of whom is 
said to have organized what probably was the first 
Sunday school held in Rush county. 


THE county's schools TWENTY YEARS AGO 

As a matter of histoiical comparison a reference to 
the condition of the comity's schools twenty years and 
more a,i;'() will be interestint^-. A. Ij. Gary was at that 
time covmty superintendent of schools and there were 
within the connty eighty-seven school houses, and accord- 
ing to the school enumeratioji of that period the attend- 
ance of pujDils was about 4.000, According to a review of 
the schools i^rinted in 1899 Rushville had two graded 
schools, the First and Third Ward schools, and the city 
school board was composed of S. L. Innis, John Megee 
and Theodore H. Reed. Samuel Abercroml)ie, who had 
then been serving for years as superintendent of city 
schools, was in charge ; W. C. Barnhart was principal and 
A. F. Stewart and Jay ^[ertz, assistants, with the follow- 
ing corps of teachers : Charlotte Sleeth, ^laggie Cassady, 
Pet Meredith, Mabel Bonnell, ^Maggie Shawhan, Anna 
Fisher, Jessie Spann, Helen Finkbine, Ellen Madden, 
Alma Odear, Anna Cunningham, Belle Gregg, Cora 
Vance, May Meredith, Maggie Fleehart, Celia Campbell, 
Anda Schmid. 

The townshij) teachers were: 

Center Totruship — L. A. Hufferd, principal; Lizzie 
Ernay, Elbert Atkins, Charles Griffin, Charles Thomp- 
son, Belle Randall, Josie Clawson, Fred Rhodes. 

('(irfJutf/e SeJiools — J. Edwin Jay, superintendent; 
J. F. Evans, principal high school; Sarah Hathaway, 
assistant high school; Mrs. Helen Hughes, Pearl Mere- 
ditli. Roberta Hai'ris, Jesse Fry, Addie Coffin. 

Jdekson Toivnship — T, M. Greenlee, Grace Bowney, 
Frank Billings, Mrs. Marcia Oneal, Orlando Randall, A. 
T. Lcwai-k. 

liiphtj Toirnsliip — J. M. Hinford, })rincipal ; AVa.l- 
nnt Ridge; Nina Newsom, Walnut Ridge; .Myrtle Bundy, 
Pauline Bundy, Emma Frnest, Mrs. Lizzie Cox, Mrs. 
Avei'v I\awls, Louisa Wadkins. 


Orange Toumship — W. E. Major, principal; Solon 
Tevis, Clarence Tevis, Frank Stevens, Linna Waggoner, 
Mrs. Nettie Piper, Harry Alter, George Hardesty, Char- 
ley Honey. 

Noble To'wnsJiip — M. Effie Coleman, principal; 
Georgia Morris, Mrs. May Wellman, Lucy Guff in, J. R. 
Hargitt, Charles Brooks, Maggie McKee, Owen E. Long. 

Washington Township — O. Staley, principal; E. L. 
Culbertson, Jessie Larimore, Bertha Bunker, Eliza Miles, 
Allie Greenwood, Alfred Hall. 

Union Township — A. M. Taylor, principal at Glen- 
wood; James Sheedy, principal at Gings; Walter Car- 
son, Lida McMillin, Hortense Crago, Angeline Coleman, 
G. M. Logan, Olive Ochiltree, Bert Davis, Haddie Mc- 

Anderson Township — J. L. Shauck, principal ; Delia 
McKee, Lizzie Booth, Joseph Stevens, Flora Boling, D. 
F. Jackman, Laura Boling, Will Newbold, Mattie Harri- 
son, Zella White, Erma Nordmeyer. 

RushvUle Township — Minnie Murphy, Nina Ford, 
John F. Peck, Edgar VanHook, D. O. Louden, H. E. 
Jones, Delphia Dawson, Maggie Hiner, Greely McCarty, 
Thomas Coleman. 

Posey Township — M. G. Benjamin, principal; Mrs. 
Emma Benjamin, Laura Alexander, Nelle Cassady, 
George Moore, Eugene Macy, Lee Macy, E. B. Collins, S. 
H. Craig, Rebecca Dora, Ed M. Williams, William 

Walker Township — V. E. Lewark, principal; Eva 
Hinclnnan, I. B. Gruell, Mrs. Mary Gruell, Flora Farlow, 
Anna Burch, E. E. Worth, Edgar Stires, Mrs. Ida Plum- 
mer, J. W. Arbuckle, L. B. Mather, Pearl Hungerford. 

Richland Township — Frank I. Walker, Mary Hen- 
derson, Emma Terhune, May Ralston, Lula Harry, 
Esther Ralston, Marv McLaughlin. 




The vostor of the officers and teachers of the Rush 
county schools during the school year 1920-21 will he 
iuterestinc; for historical comparison twenty years hence, 
even as the roster jnst preceding this is interesting now. 
As noted above, Chester M. George is superintendent of 
schools and the comity hoard of education consists of the 
trustees of the several townshijjs, as follows: Frank 
McCorkle, Anderson township; John F. Cohee, Center; 
Alva Newhouse, Jackson ; E. R. Titsworth, Noble : Wilbur 
C. Blown, Orange; T. R, Lee, Posey; Fred Goddard, 
Richland; Jesse Henley, Ripley; James V. Young, Rush- 
ville: John F. AFapes. Union: Lew Lewis, Walker, and 
Edward V, Jackson, Washington. The county attend- 
ance officer is James G. Miller. 

The schools of Anderson township are centered in 
the consolidated school at ^lilroy, of which George J. 
Bugbee is the principal, the teachers being Harold 
ISIcCullough, Florence Doan, Mary Henderson, Frances 
Robins, Elva Blaydes, Elizabeth Stewart, JNIary Stewart, 
Elsie Blaydes, Claudine Ballard, Emma Terhune and 
Hope Brillhart. 

The schools of Center toAvnshi]) are as follows: Cen- 
ter school — John Vj. Goode, ])rinci})al; Jessie Applegate. 
Zella Hungerford, Clara Eliot and Nellie Walker. 
Mays school — Ethel Owen and Nellie Myers. Shiveley's 
Corner — Mrs, Norma Martin. 

There are two schools in Jackson township, the 
Osborne school, with Maude Jones and Zatha Alford as 
teachers, and the Henderson school, Mary J. Anderson. 

There is but one district school in Noble township, 
the A])plegate school, with Helen Jinks as teacher, the 
others being centered at New Salem, with Mrs. ^Sfai-garet 
E. Morton, ])rincipal ; Noiinal V. Patterson, Dorotliy 
Frazee, i\Irs. Mina C. Reeves, Minnie O. Miller, Norma 
Headlce and Doiothv Anderson. 


In Orange township there also is but one district 
school, the Gahimer school, with Vida L. Frow in charge, 
the other schools being centered at Moscow with Rollin H. 
Glenn, principal; Edith G. Blaydes, Rachel Eddelman, 
William Ward, Ruth Owen, Leonard Barlow and Mrs. 
Ethel S. Bugbee. 

There are two centralized schools in Walker town- 
ship, the one at Manilla and the one at Homer. Floyd H. 
Miner is principal of the Manilla school, with the follow- 
ing corps of teachers: Martha J. Kirkpatrick, Cather- 
ine Farr, Mae Galloway, Carl Miller, Mandus Chance, 
Marjorie Retherford, Opal Martin Inlow and Ruth Wit- 
tenberger. Homer — Zoe Barbre, principal; Mae Gallo- 
way, Lafayette Jackson, Mary Parish, Nancy Jane Miller 
and Hazel Ratliff. 

The Washington township schools are centered at 
Raleigh (the home of the first centralized school in the 
United States) , with Flem L. Maddy, principal ; George 
I. Poince, Lucile Bowen, Christine Auxier, C. H. Mitchell, 
Mille F. Draper, Avanell Poer and Marguerite Plummer. 

In Posey township there still are two district schools, 
the Sumner school with Lowell DeMoss in charge and 
the Gary school with Sue Woods in charge, the others 
being centralized at Arlington with W. E. Wagoner as 
principal and Hazel F. Meloy, C, M. DeMunbrun, Jean 
Carr, Mary Foster, Opal Scraper, Mary Metsker, Mrs. 
Lettie Woods, Mrs. Flossie Irvine and Mary Johnston as 

In Richland township there are three schools, the 
school at Richland, in charge of Jesse W. Alles and Dora 
McKay; the Freeman school, Mary Louise Miller, and 
Neffs Corner, Charles W. Myers. Richland is the only 
township that has no centralized school and a project is 
even now on foot to relieve it of its present schools, cen- 
tralizing the same at the three adjacent central schools. 

Ripley township has three schools, the Booker T. 
Washington school, Irene Fisher, teacher, for colored 


children ; Waluiit Ridge, Naomi Hobbs, and the Carthage 
central school, L. E. Dyer, principal, and R. P. Chambers, 
R. L. Power, Mildred Henley, Alta G. Hiatt, Mary R. 
Stewart, Ruby E. Dyer, Pearl Young, Ruth Mitchell, 
Dova Mitchell and Ada Chappell, teachers. 

In Rushville townshi]) there are three schools, the 
Webb school, the Circle ville school and the Alexander 
school, the latter in charge of Mary E. McCoy. Webb 
school — John Geraghty, principal; Gertrude A. Elliott. 
Henrietta Talbert, Mac Laughlin, Sylvia Mull ins, Mary 
Houchins and Margaret Mahin. Circleville school — 
John S. iNIoore, principal: Helen Osborne. 

Union township lias centralized schools at Glenwood 
and at Ging. Birney D. Farthing is principal of the 
Glenwood school, with the following teachers: William 
Cameron, C. C. Richey, Frank Hinchman, Mary Wetzel 
and Clara Hiner. Ging school — Blythe Scales, principal ; 
Paul Royalty, Lois Simpson, Blanche Cramer and Clara 
Herbst. ' 


J. H. Scholl, an alumnus of the Indiana St<ite Normal 
School ('93) and of the Indiana State University ('98), 
has been superintendent of the Rushville city schools since 
1904, in which year he left the superintendency of the 
Carthage scIkjoIs to assume this position. He has under 
his direction five schools, the Graham high school, the 
Graham annex, the Jackson school, the Havens school and 
the Washington school, the latter ])eing maintained for 
colored children, with James E. Bean and Fannie Ramey 
in charge. A. M. Taylor is princi])al of the high school 
and is assisted by the following cor))s of teachers: Mis. 
Mary M. Glessner, Mrs. Edessa Innis, Vivian E. Harris, 
Grace R. Whitsel, Irvin T. Shultz, Arle H. Sutton, Mrs. 
Lavei'ne Farthing, Maurice E. (^ook, Miriam Retherford, 
Mabel Cornwell, Henrietta Coleman, Mrs. Ruth S. Ray, 
Charles Bales, Margaret Casady and Ellen Madden. 


Graham Annex — N. Carolyn Meredith, principal; Mar- 
garet Fleehart, Ruth Sutton, Lois Fritter, Nellie Tro- 
baugh and Ethel Flint. Jackson school — Belle Gregg, 
principal; Elizabeth Waite, Gladys M. Bebout, Mrs. 
Edna Taylor, Kathryn Petry and Elizabeth Flint. Ha- 
vens school — Freda Flint, Maye Meredith, Anna Geragh- 
ty, Georgia Morris and Howard Clawson. Since the or- 
ganization of the Rushville city schools in 1853 the follow- 
ing have served as superintendents of same: George A. 
Chase, 1853-1860; Rev. D. M. Stewart, 1860-64; Roland 
Haywood, F. D. Davis, 1866-68; David Graham, 1869-83; 
Cyrus W. Hodgin, 1883-84; James Baldwin, 1884-86; B. 
H. Butler, 1886-93; Samuel Abercrombie, 1893-1900; A. 
G. McGregor, 1900-04, since which time Mr. Scholl has 
been serving. The present school board of the city is as 
follows: President, Homer W. Cole; L. L. Allen, secre- 
tary, and Mrs. Allie Aldridge, treasurer. The successive 
members of this board, in the order in which they served 
from the beginning, have been Reuben D. Logan, William 
H. Martin, William B. Flinn, E. H. Barry, John Dixon, 
John Moffett, John Carmichael, Thomas Poe, Jr., Jacob 
Oglesby, Harvey D. Dinwiddle, Rev. D. M. Stewart, T. 
C. Gelpin, R. Poundstone, Virgil B. Bodine, James S, 
Hibben, John R. Mitchell, R. D. Mauzy, W. C. Mauzy, W. 

A. Pugh, S. S. Poundstone, Oliver Posey, Theodore Aber- 
crombie, J. R. Carmichael, Ben L. Smith, W. S. Morris, S. 
W. McMahin, W. E. Wallace, G. G. Mauzy, John Megee, 
W. S. Campbell, S. L. Innis, Theodore H. Reed, Gates 
Sexton, R. F. Scudder, W. M. McBride, A. R. Holden, E. 

B. Thomas, A. C. Brown, R. G. Budd, J. T. Arbuckle, B. 
A. Mullen, H. A. Kramer, J. B. Kinsinger, F. M. Sparks, 
and the present incumbents. Homer W. Cole, H. L. Allen 
and Mrs. Allie Aldridge. 

In an interesting review of the history of the Rush- 
ville schools compiled in 1907 Superintendent Scholl 
points out that early in 1853 the town took the necessary 
steps to organize for school purposes under the new con- 


stitution and to this end elected Reuben D. Logan, Will- 
iam H. Martin and William B. Flinn as trustees of the 
independent school corporation of the town of Rushville., 
this board becoming formally organized on May 14 of 
that year. The board decided to issue a call for a meeting 
of the votei's of the Rushville school corjjoration to vote 
for or against taxation for school purposes, the ballots to 
be cast at the court house on the following June 6. At 
this meeting it was stated by the clerk that there were in 
the limits of the school corporation about 300 child'ren 
between the ages of five and twenty-one years, that the 
corporation did not own any school house or lot for school 
purposes, that there was on hand and due the school cor- 
poration about $750, and that the amount of taxable 
property was about $350,000, and a resolution was offered 
providing for the levy of a tax of 50 cents on the $100 
worth of taxable property for building a school house and 
for school ]iur])oses. The consei-vatism of the taxpayers 
present was demonstrated by the vote on this resolution, 
there being but thirty-foui' votes cast in its favor. 
Motions to substitute 45, 40, 35 and 30 cents, respectively, 
w^ere also lost, but a motion for a tax of 25 cents was sus- 
tained l)y a large majority. At the same meeting, through 
motions offered by Pleasant A. Hackleman and Thomas 
Pugh, a movement was begun to buy the property of the 
Rush County Seminary for school purposes and a poll 
tax of 30 cents was assessed upon each poll in the corpora- 
tion for that purpose. The trustees temporarily rented 
the seminary and the fii'st public school in Rushville was 
opened in the same on September 5, 1853, with George A. 
Chase as ])rincipal and Thomas C. Gelpin and ^frs. 
George A. ( 'base as assistants. Later in the term it was 
found necessary to employ two additional assistants and 
E. A. Ainsworth and Mrs. Mary Looney were engaged. 
In that same year negotiations toward the purchase of 
the county seminary building were completed, the price 
for the property being $2,500 and the next year another 


teacher was added to the force and the school tax was 
raised to 50 cents and the poll tax for school purposes to 
50 cents, and thus the development of the school began. 
In the fall of 1866 the old seminary building was sold and 
thereafter for three years school was held in the base- 
ments of the several churches. In March, 1868, the school 
board bought the present site of the Graham school on 
Perkins street and at once set about the erection of a suit- 
able school building. David Graham, of Columbus, Ind., 
was secured as superintendent of the new school and on 
September 9, 1869, he opened the school which now bears 
his name. The initial staff of teachers under Superin- 
tendent Graham's direction was as follows: Miss M. L. 
Thompson, teacher of the high school; Fannie Fisher, 
seventh and eighth grades; Miss Lou Miller, fifth and 
sixth grades ; Marian Stitt, third and fourth grades, and 
Emma Williams, first and second grades. The present 
Graham school and the Graham annex are magnificent 
memorials to Professor Graham, who earned the respect- 
ful title of "Grand Old Man of Rushville" and who 
continued to serve as superintendent of the schools for a 
period of fourteen years, or until his retirement in 1883. 


The present (1921) bonded indebtedness of the sev- 
eral townships of the county for school purposes, all town- 
ships save Richland having outstanding school bonds, is 
as follows : Anderson township, $16,875 ; Center, $16,125 ; 
Jackson, $2,500; Noble, $12,775; Orange, $6,500; Posey, 
$10,775; Ripley, $16,000; Rushville, $43,400; Union 
$10,500; Walker, $21,750, and Washington, $4,000. The 
school city of Rushville is carrying a bonded indebtedness 
of $42,500 for school purposes. 

Many illuminating paragraphs relating to the schools 
of the county in an earlier day are contained in the old 
newspaper files. For instance, in the fall of 1857 it was 
a matter of newspaper note that "Mr. Lux Roy is getting 


along finely with his commercial and writing academy. 
He lias a large number of students and they appear to be 
impi-oving very fast/' In April of that same year it was 
noted that a "public exhibition will take place at Black's 
school house in Union township on INLay 23. Public 
respectfully invited to attend." Recollections of the old 
Richland Academy are revived by the publication of an 
advertisement signed by J. McKee in the fall of 1857 
announcing that "the imdersigned, in proposing to take 
charge of the Richland 2\cademy in place of Rev. A, S. 
Montgomery, i-esigned. would respectfully solicit in 
behalf of the institution the patronage of all who, having 
youth to educate, may find it convenient to send them to 
Richland. And furthermore would say, that having 
chosen teaching for his profession, directed his studies 
with reference to it, and had two years' experience in 
teaching a similar academy, he hopes and expects to give 
reasonable satisfaction. . . . Particular care will be 
taken of the manners and morals of the pupils. The moral 
and social influence of the community around is of the 
highest ordei'." In the sununer of 1857 there is printed 
a notice of a meeting to be held in the court house for the 
purpose of organizing a county teachers' association. It 
is announced that "Messrs. J. Hurty and others ai-e 
invited nnd will ])robably attend." Evidently there had 
l)een ;i j)ii(»t' organization of the two counties of Rush 
and Henry, for in August of that year announcement was 
made th-it "the Teachers' Association of Rush and Henry 
counties will hold an institute at Rushville, conunencing 
on Tuesday, the 1st day of Septembei-, Ijohling for four 
days. T>ectures will y)e given eaeli evening during the 
session of the institute." Tlic oi-L^nnix.-ition of the 
])iil)li(' school at Rushville in IS,"):', apparently was long 
i-egai*(led as something in the way of an e\]»eriment that 
left a good deal to be desii'ed but of whicli nuich was 
ho] )('(!, i'(»i- as late as in Octobei'. 18()(), a newspaper story 
under the head "Oui- Free School" ainiouiieed that "the 


school is in a very flourishing condition and is destined 
to more than fulfill the expectations of those who have 
taken an interest in its success. Persons feeling an inter- 
est in the school are invited to visit it at any time." 
Evidently the call for a meeting to consider the project of 
organizing a teachers' association in 1857 failed of effec- 
tive result, for in January, 1861, there is a story of a 
meeting held for the purpose of organizing such an asso- 
ciation, at which it was noted that one-third of the 
teachers of the county were present and at which organ- 
ization was effected by the election of J. McKee to the 
office of president, William M. Thrasher, vice-president, 
and I. N. Porch, secretary. Another note of skepticism 
regarding the free school system was voiced in February, 
1861, the newspaper expressing the "hope that the effort 
now being made to improve the educational facilities of 
our county will be eminently successful. It is a lam- 
entable truth that the free school system of this state 
exists more in name than in fact. We have had the 
shadow but not the substance. We hope an honest admin- 
istration of the school laws as they are or as the wisdom 
of the present legislature may leave them, will greatly 
remedy existing evils ; but if not, they must be thoroughly 
remodeled so as to place in reach of all the youth of the 
state a practical and sufficient common school education. 
Rush county pays annuallv to the state school fund 
$10,000 and receives back but $6,000. i\loney ($1,000;) 
little better than squandered and diverted from its proper 
use. " That was in the days of the "select schools," many 
apparently still being doubtful of the methods of the 
"free" schools. An announcement in the summer of 
1861 stated that Miss Celia Winship would open in the 
basement of the Presbyterian church on the 1st Monday 
in September, a "select school," the fall session to con- 
tinue twenty-one weeks, the terms of tuition being as 
follows : ' ' Spelling, reading and writing, $3 per quarter ; 
higher studies, $4; highest studies, $5." In the spring of 


1862 it was aunovmced that Professor Dungan's second 
term of singing school commences on ^lay 81. "We are 
informed that a large class has ])een organized."' The 
Misses E. and X. Allen announced in December, 1863, 
that in the following January they would open a "select 
school" in the basement of the Christian chui'ch, the same 
to continue for five months; "common English branches, 
higher mathematics and Latin and Greek taught. No 
more than forty scholars admitted." About this same 
time were being carried the advertisements of Dailey's 
Writing Academy, "open day and evening — bookkeeping 
and penmanship — lectures on commercial law twice a 
week. Room, few doors west of Odd Fellow hall." In 
January, 1868, it was announced that the third teachers' 
institute, just adjourned had adopted resolutions urging 
among other things that the state appropriate more 
money to the common school fund, "as teachers had to 
get along on small pay." The resolutions also declared 
that "the use of tobacco in any form is evidence of moral 
unfitness for teaching and a sufficient reason for exam- 
iners to withhold license." In the summer of 1869 there 
was carried the advertisement of the Carthage Normal 
Institute, a school "for the accommodation of those who 
wish to review the common branches and to obtain the 
best methods of teaching them," the school to begin 
September 6 and to continue six weeks. Early in 1870 the 
school paper had come into being at Rushville, a little 
newspaper item in February of that year asking the 
])eople to "read the Enterprise, the weekly publislied in 
the school and edited by the students." In the spring of 
tliis same year notice was given that "the teachers of Rush 
county and vicnnity will hold a })icnic at the fair grounds 
on May 21." On July 29, 1871, a report of a committee 
of the Rusli Cou7ity Educational Association recommend- 
ing the adoption of a unifoi-m series of text-books foi- use 
in all the schools of the county was adopted. Complaint 
was made that sometimes in a school there would be two 


or three different texts on the same subject, "making the 
labor of the teachers much greater." In 1872 it was 
noted that the teachers of Ripley township had formed a 
"Lyceum," the object being "the elevation of the 
schools." In 1873 Professor David Graham was 
announced as the director of a county normal school to 
be held in the public school building at Rushville through 
July and August "to train teachers for their work." 
For a number of years the Rushville Weekly Jacksonian 
carried an "Educational Column" conducted by Elder 
Jacob B. Blount, ex-county superintendent of schools, in 
which all public questions were discussed, including 
religious, political and educational questions. In 1890 
the Rushville Republicayi was conducting a weekly column 
devoted to the schools of the county, in which matters 
pertaining to the needs of the schools were set out, errors 
criticized and much other general information given. 
The present effective system was gradually being evolved. 
At the time of the opening of the schools in the fall of 
1890 public notice through the newspapers was given that 
every teacher in the county would be expected to study 
the "County Manual" and "comply as far as possible 
with the requirements of the county board." Uniformity 
of methods was on the way. The advantage of "system" 
and "team work" was being recognized. And results 
were being obtained, as witness a newspaper item of 
September 13, 1892, which stated that "a goodly number 
of Rush county young ladies and gentlemen will attend 
the various colleges this winter. This shows that there 
is a spirit for higher education being cultivated among the 
young folks." And that spirit is marching grandly on. 
In 1897 the Indiana state compulsory education law 
sounded the knell of illiteracy in this state. 


The Churches oe Rush County 

The church ever is in advance of government, such is 
the impulse of the missionary spirit. It therefore may 
be taken for granted that formal religious services had 
been held in various parts of the territory now comprised 
within the confines of Rush covmty some time before this 
county had been organized as a separate civic unit. As 
has been i)ointed out in jjrevious chapters there wei-e 
numerous settlers in tlie eastern and southeastern ]nirt 
of the county prior to the date of (»rganizati()n and it is 
undoubted that these settlers had ])een enjoying, at least 
periodically, the ministrations of the messengers of the 
gospel, for the local missionary spirit was strong in those 
days and the "itinerant" })re;i('her occasionally would be 
found wherever "two or three" could be gathered together 
to hear the message he had to ])ri7ig. In mild weather 
meetings would ])e held at a convenient point in the woods 
at the crossing of the trails and in inclement weather 
some settler would be found who gladly would open his 
cabin to such of his widely se])a rated neighbors as woidd 
come to hear the gospel u])()n notice that some missioner 
was due to be heard in that Tieighborhood. It was these 
early meetings in tlie cabins that have created the con- 
fusion regarding statements with relation to the first 
church in the county, the claim to this distinction being 
made by several communities in the county. There is a 
difference, however, between these neighborhood meet- 
ings held (»ii tlie call (if the itinerant missioner of the 
j»ei'i<td aiKl a i'oi-nial ehureh oi'ganization with a settled 
]>astor and officei's of the church, a definite meeting 
]ilace and iccogni/ed connection with a ruling body, and 
this difference ought to be takeii into accoimt in a consid- 



eration of the several claims along this line. However, 
it is certain that the church was early in evidence. The 
people would not have had it otherwise. The pioneers of 
this community were — with an occasional exception to 
prove the rule — a god-fearing, upright people with 
proper impulses toward the right and their rules of con- 
duct were based upon the book of discipline of the church 
of their fathers. While they differed widely and some- 
times fiercely in matters of minor interpretation of the 
Book which was their general guide, the same book 
guided all and was the foundation rock of the church, 
whatever the denomination or sect thus represented. And 
the church was the paramount interest in their lives. As 
the late John F. Moses wrote concerning the pioneers of 
Rush county : ' ' That they were a deeply religious people 
is evidenced by the remarkable fact that they first or- 
ganized a church before they had set in motion the 
machinery of their local civil government; and by the 
further fact that within a year or two after their first 
settlement they had dotted the country with meeting 
houses. They were order-loving and law-abiding. Hos- 
pitality was part of their religion, and the interests of 
their neighbors largely their own. Mutually dependent, 
they were mutually helpful. There was no cabin standing 
in its little clearing which did not bear the marks of the 
handiwork of all the men within reach at its building, and 
they stood as monuments to the feeling of neighborly 
good will that was then the rule. The more formal and 
far more selfish usages of our own time might with profit 
borrow something from the free-handed, hearty and gen- 
erous spirit that animated the men and women of those 
older days. ' ' 

Along this same line the late Rev. Jacob B. Blount, of 
whom it was written in his day that "probably no man in 
Rush county is more prominently or more favorably 
known," commented in a review of the work of the 
churches in this county written by him more than thirty 


years ago, when he said that "the first effort that was 
made in a new territory usually was to plant the religion 
whieh the settlers hronght with them, either by the work 
of some minister who accompanied them or by the citizens 
themselves. Many times the 'laity' formed themselves 
into a body and worshiped God according to the doctrine 
carried with them from their former homes. Many of the 
old landmarks — the first meeting houses — were the result 
of this kind of W(^rk, erected by the people in the absence 
of, and without the aid of, the ])reacher. The primitive 
houses were of logs planed down or hewed before placed 
in the building, and as was the house so the worship — ■ 
in the sim])]icity and devotion of a humbleness that has 
long since lost itself in the gaudiness and flourish of the 
modern temples." Continuing in this strain, Mr. Blount 
declares that "i:»robably no county iu the state can I'ecord 
greater achievements in church work than Rush, nor a 
greater victory for religion. Religious sentiment and 
conviction have urged and almost compelled morality of 
her citizens from her settlement up to the i)reseut. until 
she can boast of the very bi-oadest influence possil>le of 
the faith contained in the testimony of the Scriptures. Tt 
will not be said too sti'ong wheu tlic statement is made 
that Riisli comity contains a more universal religious iii- 
fliicnce than any other county in the state, a.nd accoi'ding 
to lier population has more ])rofessois of religion. Tliis 
is not claimed because of the su]ierior intelligence of her 
citizens — of this she does not boast — nor ])ecause of dee]) 
])iety, but because of the ])ersistent effort to establish in 
the hearts of the peo]tl(' the doctrine of respective church 
oi'ders. Kach seemed to vie with each other and Rusli 
])ecamc a theologieal baillcficld in which was tought 
many ha id and long contimicd hatth'S. the end of which 
was not particularly the establishment of any jmrticular 
docti'ine or especial religious theory, Init to imj)ress the 
hearers with the fullness and pi-ofundity of religious 
facts and truths. Bv these discussions manv truths were 


developed and hundreds of the citizens imbibed them, and 
at a very early day religions conviction upon one or an- 
other of the doctrines overshadowed nearly the entire 


There are at present in Rush county fifty-six 
'Agoing" churches, that is, churches that continue to 
maintain a definite organization. Besides these there 
are several rural churches that formerly were active 
bodies but by reason of local influences of one sort and 
another have been abandoned, the congregation merging 
with other congregations in contiguous territory or alto- 
gether giving up the struggle against altered conditions. 
The automobile and the creation of a general system of 
excellent highways throughout the county have caused 
the abandonment of several of the rural churches, it hav- 
ing been found better to give up the attempt to hold cer- 
tain rural congregations together in these days of easy 
and convenient access to stronger churches of the county 
seat and the several villages of the county. These fifty- 
six churches are distributed as follows: In the city of 
Rushville, twelve — Methodist Episcopal, Christian, Bap- 
tist (two), Presbyterian, United Presbyterian, United 
Brethren, Church of God, Catholic, African M. E., col- 
ored Baptist and Salvation Army; Anderson township, 
three — Methodist Episcopal, Christian and United Pres- 
byterian at M ilro}; ; Center, three — Center Christian, I^it- 
tle Blue River Church of Christ and United Presbyterian 
at Mays ; Jackson, two — Christian at Sexton and United 
Brethren at Henderson; Noble, three — Little Flat Rock 
Christian and the Methodist Episcopal and Methodist 
Protestant at New Salem; Orange, three — Christian at 
Moscow, Methodist Episcopal at Gowd}^ and Big Flat 
Rock Christian; Posey, six — Christian and Methodist 
Episcopal at Arlington, the Franklin A I. E„ the Wesleyan 
M. E., the Blue River Friends and the Hannegan Chris- 


tian; Richland, two — the Methodist Episcopal and the 
United Brethren; Ripley, seven — the Friends (two), 
Carthage and Walnut Ridge, the Methodist Episcopal, 
Christian, United Brethren, African M. E. and colored 
Baptist at Carthage; Union, seven — Plnm Creek Chris- 
tian, Ben Davis Christian, Faii'^dew Christian, Meth- 
odist Episcopal at Falmouth and Methodist Episcopal. 
Christian and United Presbyterian at Glenwood; 
Walker, five — Christian and Methodist Episcopal at 
Manilla, Baptist and Christian Union at Homer and 
Goddard M. E. ; Washington, three — the Christian 
church at Raleigh, the East Fork Baptist and the Eben- 
ezer Presbyterian. 

Regarding the contention concerning the first church 
organized in Rush county, perhaps there is no better 
authority along that line than the statements contained 
in a review of the churches of the county written by the 
late John F. Moses in 1907, in which it is stated that "a 
claim has been made that a little congregation formed in 
1820 at John ]M orris's house in what is now Noble town- 
ship was afterward transferred to Fayetteville (now 
Orange) and became the foundation for the present 
Christian chui'ch in that village. But Elijah Hackle- 
man's diary gives precedence to the Little Flat Rock 
Baptist church and says that it grew out of a meeting 
held in (Conrad Sailor's store the second week in April. 
1821." Hai)pily, the minute book of this early church 
has been preserved, and is now one (^f the priceless pos- 
sessions of the Rushville public library. The book is in 
an excellent state of preservation, and its faded blue 
pasteboard cover and 1;")0 time-stained pages hold tlie 
record of the church for a period of nearly ten years, the 
last entry in it being dated August 20, 18151. Unfortu- 
nately the first four pages of tlie old minute book have 
l)een cut out, the marks of the cut ])ages showing evidence 
of care having been taken in the nnitilation, the purpose 
of which at this date can only be conjectured but not sat- 



isfactorily explained. The inside cover has the familiar 
name of Conrad Sailor, who was the agent of the state 
in the creation of Rush count}^, scribbled on it in ink a 
couple of times. The minutes open at Page 5 with the 
continuation line "her stated meetings from the first 
Saturday in the month to the third." The next para- 
graph follows : "A request of the brethren on Cliffy for 
help to constitute a church: agree to send Elder John 
Blades and Brother Abraham Hackleman. Elder John 
Blades was chosen standing moderator. Adjourned to 
the third Saturday in November, 1821. (Signed) Rob- 
ert Thompson, elk. L. F. R. C." The second entry fol- 
lows: "Saturday, November 17, 1821 — The church of 
Little Flat Rock met agreeable to adjournment and after 
prayer by Elder John Blades, Brother Benjamin Sailor 
laid in complaint against himself for rioting and drunk- 
enness and was excluded." A minute dated September 
18, 1824, notes that "the committee that was appointed 
to look out a suitable sjjot of ground for meeting house, 
they came forward and reported that they had found a 
suitable place in the southwest corner of Jacob Hackle- 
man'^ land, and the church was agreed to the place of 
ground to build their meeting house upon. The church 
located two acres of land of the said Hackleman, and the 
brothers, Conrad Sailor, Elias B. Stone and William Mil- 
ner to act as trustees in the survey and reception of the 
deed for said place of land. On motion the church took 
up the business of building a meeting house. They agreed 
to build a hewed log meeting house, the size here de- 
scribed: thirty feet in length and twenty-six in width, 
with a roof of joint shingles, the house to be twelve feet 
between the sill and plate ; the house to be built by sub- 
scription and Brother Conrad Sailor to superintend the 
business. ' ' Brevity marks most of the entries in the old 
book and each minute invariably shows that "brethren 
of sister churches were invited to seats," and that "a door 
was opened for the reception of new members." In for- 


mal phrase they note the taking in and dismissal of mem- 
bers, the appointment of brethren to admonisli the nec^li- 
gent to perform tlieir chiricli duties, complaints of kipses 
and the citing of offenders before tlie church. One 
militant brother was thus haled before that body for 
"imadvisedly whipping a man in Rushville," and at an- 
other time "foi' wanting to fite." The complainant was 
his own brothel'. In several cases the offenders manfully 
lodged com})laints against themselves, mostly for intox- 
ication. A brother, self-accused of "committing the sin 
of amusing himself in a merry company by frolicking and 
dancing," j^rofessed repentance and the church resolved 
"to bare with him." Elder Thompson became standing 
moderator and Abrahaui Hackleman writing clerk. An 
entry on August 15, 1822, shows that "$6.18->4 was raised 
by subscription to ])ay the necessary expenses of the 
church for the year 1822." Certainly this was not ])rod- 
igal. The old church was heated in cold weather by 
means of a "hearth of brick about four feet square in the 
center of the house, upon which charcoal was placed and 
fired u|) when recpiired. The house was built by the joint 
efforts of iriembers, who turucfl out en masse and uiade 
nothing else their business uutil it was completed." 
Through Elder Thompson's efforts Baptist churches 
were organized in different ]»aits of the county. "All 
went on smoothly and swiimningly I'oi' about five years, 
when mutterings and rumblings began to be heard in the 
distance of the coming storm of the Reformation." In 
1828, aftei- consulting with his leading members, Mr. 
Thompson went 1o Kentucky to aiuiihilate the new doc- 
trine. Lik(^ Saul of Taisns. he was converted by the way 
and retuiiied home t(» champion it and to lead a majority 
of his membeis. ]iot veiv long after, out of the Little Flat 
Rock church. Thv old minute book notes (A]»ril 2. 18:^0) 
the difficulties over matteis of doctrine and the divisioii 
of the clmich. A little tabic furnishes the facts in brief 
form, it enumerates: "Dismissed by leUer, (i ; Thomp- 


son 's party, 31 ; total amount, 55. ' ' This would leave 
only eighteen. On the preceding page it gives "the 
names of the parties that left us" as follows: John P. 
Thompson, Priscilla Thompson, Simeon B, Lloyd, Mary 
Lloyd, Abner Hackleman, Elizabeth Hackleman, Roder- 
ick Talbott, Margaret Stephens, William Moor, Rebecca 
Moor, John Heaton, Hester Heaton, Phoebe Heaton, 
Thomas Heaton, Margaret Williams, Mary McDaniel, 
Rebecca Garrison, John McDaniel, Katherine McDaniel, 
Jacob Coon, Margaret Coon, James Frazee, Katherine 
Frazee, Ebenezer Thompson, Mahalia Taylor, John Haw- 
kins, Nancy Hawkins, Elizabeth Maple and Elizabeth 
Moore. The minutes of the next meeting of the old 
church in May, 1830, use a new title, "the Regular Bap- 
tized Church of Christ on Little Flat Rock." John 
Blades signs as moderator and Thomas Sailor as clerk 
pro tem. The Thompson faction was granted the use of 
the church "on the first and fourth Saturdays and Sab- 
baths of each month" for one year, and there was a set- 
tlement for its part of the work done on the new building. 
On Sunday, May 23, 1830, Elder Thompson organized the 
Little Flat Rock Christian church. In 1822 he organized 
a Baptist church in Rushville, whose old brick house of 
worship long stood on the southeast corner of First and 
Perkins streets. 

Regarding this contention as to historic precedence 
Mr. Blount's review points out that "whether the organ- 
ization in the house of the pioneer Morris or the one at 
Little Flat Rock can claim the honor of first existence is 
not so vital, since it is not the fact of beginning so much 
as the fact of development that is important. The Flat 
Rock has precedence so far as continuity of place is con- 
cerned. It began in 1827, under the inspiration of Elder 
John P. Thompson, who having formed the Flat Rock 
Association of the Baptist church, when he was brought 
into the light of the teachings of the Scriptures as urged 
by Alexander Campbell, Walter Scott, B. W. Stone and 


others, himself tniiied t(» th.-it t'aitli of tlie rhurcli of 
Christ and eanied his recently constituted FLat Rock 
Association witli him and organized them anew uj^ton 'the 
Bil)le and tlie Bible alone' as the all-snffieient ride of 
faith and ]»raetice. This motto became the battle cry and 
indeed is the 'shibboleth' of this reli.u'ions order today. . . 
The work so well be,L!,'nn l)y l^]lder Thomjison was greatly 
aided by that wondeifnlly fearless and aiigressive pio- 
neer, John O. Kane, who came to this county in 1832." 

Durini;- the height of his missionary career Alexan- 
der Campl)ell visited this field and was warmly received 
in Rush county, those here who had accepted his doc- 
trines welcoming him with a feeling almost akin to ven- 
eration. One of the families that entertained him during 
that tour Avas that of the pioneer E]^hraim Frazee, who 
lived at the eastern edge of Rush county in Noble town- 
ship and who for years was the "local" preacher in the 
(Christian church at Orange. One of Ephraim Frazee 's 
daughters, Catherine, married Doctor Lindsay and moved 
to Springfield, Til., where Vachel Lindsay, the poet, was 
born. In his "Golden Book of Springfield" Vachel 
Lindsay, who is a frequent visitoi' to the old Frazee home- 
stead in Rush county, makes occasional references to In- 
diana. Ill an introductory chapter to his main narrative 
he talks of Alexander Cami»bell. TTltra modern follow- 
ers of Cam])bell, he sa\'s, hang in libraries with unlimited 
pride a certain rembi'antcsciue lithogra])h of that great 
man, "an heirloom that is now (juite rare, and to be 
classed in its Southern way, as the spinning wheels and 
old Bibles of the Mayflowei- are classed in a Northern 
way." This lithogra])h is the enlargement of the engrav- 
ing of the Riehardson l)iogra])hy, but much color and 
magic have been added. "Out of the darkness emerges 
a smooth shaven, high-bred, masterful ])hysiognomy more 
like that of the statesmen who were the fathers of the re- 
public than a member of any ])riestho()d. Campbell's 
cheeks and eves are still fired with vouth and authority 


militant. He has a head bowed with thought, crowned 
with gray hair, and beneath his chin is the most states- 
manlike of cravats, with a peculiarly old-fashioned roll. 
Thus he must have looked at the height of debate with the 
infidel. I can never forget the copy of the lithograph 
that hung over my grandmother's front room fireplace 
in the patriarchal Frazee farmhouse in Indiana. Under 
it I heard the pi'overbs from Campbell every summer 
from the time I can remember anything. All those say- 
ings were mixed up with stories that came with my people 
along the old Daniel Boone trail from Kentucky and Vir- 
ginia. And when the old frame house was new and novel, 
and most other dwelling houses near were log cabins. 
Campbell had been a guest received there with breathless 
reverence. Under that picture I was personally con- 
ducted through all the daguerreotypes and records per- 
taining to the Kentucky pioneers of our blood." 

In his review of the work of the Methodist Episcopal 
church in this county Mr. Blount observed that "the 
honor of the pioneer work in religious teaching in the 
county lies between this order of worshippers and the 
regular Baptists. It cannot be definitely determined 
which denomination has the precedence. As early as 
1821 James Havens preached the Methodist Episcopal 
faith in the southern part of the county, and at nearly the 
same period John Linville organized a class in the south- 
east corner. They mention among their early laborers 
in the county B. Beggs, James Havens, Joseph Tarking- 
ton, William Evans, John Strange, A. Cummins, Allen 
Wyley, Calvin A. Rutler, B. F. Griffiths, G. K. Hester 
and others who were indefatigable in their labors to es- 
tablish the cause. Perhaps the best known, at least the 
name of widest repute in this county, as well as in other 

portions of the state, is James Havens His strong 

and vigorous constitution, his profound mental organiza- 
tion and unlimited energy, coupled with an almost un- 
paralleled religious zeal, made him an emphatic 'planter 


and waterer' of the young church for which he expended 
his very best energies." The year that Methodism was 
introduced into Rushville. Indiana belonged to what was 
then known as the Missouri Conference, and all the fields 
of labor that had been formed within the bounds of the 
state, belonged to the Madison district. In 1824, Rev. 
John Strange was appointed to the Madison district, and 
Rev. James Havens was appointed to the Connersville 
circuit. Sometime during the year, James Havens vis- 
ited Rushville, formed the first Methodist society and 
received it into the Connersville circuit as a regular 
preaching place. The first class was composed of nine 
members, and John Ally, Sr., was the leader. At the 
close of this year, Rushville, with a large portion of the 
surrounding country, was set off in a separate field of 
labor, with a membership numbering 324. This was the 
last year that Indiana was included in the Missouri Con- 
ference. "In point of numbers," continues Mr. Blount's 
review, "the Baptists stand third. They established 
themselves here in a very early period of the county's 
history, almost if not quite simultaneously with the Meth- 
odists. As early as 1821 there was an organization of the 
people known as the Flat Rock Church. John P. Thomp- 
son, who figures in the foregoing, was the founder of that 
church, and made monthly visits to them. This church 
established itself in Rushville in 1822, and has the honor 
of locating the first religious organization i]i the beau- 
tiful capital of Rush county There were several or- 
ganizations of this peojjle at this early date, and nearly 
every organization had a local ])reacher. These were 
gi'eatly aided In- Wilson Thom])soTi. John S])arks and 

(Jeoi'ge Ilarhin, from Fayette county The split in 

the Regular Ba])tist church in Rush county took place in 
August, 1845, on the grcMind where* the new (1888) church 
house, erected by the (/hristian chui'ch, near Raleigh now 
stands. There was at that time a meeting house known . 
as the Zion Church, which belonged to the Whitewater 


Association standing on this site. The controversy, which 
ended in division, began at the East Fork church. Elder 
Sparks began to advocate conditional salvation and El- 
der Hatfield, a local preacher for that congregation, op- 
posed with such offensive criticism as to cause Elder 
Sparks to prefer charges against him, which resulted in 
the withdrawal of fellowship from Hatfield. Mr. Hat- 
field appealed to the Whitewater Association for redress 
and the hearing took place on the date above stated. Wil- 
son Thompson defended Hatfield and David Drummonds 
supported the church in its action in excluding Hatfield 
from its fellowship. The ground upon which the house 
stood belonged to Mrs. Nancy Cook, and she was appealed 
to as to which party should have possession. She decided 
in favor of Elder Thompson, whereupon Elder Sparks 
called upon his friends to know how many would follow 
him to a grove about one mile south. The trial was held 
on Friday and Saturday and on Sunday much the larger 
party went with Elder Sparks to the grove. The rights 
of property were finally tested in the civil courts, and by 
a kind of compromise measure East Fork was given to 
the Sparks party and Zion to the Thompson." 

Regarding the Presbyterians Mr. Blount's observa- 
tions point out that "this order made its first effort in 
Rushville in January, 1825 .... They have never been a 
very aggressive people, and this fact may account for 
their not having increased in numbers to a greater extent. 
Being among the first to plant their faith in the county, 
they have become identified with all the county's interests 
.... Among the pioneer preachers of this order one now 
remains as a tower still, though chiefly in memory. I 
refer to the venerable D. M. Stewart. No minister in 
Rush county has done more than he, nor has had a greater 
interest in the moral and religious growth of society. He 
has been identified with nearly every measure which 
looked to the elevation and the protection of society, and 
for the last fifty years his name has been a household 
word in the county." (Written in 1888.) 


The recollections of Di. John Arnold also carry some 
iiitci'osting- observations regarding,- some of the earlier 
ministers and the organization of churches in this county. 
Of the Rev. X. C. ^IcDill, who began his labors here in 
1852, and was for fifty years thereafter a tower of 
strength in the United Presb}i:erian church, Doctor Ar- 
nold says that he "was in many ways one of the most i*e- 
markalDle men of the Rush county clergy. When he began 
his laliors with Richland church he was a young man of 
exceeding] V delicate health, and it was not supposed, even 
by the most sanguine, that he could long endure his ardu- 
ous task." Of eJames Havens, mentioned above. Doctor 
Arnold observes that "he was a remarkable man. Pos- 
sessed of a ]}()werful mind, clear and logical in its deduc- 
tions, though unpolished by education and uncultured by 
extensive reading, his earnest convictions, tireless energy 
and indomitable will exactly fitted him for the wild and 
new country in which he labored. He was of that heroic 
type that commanded the respect and won the love of the 
honest and brave pioneers .... He was Iwld and aggres- 
sive, and perhaps even harsh sometimes in his attacks on 
sin and error, but his honesty of purpose gave to him a 
success that milder and more jtolished men failed to at- 
tain. His early education was very limited and for a 
time he felt no need of a higher culture, deeming it unnec- 
essary foi' a successfid ex|)Osition of Scripture truths; 
l)ut a riper experience and wider observation showed him 
his error, and in after years his character received the 
polish of extensive reading, and the iron hand of argu- 
ment, tlioiigh incased in a velvet glove, had lost none of 
its y)ristine ])ower to seize and crush error. With age he 
beeame milder and less exacting, more tolerant and com- 
passionate of the mistakes of otliers, and in liis mature 
riu-istian charactci' tliere was much to love and but little 
to censure." In his ])ublisli('d recollections along this line 
Doctor Aiiiold I'lirtlu'r observed that "the pioneer 
pi'eachers of all dciioininations ciidiu'ed many hardships 


and much labor in proclaiming the gospel in a new and 
unsettled country; but none could compare in these re- 
spects to the Methodist itinerant. With perhaps from 
twenty to thirty preaching stations to be visited each 
month, these places being widely scattered through the 
almost pathless wilderness, no mode of travel except on 
horseback, through swamps, overflowing streams, and 
the dense forest — these men necessarily endured danger, 
suffering and privations that the souls of sinners might 
be saved. These men were truly moral heroes, whose en- 
thusiastic devotion to their high calling enabled them 
cheerfully to endure all these trials and to rejoice that 
they were called to do so. Many a valuable life was sacri- 
ficed, but the triumphant spirit felt no regrets." Along 
this same line Doctor Arnold pointed out that "Wilson 
Thompson was regarded as the undisputed leader of the 
Calvanistic Baptists. Originally of meager education, 
without any of the advantages of literary culture, he be- 
came a powerful preacher, even able and willing to defend 
his views against the assaults of all opponents. He was 
extremely popular in his own denomination, but like all 
agressive and able men, was proportionately unpopular 
with those whose favorite theological ideas he attacked. 
He was to the Regular Baptists what James Havens was 
to the Methodists, and John O'Kane to the Disciples. 
John Sparks and George Harlan were able expounders of 
their doctrines, but did not possess that combative spirit 
which never omitted an opportunity of attacking the sup- 
posed errors of other denominations." 

In his observations concerning the organization of 
the Carthage Meeting of Friends Doctor Arnold con- 
cluded that "the Society of Friends has ever been dis- 
tinguished for its unswei'ving advocacy of temperance, 
education and the rights of man. They were far in ad- 
vance of all other denominations in their conscientious, 
consistent and earnest opposition to slavery." Of John 
O'Kane, who first made his appearance in Rush county 


in 1832, and whose name, together with that of John P. 
Tliompson, is inseparably connected with the liistory of 
the Christian church in this section of the state, Doctor 
Arnold notes that "he was a splendid specimen of a man 
physically, tall, erect, dignified, with a broad, high fore- 
head. He was eloquent, argumentative, persuasive and 
sarcastic. He possessed a kind of magnetism that swayed 
the minds of his congregations in a wonderful manner, 
and he opened the way that made the advance of the other 
leaders of the reform easy." From the older chronicles 
it also is noted that John Morrow was a zealous preacher, 
and at times strong. His elocution was not very fluent, 
but his strong common sense made him very acceptable to 
his congregation. He had but one fault: he carried no 
watch, and sometimes, in his zeal, would forget the time 
of day. While Oliver H. Smith was a candidate for Con- 
gress, he met Father Morrow and several other Meth- 
odist preachers at Conwell's store, in Decatur county. 
They were on their way to conference. Their horses were 
feeding, dinner not ready and they took a short walk to 
the spring, under the shade of some spreading elms. 
Father Morrow proposed that Smith should make a 
speech. The motion was seconded by all the preachers, 
and the candidate addressed them for about two hours, 
with as much sound as if he had been speaking to thou- 
sands. At the close Fath(>r ^lorrow remarked that he 
liked the speech, but it was a little too long. "Ah, Father 
Mori'ow, T thought it was my last chance to ])unish you a 
little for what I have suffered luidiM- your long sermons," 
said Mr. Smith. The <»th<'r ])r('a('h('rs smiled, and he was 
told the I'cmark was like seed sown on good gi'ound. 

James Havens was called ))y Oliver H. Smith, who 
knew him well, the Najxtleon of the Methodist preachers 
of Indiana. "He seemed to be made for the very work in 
which he was engaged," was Smith's observatiim. "He 
had a good personality, a strong physical formation, ex- 
panded lungs, a clear and powerful voice, reaching to the 


verge of the camp ground, the eye of the eagle, and both a 
moral and personal courage that never quailed. His pow- 
ers as a preacher were of a very high order. The great 
characteristic of Mr. Havens as a preacher was his good 
common sense. He could distinguish his audience so as 
not to throw his pearls before swine. He could feed his 
babes with the 'milk of the Word,' and hurl the terrors of 
the law at old sinners." The sculptured face of James 
Havens on the strong but simple monument which marks 
his grave in East Hill cemetery is its own perpetual com- 
mentary on the vigor of this pioneer preacher. The sculp- 
tor's deeply graven lines show something of the rugged 
power that characterized the labors of the missioner, and 
are their own continuing memorial. 


In compiling this chapter relating to the churches of 
Rush county an effort has been made to obtain specific 
information regarding each and every church in the 
county. Inquiries have been made in competent quarters 
seeking details of organization and development of each 
of the congregations. Some of these inquiries met with 
prompt and helpful responses. Others have been wholly 
ignored. With tlie material at hand the compilers have 
endeavored to give as comprehensive a review as possible 
of the church field in Rush county. Under the circum- 
stances this review is admittedly incomplete. No doubt 
also its accuracy in places is open to criticism. This is 
admitted without apology. The limitations of time in the 
compilation of such a work as this precludes further re- 
search. In most cases where the criticism possibly may 
lie a just conception of the situation would reveal the 
fault to be due to failure to supply the definite informa- 
tion sought. This, however, as it may be ; an effort has 
been made to present such details as may be informative 
to future generations, and if the following pages shall 
serve some future historian as a basis for further and 


nidie comprehensive research their mission will have been 


The Main Street Cl/ristian Cliurcli at RusJivUle has 
had a continuous organization since May 23, 1830, when 
Elder John P. Thompson, whose activities in the early 
field here have been noted, began to preach to those at 
Rushville who had espoused the cause he then was so vig- 
orously ])romoting in this section, but it was some time 
before ;i church buildirg was elected and a definite oi'- 
ganizatiou effected. Among those who lielped in this 
cause at Rushville were Joel Wolfe and William B. Fliim, 
who kept alive the movement and on August 15, 1841, un- 
der the leadership of Elder John O'Kane the c<mgrega- 
tion formally was organized with twenty-four charter 
members. On March 30, 1844, Joel Wolfe, George H. 
Caldwell and Reuben I). Logan wei'e ap]K)inted trustees 
with a view to buying a lot foi- the erection of a house of 
worship, but conditions arose w^hich deferred the plans of 
the little congregation, and it was not un.til six years later, 
in 1850, that a meeting house was built, the building com- 
mittee having been William Eockridge, Amon Johnson, 
Samuel Barber and William B. El inn. This was under 
the continued ministrations of i^lder O'Kane, who in 
1852, was succeeded by I^]lder George Cam])l)('ll, wlio 
served at a salary of $300 a year. Among the later pas- 
tors were J. R. Fiame, David B. Sim])son, Benjamin 
Frankli}!, "Billy" Wilson, fJ(»seph Lucas, Daniel Frank- 
lin, Kolla B. Henry, Thomas J. Murdock, L. L. Pinker- 
ton, John Shackleford. I^and, Pritchai'd. Downey, Van- 
Buskirk, Coniiei, Brewer, (Jilbcrt and others whose 
names in (tllicr days were familiar in the councils of the 
Christian church. The Rev. John II. McNeil, who was 
called in 1888, did nuich toward the work of organizing 
the congregation along its present ])rogressive lines. He 
served as i)astor foi' fonr years, and it was under his di- 


rection that the Christian Endeavor Society was organ- 
ized, and a general impetus given to the departmental 
work of the church. It also was under his direction that 
the present handsome church edifice was erected in 1893- 
94, at a cost of $30,000, and was dedicated on February 
4, 1894. The present pastor is the Rev. L. E. Brown, and 
all departments of the work of the church are reported in 
a flourishing condition. 

The Plum Creek Christian Church — The Plum 
Creek Christian Church, in the northeast corner of 
Union township, was organized in December, 1833, at a 
little neighborhood meeting of the settlers holding this 
faith, among these being included the families of Martin 
Hood, Baldwin Coppage, William Scruggs, William Gor- 
don, William Davis, Davis Rich, William Cult, Aaron 
Mock and Ellis Fox. For ten or twelve years after the 
organization of this society of Christians meetings were 
held for praise and worship in the homes of the res]3ective 
members, but m the year 1844 or 1845, a church building 
was erected near Shawnee creek at a point a little less 
than two miles northeast of the present church. This 
building sufficed the congregation until about the year 
1874, when a desire for a new location arose, the leading 
spirits in the movement being John T. McMillin, John 
E. Smith, Charles Ertle, Philip Ertle, Henry Hall, Jesse 
Kirkpatrick, James H. Hays and John T. Hinchman, and 
this movement resulted in the purchase of the old Meth- 
odist Episcopal church frame building which stood on the 
site of the present Plum Creek church, and this building 
continued to answer the needs of the congregation until 
about 1909, when it was felt that a new and modern edi- 
fice was required. This feeling developed until at a meet- 
ing of the congregation, on August 8, 1911, a committee, 
consisting of Willet L. Hall, W. H. McMillin and D. T. 
Kirkpatrick, was appointed to let the contract and super- 
intend the erection of a new building. John A. Gordon 
and E. A. Billing constituted the committee to solicit 


funds for the building- and George H. Myer was ap- 
pointed treasurer of tlie fund. Early hi the fall of 1912, 
the new edifice was completed, and the dedicatory serv- 
ices were held on December 8, 1912, Brother Rains offi- 
ciating. This new church is a modern brick edifice, the 
ground floor consisting of assembly room, baptistry, 
choir space and gallery, the basement containing hot air 
furnace, well and ])ump, kitchen and toilet rooms. The 
edifice is lighted by electricity, and its decorations are in 
keeping with the othei- modern appointments. Upon the 
erection of the little ]>ioneej church on Shawnee creek 
back in the '40s, there was some trouble in securing the 
services of a settled pastoi', and for a time the Methodists 
occupied the church, conducting services there for about 
three years. Some of the pioneer ministers of the Plum 
Creek congregation were Butler K. Smith, Gabriel Mc- 
Duffie, Samuel Hendi-icks, Jacol) Oaubenspeck, Drury 
Holt, John B. New, Henry R. Pritchard, George Camp- 
bell, Benjamin Franklin, Daniel Franklin, Samuel Har- 
shour and Charles Blackman. Some of the later minis- 
ters are Aaron Walker, Noah Walker, J. B. Blount, 
Joseph Franklin, A. W. Connei-, James Parsons. Elder 
Treat, E. B. Schofield, A. L. Crim, J. Walter Carpenter, 
L. E. Murray, A. Burns, Albert Brown, I. N. Grisso and 
the present pastor, the Rev. F. P. Smith. The Plum 
Creek Christian Church has a membership of 175, and a 
Sundav school enrollment of 200. The trustees of the 
chuich" are K. A. Billing, I). T. Kirkpatrick and W. H. 
McMilliu; elders, Willet L. Hall, Luther Nixon and W. 
H. McMillin; deacons. Elbert G(»rdon, Eddie Myer, 
Aaron Kennedy and Thomas Eogan; treasurer, Will 
Whitton ; usher, \\\ II. McM ill in, and secretary and clerk, 
\y. TT. Fi-y. The chui'ch has two auxiliaries: the Chris- 
tian Woman's Hoard of Missions and the Aid Society, 
both of which ai'e doing an active and useful work. Omer 
Hall is the siipei'intendent of the Sunday school; assist- 
ant, Jesse Brooks; chorister, Charles Hires; secretary, 


Russell Rees; assistant, Stella Carson; second assistant. 
W. H. McMillin, and all departments of the work of the 
church are reported in flourishing condition. 

The Ben Davis Christian Church in Union township 
is one of the historic old churches of the count}^ having 
rendered more than ninety years of active and continuous 
service in the neighborhood of which it long has been the 
social center. This was one of the early church organ- 
izations in this part of the state, having been organized 
on June 20, 1829, as the Union Baptist Church, with the 
following charter members : Martin Hood, Rhoda Hood, 
George Hittle, Michael Furry, Hiram Westover, Mary 
Morgan, Ann Cing, Susan Watson, Barbara Watson, 
McCormack Zion, Mary Zion, Andrew Gilson, Susanna 
Hittle, Susanna McMillin, Polly Newhouse, James 
Hinchman, Moab Matthews, Jacob Daubenspeck, Francis 
Wright, John Furry, John stiller, Minerva Westover, 
Elizabeth Daubenspeck, William Watson, Rosanna Wat- 
son, Mary Hittle, Margaret Hinchman, Jane Gilson, 
Mary Gray and Nancy Hinchman. In 1832, this congre- 
gation reorganized as the Church of Christ and the pio- 
neer congregation enjoyed the ministration of several of 
the pioneer ministers of the Christian church whose serv- 
ice was extended into this section of the state, but a con- 
fusion or loss of the early minutes of the congregation 
make it impossible to supply a complete list of these. 
Beginning in the '60s there was a succession of the strong 
ministers of this time and place, including such men as 
the Rev. Benjamin Reeve, the Rev. George Campbell, the 
Rev. Henry R. Prichard and the Rev. Mr. Shaw. The 
present pastor of the church is the Rev. H. R. Hosier, 
under whose ministrations the work of the congregation 
is reported to be flourishing, the membership numbering 
150, with a Sunday school having an average attendance 
of about thirty-five. The missionary society has forty- 
four members and other auxiliaries to the work of the 
church are the Mission Band Society and the Light Bear- 


ers Society. Tlie current officers of tlie clun-ch are as fol- 
lows: Elders, Oscar Rees and Charles Foster; deacons, 
John W. Maiizy, AValter Gray, J. E. Wynn and Guy Bus- 
sell ; clei'k, Jesse AV, Peters; treasurer, Elwood Kirk- 
wood. The little lo.n' building' which served as a meeting- 
house for this congregation following its organization 
] .I'esently gave way to one of a bit more pretentious char- 
acter, and this was succeeded by the present church build- 
ing, which was dedicated b\- the Rev. J. K. Fi-ame on 
June 8, 1853. 

The Fairvicw Christ idu Church was organized in the 
year 1843, with a membership of forty, including such 
prominent residents of the Fairview neighborhood as 
AVilliam Shawhan and family, Jolni Thi-nsher, Sr.. and 
family, W . W. Thrasher and family, Josiah Piper and 
family, Jacob Parish and family, John Bates and family, 
Samuel Shortridge and family, Donovan Groves and 
Ephraim Clifford. Prior to the formal organization of 
this congregation AVilliam Shawhan had, in 1842, 
given a plot of ground near Fairview on the Rush county 
side of the dividing line between Rush and Fayette coun- 
ties with the understanding that a building to be used for 
chuich purposes should be erected thereon and in the fol- 
lowing year, upon the formal organization of the congre- 
gation, these terms were complied with, the first ])oard 
of trustees of tlie church being Ephraim (^lifford, John 
Thrashei-, Sr., and Jacob Parish, with the following el- 
ders: Donovan (J roves, William Shawhan and John 
Thrasher. The frame building erected at that time sup- 
]>lied the needs of the congi'egatioii until 1S72, in which 
year it was replaced by a substantial brick building of one 
idom, which was dedicated by the Rev. Daniel Franklin, 
the eldei's of the congregation at that time having been 
AV. \V. Thrashei', Henry Lucas and Ezekiel Parish. Tn 
]906 this building was remodeled, a vestibule, belfry aiid 
other improvements being added, and it was rededicated 
on September 26, of that yeai- by the Rev. ^\v. Burkhart. 



of Connersville, the trustees at that time having been 
Harley Wikoff , James Rees and Robert Saxon. Of these 
Messrs. Wikoff and Rees are still serving, Erban B. 
Vickery being the third member. The first pastor of the 
. Fairview Christian Church was the Rev. Arthur Miller, 
the successors in this pastoral relation including Bird 
Byfield, John O'Kane, John Longley, Samuel K. Hous- 
hour, John P. Thompson, Benjamin Reeves, Peter Wiles, 
Jacob Daubenspeck, George Campbell, Benjamin Frank- 
lin, Daniel V. VanBuskirk, A. R. Benton, John A. 
Campbell, Eugene Schofield, I. S. Hughes, Barzilla 
Blount, J. B. Blount, Henry R. Pritchard, Walter Ting- 
ley, John Thomas, S. W. Pearcy, A. W. Conner, M. V. 
Yokum, G. C. Waggoner, William Gard, J. L. Parsons, J. 
H. O. Smith (1882), W. A. Hopkins, James Connor, S. M. 
Hawthorne (1906), Charles Schultz (1910), Emery 
Kuhn (1911), N. D. Webber (1912), Elmer Oldham 
(1913-14), and the Rev. G. F. Powers, who was installed 
in 1915, and is still serving as resident pastor, preaching 
half time for the Fairview congregation. The congrega- 
tion numbers 250, and maintains a Sunday school with an 
enrollment of eighty or more, Glen Smelser, superintend- 
ent, and Erban Vickery, assistant. The attendance so 
frequently exceeds the capacity of the present edifice that 
the congregation is planning for additional room. 

The Christian Church at Arlington was organized in 
September, 1835, by Elder Gabriel McDuffie, at a meet- 
ing held at the dwelling of John Six, in the vicinity of the 
village then called Burlington, those subscribing their 
names to the articles of association being Thomas Collins, 
who was chosen deacon ; Delilah Collins, Gabriel McDuf- 
fie, Priscilla McDuffie, John Six, Polly Six, Thomas 
Brent (a minister), Mrs. Thomas Brent, Obediah Mere- 
dith, Nancy Meredith, Jeremiah Gard, Mrs. Jeremiah 
Gard, Elizabeth Allender, Mahala Jackson, Elizabeth 
Williams, Christina Beckner, Elizabeth Collins and Polly 
Collins. For seven years or until the first meeting house 



was erected, this little eonsjregation held meetings in the 
houses of its meniliers, in barns or in the grove, according 
to occasion "and as permitted b}' the weather." Then in 
1842, a chnrch bnilding was erected on the site now occn- 
j)ied by the grade school in Arlington. This little chnrch 
building was of undressed material and was used by the 
congregation for ten years, or until the growth of the 
membership necessitated a larger chapel, and in 1852 a 
new building was erected. This building was erected al- 
most entii'ely without the expenditure of money, logs hav- 
ing been subscribed by some ; hauling by some, and sawing 
and other services by others. The building was 25x30 
feet in dimension, and in it there was visible no dressed 
timber save the puljjit and the seats. It was voted a great 
improvement over the old building, ''solid, handsome and 
roomy." The first mimite book of this congregation has 
been lost, but on page 1 of the book used from 1835 to 
1890, there is a copy of the old articles of association, and 
a roster of those who subscribed to the same. Apparent 
lapses in the record leave some points in doubt, but what 
is thought to ])e a ])ractically com])lete list of those who 
have served the Arlington congregation in a ministerial 
capacity has been made out, including Daniel Franklin. 
J*. B. Blomit, AYalter S. Tingley, J. P. Finley, J. M. Land, 
A. I. Hobbs, Knowdes Shaw. Henry R. Pritchard, Ben- 
jamin F. Reeve, Butler K. Smith, Walter S. Campbell, 
Drury Holt, I^afayette Thomas, Elder ^Nlurdock, Benja- 
min Franklin, Joseph Fi-anklin, Jacob Daubenspeck, 
James Matthews, Willis Storms, George Campbell, I). R, 
VanBuskirk, Milton B. Hopkins, Eldei* Blackman, 
James Smith, B. M. l^lount and others whose names are 
not recoided, the new book ojx'uing in 1(S90, when Walter 
S. Smith was pastor, his successors being William A. 
Card, C. A. Rilcv, W. F. Folks, C. A. Johnson, J. C. Hall, 

A. W. Conner, B. E. Allen, Harvey W. McKane, W. H. 
Willoughbv, Alfonso Bums, Erastus A\\ Conner, John 

B. Bare, David L. Milligan, Mrs. J. A. Bennett, A. M. 


Hootman, C. C. Perrin, G. I. Hoover (district evan- 
gelist,) W. T. Crawley, G. H. Lawton and the present pas- 
tor, the Rev. O. Ross Keran. The present handsome 
church edifice was begun under the pastorate of the Rev. 
Alfonso Burns, the corner stone having been laid on 
July 4, 1909, and was dedicated on May 1 , 1910, the Rev. 
Erastus W. Conner then being pastor. This building 
cost, exclusive of the site, which the church owned, and 
also exclusive of the bell and certain other furnishings 
and equipment, $16,000, and is one of the county's most 
substantial church buildings. In 1920 the church elected 
to erect a parsonage on a lot adjacent to the church, and 
a committee consisting of Frank Offutt, John A. Nelson 
and Arthur C. Lee raised about $5,000 to this end, the 
parsonage thus being paid for when completed. The 
Arlington Christian Church has a membership of about 
350, with a Sunday school of about 125, and the Chris- 
tian Woman's Board of Missions and the Helping Hand 
Society are valuable auxiliaries to the work of the church, 
all departments of which are making progress. 

The East Street Christian Church of Carthage was 
organized in May, 1895. with the following charter mem- 
bers : John Siler and wife, D. W. Kirkwood and wife, 
James Souder and wife, Oren Souder and wife, Jefferson' 
Kennedy and wife, Mr. and Mrs. Sebrest, D. M. Michael. 
Mrs. Mary C. Hinton, Mrs. Conrad Kiser, Mrs. M. T. 
Lovett, Mrs. T. Benton Henley and Mrs. William Dill, 
William Gard was the first pastor, and until a church 
building was erected in the fall of that year services were 
held in the old Newsom hall. The church .on East street 
was dedicated on October 13, 1895. The successive pas- 
tors of this church, following Mr. Gard, have been F, J. 
Hall, W. L. Willoughby, Jacob Hall, Omar Hufford, 
M. V. Foster, Carl Berry, William Evans, Ira P. Har- 
baugh, D. E. Ilanna and the present pastor, the Rev. 
Frank W. Sumner. The church has a growing Bible 
school, and all departments of work are reported to be in 
flourishing condition. 


The Sexton Christian Church has had an effective 
organization since the spi-ing of 1914, when the old Anti- 
cleans Baptist church building was moved from its his- 
toric site about two miles distant and placed on a new 
foundation at Sexton. Trustees were elected and during 
that sunnner a Sunday school was held in the building. 
In September of that year the Rev. G. I. Hoover, evan- 
gelist of the Eastern Indiana district, held a series of 
meetings in the church, which resulted in the accession of 
sixty members, and on the final day of the series the 
house of worship was dedicated to the uses of the congre- 
gation, which was organized by the election of a full com- 
plement of officers, O. C. Thom])Son and J. L. Lewkirk 
being the first elders. This church has had in round 
numbers one hundred members, and is well su])ported by 
its Sunday school, its Ladies' Aid Society and its Wo- 
man's Missionary Society. Four pastors have served the 
church, namely: The Rev. G. I. Hoover, of Indianapolis, 
for three years; Moody Edwards, now a missionary in 
Mexico, two years; L}inan Hoover, a student of Butler 
College, one year, and Walter Crawley, of Ijaurel, the 
present pastor. Following are the officers of the church : 
Elders — J. L. Newkirk, O. C. Thompson and Carl 
Grubbs; deacons, S. D. Kirkpatrick, Ode Winkler, Will 
Wright, George Kindell and Harry Land; trustees, S. D. 
Kirkpatrick, George Kindell and E. W. Kiser; treasurer, 
Carl (Jrubba; clerk, O, C. Thompson; su])erintendent of 
the Sunday school, O. C. Thompson; president of the La- 
dies' Aid Society, Mrs. V. T. Ijongfellow; president of 
the Woman's Missionary Society, Mrs. M. L. Pratt. 

Center Christian Chnrch was originally organized 
as a Free Will I>ai>tist church, at a nun^ting held in 1837, 
in John Walker's bain on the farm now (1921) owned by 
John Kirkpatrifk, the leaders being a little colony of set- 
tlers in that vicnnity who had come here from Wilkes 
county. North Carolina. The first minister of this pio- 
neer congregation was John Walker and among the other 


charter members were Hey Reeves, William Walker, 
Thomas Stanley, John Felty, Hiram Bitner and wife, 
Rebecca Hamilton, Glaracy Mock, John Clark, Rebecca 
Clark, James Clark, Betsey Death, Deser Hall, Dan 
Bailis. Liddy Bailis, John Death, Sarah Bowles, Polly 
Hill, Harrison Hall and wife. About the year 1840, the 
congregation divided over differences in views regarding 
foreordination, and Alexander Campbell's followers con- 
tinned to worship at the Walker barn for twelve years, 
at the end of which time Stephen Wandle donated a tract 
of ground upon which to erect what is known as the old 
Center church, about a mile and a quarter south of the 
present edifice in section 30, township 15, range 10. The 
next building was erected in 1861, on the site of the pres- 
ent building. It was under course of erection when the 
Civil war was declared, and J. R. Henry, who was work- 
ing on the building, is still living to tell how he climbed 
down from the roof to enlist his services in behalf of the 
Union. In 1920 the church was completely remodeled 
and is now one of the best rural churches in the county. 
The present membership of Center Christian Church is 
about 250. Able ministers have served this congregation 
and good work is being done in all departments. 

The Church of Christ at Little Blue River in Center 
township was organized on March 1, 1830, by Elders 
James Smith, Jacob Daubenspeck, McCormick Zion, Conner and G eorge Hittle, the charter membership 
of the congregation including George W. Leisure, Drury 
Holt, Nathan Leisure, Sarah Leisure, Henry Haywood, 
Winifred Haywood, Lucinda Leisure, Maria Porter, 
Catherine Porter, Sarah Holt, James Hinton, Elizabeth 
Hinton, Benjamin Kendall, Julia Kendall and others who 
came in from time to time until a considerable congrega- 
tion had been organized. This congregation continued 
to worship in a house erected for the purpose on the 
east line of Posey township, until 1869, in which 
year a parcel of ground was secured by George W. 


Leisure and Benjamin Kendall from Alfred T. 
Morris, the same bein"; deeded to Messrs. Tjeisnre and 
Kendall as trustees of the Church of Christ at Little 
Blue River. The church building, erected there in 1869. 
was maintained as a house of worship by the congrega- 
tion until the fall of 1907, when certain members of the 
congregation, desirous of introducing innovations into 
the ancient form of service, organized themselves into 
what has since been known as the Hannegan Christian 
Church, and denied the use of the house to those who still 
persisted in recognizing no name than that of the Church 
of Christ at Little Blue River, which had been the official 
name of the church since the time of its organization in 
1830. Those who objected to the innovations met for a 
time in the homes of members and in the neighborhood 
school house until in th.e s])ring of 1908, when they caused 
to be erected a hoTise of worshi]) n])()nt one mile north of 
the old church in Center townshi]), and there have since 
worshiped, continuing to ])ear the name of the (^hnrch 
of Christ at Little Blue River. The early minutes of the 
Hannegan congregation s^em to liave been lost, the first 
record of officers of the church ))eing in 1862, when Will- 
iam M. Downey, George W. Leisure and Jacob Cross 
were elders and Thomas Ayers and Benjamin Kendall, 
deacons. In 1879, there is a mimite of the i-esignation of 
George W. Leisure and Benjamin Kendall as trustees, 
and of the election as their successors of John Leisure,, 
James Gray and Henry Leisure. The ])resent officers 
of the Church of Christ at l^ittle Blue River are as fol- 
lows: Elders, Jesse A. Incisure and John P. Downey; 
deacons, Harry R. Ijcisure and P. F. Linville; trustees, 
Harry R. Ijeisure and P. F. Tjinville. The present pastor 
of the church is the Rev. J. L. Hatfield, of Owensburg, 
who has been ministering to the congregation on the third 
Sal)batii of each month since in Jainiary, 1918. Among 
the early ministers of this historic old church were Dan- 
iel Franklin, Jacob Daubenspeck, Drury Holt, Jacob B. 


Blount, B, M. Blount, J. C. Hall, William Gard, E. B. 
Schofield, A. W. Harvey and S. D, Baker. The church 
has a membership of thirty and a Bible school is main- 
tained with an enrollment of twenty-five or more, John 
P. Downey, leader. 

The Hannegan Christian Church, above referred to, 
maintains itself as the parent organization, with a pres- 
ent membership of about 140, and a Sunday school enroll- 
ment of about sevent3^-f ive. The Rev. Eugene Lewis, of 
Clarksburg, is the present pastor, preaching on alterna- 
tive Sundays. The elders of the church are George Ad- 
ams, Henry Addison, Scott Ward and Chester Addison ; 
deacons, O, C. Leisure, Dayton Stewart, Oliver Haywood, 
Gilbert Cooley; trustees, William Leisure and Orville 
Stewart; Sunday school superintendent, Chester Addi- 
son, This church bears its present name from the fact 
that many years ago there was a postoff ice at that point, 
called Hannegan and the church at that place became pop- 
ularly known as the Hannegan church instead of the 
Little Blue River church, and has since maintained that 

The Christian Church at Milroy dates practically 
from about the year 1840, when a number of persons in 
the village and vicinity who professed that faith began to 
hold household meetings from time to time, but it was not 
until about ten years later that a formal organization was 
effected with a charter membership of twenty-four per- 
sons, including Mrs, Samuel Barber, Hugh C. Smith and 
wife, Austin K. Smith, Eli Elstun and wife, Abbie Rar- 
din, William Benton, William Mount and wife, Nathan 
Tompkins and wife, Nathan Ballinger and wife and 
Senaca and Nancy Smith. The first pastor of this flock 
was the Rev. John B. New, who was succeeded in turn by 
Jacob Wright, Benjamin Reeve, Benjamin Franklin, 
Joseph Franklin, George Campbell, Robert Sellers, 
Henry Pritchard, Love H, Jameson, George Hicks, Sam- 
uel K, Hoshour, H, H. McKane, A, J. Hobbs, A. W. Con- 


Der, O. F. Hariiue, Jaeol) l^loimt, Johji A, Roberts, James 
Grant, T. E. Andrews, B. F. Treat, 0. AV. Campbell, 1). R. 
YanBuskirk, Jacob Vincent, Joseph Taylor, C. A. Bradv, 
^Y. F. Folks, W. B. Bartle, R. B. Givens. D. H. Patterson, 
M. 0. Foster, W. H. Oldham, PI. F. Phillippe, Thomas H. 
Adams, W. R. Cady and the Rev. Dr. Reubelt Pearcy, the 
present pastor. The congregation erected their first 
church building in 1851, a substantial structure, which 
endured the tests of time and the needs of the congrega- 
tion until 1916, when the present handsome modern 
edifice was elected, one of the most attractive church 
buildings in the county. The various departments of the 
work of this church arc well organized and progress is 
reported along all lines. 

The Cliristian Church at Manilla was organized on 
"the Saturday before the fourth Lord's day," September, 
1859, under the ministei-ial direction of the Rev. Daniel 
Franklin, who served the congregation as their fii-st })as- 
tor, the following names being attached to the articles of 
association: Mrs. Zach Westerfield, Mrs. Alexander, 
James Hill and wife, ]Mrs. Frances Hill. J. J. Tnlow and 
wife, Jajjliet Thomas, Alonzo Swain and wife. John A. 
Spurrier and wife, Isaac Inlow, Mrs. Louisiana Inlow 
and .Mrs. Catherine Trees. The congregation, in 18(50, 
erected a church building which was dedicated l)y the 
Rev. Butler K. Smith. This church was extensively le- 
modeled in 1900, and in 1915 a ])aptistry was erected. In 
1917 the chui'ch building underwent another remodeling, 
wliicli ;!mouiit('d ])ractically to a I'elMiihling of the edifice 
along soniewliat nioi-e modei'n lines, and is now a hand- 
some and eomniodions edifice. 'I'he iiieniliershi)) of the 
Manilla ('hrisliaii ('liurch is stated to be ISl. and all de- 
partments of the work of the church are reported to be in 
a fioiii'ishing condition, excellent ]>rogress being made 
undei- the present pastorate of the l\ev. J. W, Mars. 
Among others who have served this congregation, besides 
those mentioned, are James Lucas, A. I. Hobbs, T. J. 


Murdock, Samuel and Da^?id Mathews, J. W, Farrell, H. 
R. Pritchard, John Brazelton, J. M. Canfield, Chester 
Bartholomew, J. L. Parsons, W. S. Campbell, W. S. 
Smith, J. A. Roberts and H. H, Neslage. 

The Christian Churcli at Raleigh was organized 
about 1870 imder the leadership of Rev. Charles Black- 
man. The church was reorganized in 1885 and the fol- 
lowing members of the old organization became the 
charter members of the new: Margaret Burgess, Rachel 
Black, J. P. Bales, Sarah Bales, Rhoda Bunker, Caroline 
Brown, Permelia Blount, Sarah Canady, Elizabeth 
Canady, David Canady and wife, Elizabeth, Eliza 
Canady, Editha Crawford, Mary A. Dyer, Sarah Edgar, 
Grace Fink, Clarissa Gay, John Herron, Retta Helms, 
Savannah Loder, Jennie Ivliles, Minerva Price, John and 
Mary Redding, William and Amanda Rich and Ellen 
Prine. Meetings were held in the township hall at 
Raleigh until the present church building was erected in 
1887. The Rev. J. E. Blount was the first regular pastor 
of the new organization and tlie succeeding pastors have 
been J. A. Thomas, O. P. Snodgrass, Rev. Bartell, Bra- 
zilla Blount, Rev. Sheritt, Rev. Stevens, R. B. Givens, T. 
H. Kuhn, Carl Berry, H. J. Buchanan, E. H. Clifford, G. 
E. Scott, B. L. Allen, E. S. Lewis and the present pastoi', 
the Rev. G. F. Powers. The church has a membership of 
110 and the Sunday school an enrollment of 175. 

The Little Flat Rock Christian Church in Noble 
township had its beginning, as set out in the introduction 
of this chapter, in 1830, when Elder Thompson led his 
Baptist flock there into the Christian fold. In the little 
log meeting house erected by the congregation shorth' 
after its organization, and which has been described, 
services were held until the summer of 1846, when the con- 
gregation erected a better and larger meeting house, on 
the site of the present church building, and this edifice 
served until 1869, when a new church was erected, which 
served until the present modern and substantial building 


was erected in 1920, To mention the ministers who have 
served this congregation wonkl but repeat the names of 
those already mentioned, whose names have been made 
familiar in the Cliristian communion throughout this part 
of the state. The congregation is numerically strong and 
si)iritually active, and is carrying on in this generation the 
work so long ago inidertaken there by the fathers of that 
community, and which has never lagged during all the 
years. A vigorous Sunday school and an earnest Chris- 
tian Endeavor Society aid in the work of the church, and 
the Woman's ^Missionary Society and other aids to the 
pastor are equally vigorous and enthusiastic. 

The Big Flat Rock Christian Cliurcji in Orange 
townshi]) was one of the congregations organized by El- 
der Gabriel McDuffie, whose missionary activities here- 
about in pioneer days did so much to add to the strength 
of his cause in that day. This church was organized in 
April, 1851, and has been maintained ever since, a strong 
influence for good in the community it serves. The con- 
gregation has a substantial house of worship and the sev- 
eral departments of the W(U'k of the church are alive to 
the needs of the day. 

The Christian Church a I Homer was organized on 
December 6, 1886, and the early pastors of the church 
included such names as W. (^am])l)(»ll, J. Z. Taylor, J. L. 
Parsons, E. B. Schofield, Jacob Hlount, Walter Smith 
and others whose names already have been made familiar 
to the readers of this clironiclc The Homer cong]-egation 
have an excellent meeting liousc and from the very begin- 
ning of the organization have Ix'cn active in maintaining 
the cause to wliieh tliey are devoted, all departments of 
the work of the church being reported in flourishing con- 
dition. There also is a well-organized Christian church at 


Carthage Meeting of Friends — In the history of Rip- 
ley township presented in a i)revious chapter reference is 


made to the early settlement in that township of a colony 
of Friends, who had come into this section of the then 
new state of Indiana, seeking an escape from the incubus 
of slavery, which had settled upon their own state of 
North Carolina. It was in 1821 that Joseph Henley, of 
North Carolina, in company with Robert Hill, of Rich- 
mond, Ind., on a prospecting tour, purchased land on the 
east side of Blue river in this county, perhaps the first in 
the limits of Carthage Meeting. In the years until 1829 
or 1830, the land was rapidly taken up by families of 
Friends, among these being the following: Jesse Hill, 
John Clark, Thomas Henley, Luke Newsom, Jonathan 
Pierson, Henry Newby, Abraham Small, Elias Henley, 
Tristram Coggshall, Henry Henley, John Newby, Heze- 
kiah Henley, William Binford, Jonathan Jessup, John 
Winslow and others. In 1827, a Preparation ]Meeting 
was established at Walnut Ridge, on the west side of Blue 
river, and all these Friends made that their ''religious 
home" until 1839, when a request was sent in to Walnut 
Ridge, which had now become a Monthly Meeting, from 
these Friends on the east side, asking for the establish- 
ment of a Preparatory Meeting to be known as Carthage, 
also for the appointment of a committee to assist in the 
selection of a suitable location for the meeting house. 
This committee reported in favor of granting the request 
and suggested the northwest corner of Joseph Henley's 
and the northeast corner of John Clark's farms as a suit- 
able place for grounds to be used for school and meeting 
purposes, and in 1840 deeds from these landowners stated 
that "for love and the better maintenance of society we 
transfer this ground to the trustees in succession of said 
body." Soon afterward a good frame house with two 
rooms, connected by sliding shutters, was erected. This 
served the congregation until 1866, when its capacity was 
doubled by building on the west. This building then 
served until 1881, when the present substantial brick 
structure was erected, the Endeavor room on the north 


being added some years latev. Tliese facts with relation 
to Cartilage fleeting have been furnished by Owen S. 
Flenley, who also has made a record of the following 
"charter" members of the Meeting: Herman Allen and 
family. Trill iam Binfoi'd and family. Tristram Cogg- 
shall and family, John Clark and family, Mary and Anna 
Draper, Jesse Hill, Joseph Henley and family, Thomas 
Henley and family, Henry Henley and family, Elias 
Henley and family. Hezekiah Henley and family, 
Thomas Jessnj) and family. Jonathan Jessup and fam- 
ily, William Johnson, Richard Johnson and family. John 
Morris and family, Henry ^lacy, Francis B. Macy and 
wife, John Newby and family, Henry Newby and family, 
Luke Newsom and family, Nathan Overman and family, 
Jonathan Pearson and family, Abraham Small and fam- 
ily, Eli Stratton and family, Jonathan Stratton and fam- 
ily, C. Barnabas Springer, Sarah Small and family. 
Sarah Thorn bnrg and family. Simeon Wiltsie and fam- 
ily, Levi St]-atton and family and John Winslow and fam- 
ily. Education claimed tlic very e;ii'ly attention of these 
Friends and the action taken ])y the Carthage ^Feeting 
with I'cspect to a local school is set ont in the chapter re- 
lating to scliools elsewhere in this work. That the infln- 
ence of this school was strong .-mhI effectual is attested 
by the statement made by ^Ir. Henley that no fewer than 
ninety teachers "have gone out from Carthage Meeting 
and taught longer or shorter periods of time. Eternity 
can only rev(^al what this influence has been." Farther 
on in his review of the history of Carthage ^Meeting Mr. 
Henley ol)serves that "in the migration of Friends from 
the South a number of coloi'ed families came with or soon 
followed then! .... The Friends gave them the privileges 
of llicir schools and many of their children acquired a 
good cducat io)i. These families also were links in the 
("ha ill ol' actixitii's that P^i'iends and others assumed on 
the 'nnderground railroad," and many a poor fugitive 
foiuid libertv and safetv In' wav of the Carthau'e route to 


Canada. The sentiment against slavery was so strong 
that in 1857 Henry Henley opened a 'free-labor' store in 
the town, but the scarcity and difficulty in securing goods 
was so great that the enterprise was abandoned in a year 
or two. The Meeting was so well united on the slavery 
question that no difficidty whatever arose. Temperance 
of the members seemed to be a 'loaded' question, and dif- 
ferences as to procedure arose, but no serious friction 
occurred and all are united in rejoicing at the great vic- 
tory achieved. Carthage Meeting has always arisen to 
meet the public needs. Two Friends, John Clark and 
Henry Henley, laid out the town of Carthage in 1834.; 
Henry Henley was the first postmaster and other Friends 
to hold the office were Francis B. Macy, John A. Hunni- 
cutt, Lizzie Connaway and Enos Coffin. Friends hold- 
ing the office of township trustee were Henry Henley, 
David Marshall, Owen S. Henley, Jesse M. Stone, Joseph 
Publow, Cyrus B. Cox, Aaron O. Hill and Jesse Henley, 
Jesse M. Stone has been county auditor; Benjamin Hill 
joint representative and director of the state prison 
(south) ; Rowland H. Hill joint senator; William J. Hen- 
ley, appellate judge. The public schools have nearly al- 
ways had one or more Friends on the board of trustees, 
such as William Bundy, Owen S. Hill, Joseph L. Hub- 
bard, Walter P. Henley and others. The Meeting has 
conducted tent meetings at different points during past 
years. Sabbath schools in school houses, etc., and had a 
part in all church union activities. The first minister 
recorded was William Binford — possibly recorded in 
Walnut Ridge Monthly Meeting — David Marshall, Jared 
P. Binford, Henry C. Aydelott, Mary N. Henley, Rhoda 
M. Hill and Herschel Folger. Robert Knight and Will- 
iam J. Thornburg came with sojourning minutes at dif- 
ferent periods. Ministers coming in with removal cer- 
tificates were Sarah J. Hill, I\l ary A. Huestis and Ketu- 
rah Miles. Elwood Scott was the first pastor under the 
system introduced about 1881, succeeded by Mary Nich- 


()]s, Thomas \\". Woodward and others for short terms; 
Alphons Tnie])l()()d, Charles O. Wliitely, J. F.dgar \Vill- 
iams, Harry Hole, Fred Lebert and Albert J. Fursten- 
berger. Charles S. W'inslow is a resident minister. 
Bible school work was organized from 1845 to 1850. 
There seems to have been opposition to holding it in the 
meeting house, and the school house was used, two classes 
only organized. Teachers for adults were William John- 
son, Havid Marshall and Joseph W. Young; primary 
class, Amanda Thornburg, Ann Henley, Jemima Henley 
and others. About the year 1860 the school was removed 
to the chui'ch, ra])idly gi'ew in numbers, and was well or- 
ganized along standard lines. Christian Fndeavor has 
claimed tlie attention of the Meeting with varying suc- 
cess as the generations come and go. Missionaries sent 
out were as follows: Lizzie Hare, to ]\Lexico in 1894; 
Rupert and Helen Stanley, to China in 191 4. "i This re- 
port of ]\lr. Henlej^'s reviews also the work of Carthage 
Meeting during the time of America's participation in tlie 
World war, pointing out that fifteen of "our boys" were 
in service, about half of this number seeing overseas serv- 
ice. The Meeting also was active in Friends relief serv- 
ice and in Red Cioss work. During the Civil war several 
mem})ers were in the army. "The Meeting, after consid- 
erable discussion, decided to take no action against those 
who wei'e in the army and continued them as members," 
says the Henley review. 

The Wahiuf liidfie Friends Meeting dates l)ack to 
about the year 1826, when a church was organized and a 
log house erected near the site of the present meeting 
house, a frame building being erected a few years later. 
Tlie original nicnibers of this meeting have been set out 
in the stoiy I'clating to Carthage 2\lieeting, this latter 
meeting having been created out of Walnut Ridge about 
18:i9. In 1864 the meeting house at ^\'a^llut l^idge was 
desti'dved by fire. Naliiable records of the meeting being 
consumed in tlie flames, and in 1866 a large brick build- 


ing was erected on the site at a cost of more than $10,000, 
with 800 sittings. In the following year a notable revival 
in Walnut Ridge Meeting attracted so much attention 
among the Friends over the state and throughout the 
country as to lead to a general movement in that com- 
munion toward something more of a revival spirit in its 
services than formerly had been the rule. Among the 
early ministers at Walnut Ridge are mentioned Samuel 
Edgerton, Anna Thornburg, Jared Patterson, Elizabeth 
Patterson, William Binford, Mary Hodson, Melissa Hill, 
Luther Gordon, Eliza Butler, Mahlon Hocket, Jane 
Jones, William Thornburg, Robert Knight, Anna Davis 
and Ruf us King. Walnut Ridge Meeting is flourishing : 
all departments of work well organized and it continues 
to maintain the fine wholesome influence on the commu- 
nity thereabout that it has steadily maintained for nearly 
a hundred years. 

Tlie Little Blue River Meeting of Friends (called 
Quakers), in the southwestern corner of Posey township 
has had an organization since the year 1833, when a com- 
pany of Friends in that vicinity erected a little log meet- 
ing house on the line between Rush and Shelby counties, 
three miles north of the present village of Manilla, and 
associated themselves together for worship and praise. 
This pioneer meeting house was erected by Thomas Macy, 
Moses Coffin, Asa Barnard, Thomas Swain, Zaccheus 
Stanton and William Worth, who with their respective 
wives, Rebecca Macy, Phoebe Coffin, Hulda Barnard, 
Lydia Swain, Elizabeth Stanton and Phoebe Worth, con- 
stituted the first congregation. The first sermon in this 
meeting house was preached by John Kinley, whose text 
was "Behold, the Lord is in this place and I knew it not." 
The little log meeting house sufficed the needs of the 
Meeting for ten years or more, or until about 1845, when 
a frame meeting house was erected nearby the log house, 
the growth of membership demanding larger quarters. 
This frame house was built with two rooms, shutters sep- 


arating the rooms, the men holding their business meet- 
in<2rs on one side the shutters and the women assembling 
on the other side, a messenger being selected in each 
Meeting to report business that concerned both Meetings, 
this arrangement continuing u.ntil about the year 1885, 
when the Meetings united and men and women thereafter 
assembled together. Up to the year 1884 Carthage Meet- 
ing and Little Blue River Meeting held their ^[onthly 
Meetings alternately, then a regular Monthly .Meeting 
was established at Little Blue River, Franklin Barnard 
being appointed clerk of the same. In the year 1886 a 
frame meeting house was erected just across the road 
from the old meeting house, the new house thus being 
in Rush county. In 1918 an addition was built on to this 
house to provide four additional Sunday school rooms, 
and a furnace was put in the basement. The church 
property consists of two acres of ground besides a half- 
acre devoted to cemetery purposes. The house is in ad- 
mirable repair, and the grounds and cemetery are well 
kept. From the time of the organization of this Meeting 
meetings for worship were held twice a week, besides 
business meetings as the needs required, and this i)rogram 
was maintained until about the year 1900, when the mid- 
week meetings were "laid down." In the first week in 
the first month, 1835, an Indulged Meeting was estal)- 
lished by authority of Duck Creek Monthly Meeting, the 
following connnittee being sent foi- that purpose: Ga- 
briel Ratliff, Thomas Hill, John W'inslow, Thomas Hen- 
ley, Micajah Binford, Pearson Lacy, Samuel Stafford, 
Anna Thornburg, Xancy Clark, Tamar Hill, Rachel 
Stafford and Sai-ah King. The Sabbath school was not 
organized until the year 1880, the average attendance in 
the first year of the school being twenty-eight. The aver- 
age attendance in 1920 was seventy-six. The Meeting 
now has 160 members, with sixty- four associate members. 
From the time of the organization of Little Blue River 
Meeting until 1888 different ministers would visit the 


Meeting; after that date the Meeting had regular pas- 
tors, as follows : Simpson Hinshaw, James Mills, Rhoda 
Hare, John M. Binford, Henry McKinle.y, William M. 
Smith, Esther Cook, Fleming Marten, Thomas Inman, 
Alvah O. Hinshaw, Frank Roads, Joseph Young, Ella 
Pegg, Luther E. Addington, Elwood Hinshaw; resident 
ministers — Martha Barber, Anna M. JMoor, John Ralston 
and Alvah H. Swain. 


*S'^. PauVs Methodist Episcopal Church at Rushville 
really dates its organization back almost to the days of 
the beginning of a social order in the then new county seat 
town, for it was not long after the settlement was organ- 
ized until the Methodists, of whom there were quite a 
number among the first ai'rivals on the site of the county 
seat, began to hold organized services, and from that day 
to this the standards of the Methodist Episcopal com- 
munion have been held aloft there. The labors of the 
pioneer Methodist missioners, such men as James Ha- 
vens, James Linville, Aaron Wood and others, have been 
mentioned in this narrative. They were among the early 
laborers in the field at Rushville. In an old review of the 
introduction of Methodism in Rushville it is stated that 
"the year that Methodism was introduced into Rushville, 
Indiana belonged to what then was known as the Missouri 
Conference and all the fields of labor that had been 
formed within the bounds of the state belonged to the 
Madison district. In 1824 Rev. John Strange was ap- 
pointed to the ^Madison district, and Rev. James Havens 
was appointed to the Connersville circuit. Some time 
during the year James Havens visited Rushville, formed 
the first ]\Iethodist society and received it into the Con- 
nersville circuit as a regular preaching place. The first 
class was composed of nine members and John Alley, Sr., 
was the leader. At the close of this year Rushville, with 
a large portion of the surrounding countrv, was set off in 



a separate field of lalxn', with a membership inimbering 
324." James Havens was the installed pastor of the 
Riishville chinch in 1827-28, and a2,ain in the '40s and his 
JKtnie w^as established in Rnsliville, his body beini;" laid 
in East Hill cemetei y when his long labors ceased. In 
1843 Rushville was n"iade a separate "station" with 248 
nienil)e]\s. The first meeting honse erected by the Rush- 
ville Methodists w^as a log strncture. which stood at the 
southeast corner of Third and Julian streets. The second 
edifice, erected in the '50s, was the old brick building 
now standing at the southwest corner of Third and Mor- 
gan streets, the walls of which are still intact, and which 
long ago w^as remodeled to serve as an office building. 
The cornerstone of the present handsome edifice at the 
southeast corner of ]\I organ and Fifth streets w^as laid on 
August 4, 1886, and the building was dedicated on June 
27, 1887, in the presence of a counted congregation, num- 
bering 1,440. This edifice cost $18,000, not including the 
organ and furnishings, which with the substantial par- 
sonage, bought iri 19()G, represents a property value of 
ai-oinid $40,000. During the nearly one hundred years in 
wliich the Methodists of Rushville have maintained serv- 
ices they have been ministered to by seventy or more min- 
isters, and to give a i-oster of these W'Ould be but calling 
the roll of tlie best known names in the Conference dur- 
ing this pei'iod. Under tlie ministration of the i)resent 
pastor, tlie Rev. Clyde S. I'lack. nil departments of the 
work of the clmrch are flourishing and its meml)ei'ship 
is individually as active and earnest as at any time in the 
long history of the church. The present membership of 
the chui'ch is 800; Sunday school enrollment, 500; Ep- 
worth League. 120; Junioi iicague, -yS; Ladies' Aid So- 
ciety, 156; >\'omairs Home Missionary Society, 120; 
^\'olnal^s Foreign Missionary Society, 60. 

77/r MctluxJisI K j>isc()j)(il Clnirc/i at Cnrtliage was 
formed in isr)7 hy di\'idii\L; the old Burlington (Arling- 
ton ) cii'eiiit, the ])Iaces then set off being Carthage, Balls 


Chapel, Cowgers and Sharon, of which Carthage alone 
now continues active. The Rev. G. W. Winchester then 
was in charge of the circuit, and the Carthage society con- 
sisted of eight members, John Walker, Cynthia Walker, 
Abraham Weaver and wife, George Weaver and wife, 
Euclid Stockley and Huldah Tullis, with Cyrus Ball, of 
Balls Chapel, as class leader. As a result of the first 
year's work ninety-four members were added to the 
Carthage society, and ever since the congregation has 
flourished. This congregation has a substantial modern 
meeting house, and all departments of the work of the 
church are reported flourishing under the present min- 
istration of the Rev, Arthur Jean. 

TJie Methodist Episcopal Church at Glenwood was 
organized in the '40s, and for some time thereafter serv- 
ices were held in the homes of members, these including 
Charles and Mary Griffin, James and Rebecca Mitchell, 
John Pike and wife. Doctor Mapes and wife, Samuel 
Durbin and wife and Matthew Mitchell and wife. In 
1861 there was a great revival and sevent}^ were added to 
the church. The first church building, a frame structure, 
was supplanted by a larger building, erected in 1862, 
which served until the present handsome brick church 
was dedicated in the fall of 1920. Since that time this 
congregation has maintained a steady organization and 
has been a continuing force for good in the community. 
It has a well-organized Sunday school, an active Epworth 
League, and other effective agencies for the assistance of 
the pastor. 

The Falmouth Methodist Episcopal Church holds 
the place of the old Wesley Chapel, which formerly stood 
one-half mile west of Fairview. This class was organ- 
ized as early as 1822, the first service being held in the 
home of Elder Robert Graves, a local preacher there, 
some of the other members of that pioneer congregation 
having been Mr. Isles and wife, John Smith and wife, 
William Amber and wife, Mr. Dunavan and wife, Mar- 


garet Powers and daughtois and James Gillani, the latter 
of whom was the class leader. In 1844, a meeting house 
was erected, and this continued to serve as Wesley Chapel 
until in 1882 it be,i;an to be regarded as unsafe, and it was 
decided to abandon the old chapid and transfer the class 
to Falmouth, where a new church was erected under the 
})astorate of the Rev. J. W. Dashiell on a lot donated for 
that 2)ur|)ose by J. H. Oglesby. Since then the church has 
maintained a steady growth and is doing well in its field 
of action. 

The MctJiodisf Kpi.scojxil Cliun-li (it Mihoij is one of 
the strong churches of this communion in the county. 
Fi'om the days of the beginning of a settlement in that 
neighborhood .Methodists have been represented, the 
homes of many of the first settlers thereabout having 
been opened to services in the early days, among these 
houses having been those of John Harcourt. the Ben- 
netts, the Lees, Blades, Thomases, Morrows, Smizers. 
Ferees, Bakers, Jacobs, Zimmerlys and Manns. Samuel 
McGinnis was the fii'st class leader of the Milroy society, 
and the first church was a well-built frame, which in time 
was supplanted by ;i brick cliiirch, which served its ])ur- 
pose until re]ila('ed l)y the present substantial brick ed- 
ifice, erected about ten yeais ago. 

llie .Methodist Ejiiscopdl Church <if h'iclihoid was 
one of the early coiigregations of that connnuiiion in the 
county, evidence ])ointing to the proba))ility of an organ- 
ization there as early as 1825, when Fdder John Strange 
was the ])residi)ig elder of the Madison district of the 
^lethodist Kpisco})al church, then having jurisdiction in 
this field. It was not until about the year 1837, how- 
ever, that a meeting house was erected, just east of liich- 
land, and this continued as the house of worshi]) until 
1852, when the j) resent house was built. 

Itdlls (■ha))el Methodist Ejdscojxd Church in Posey 
township (now defunct), above mentioned, w^as organ- 
ized in the sunnner of 1831 by John K. Dawson, a local 


preacher, the Balls, the Elswicks, the Kelsoes, the Car- 
ters, the AVells, the Burtons, Beards, Bagleys, Nobles. 
Souders and Glendennings being among the leading fam- 
ilies in the congregation, with H. W. Glendenning as class 
leader. With the development of larger churches in the 
vicinity and the dwindling of population the congrega- 
tion became so depleted that in the late '90s the church 
was abandoned. The church was on the east side of Little 
Blue river near the east line of the southeast quarter of 
section 9, township 14, range 9. 

Tlie Bethesda Mefliodist Episcopal Church, once a 
flourishing congregation but now abandoned, was organ- 
ized at a service held at the home of Steven Sharp, on 
what afterward became the Duncan farm, about the year 
1823, and a hewed log meeting house was erected pres- 
ently, which pioneer edifice served as a place of worship 
for ai)out forty years, or until 1844, when, under the pas- 
torate of the Rev. Williamson Terrell, a substantial frame 
building was erected. Among the original members of 
Bethesda church were the Stevenses, the Sharps, the 
Isaacs, the L3^onses, the Davises. the Morrows, the Rud- 
dles and the Cains, early settlers in that neighborhood. 

Mt. Olivet Methodist Episcopal Church was organ- 
ized early in the '20s at the Julian home, a mile or so south 
of where the meeting house later was erected. In 1848 a 
frame meeting house was erected on ground donated from 
the Camerer farm, in the southwest corner of the north- 
west quarter of section 10, township 12, range 9, the site 
being marked by a beautiful beech grove in which camp 
meetings used to be held in the days of the great popular- 
ity of that form of assemblage. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church at Raleigh was or- 
ganized in August, 1859, the class being instituted hj 
G. W. Winchester and R. Roberts, then in charge of the 
Carthage circuit. The charter members of this congre- 
gation were William and Sarah Beard, William Beard, 
Jr., Lucinda IVscCann, Israel McCann, Lawrence Nixon, 


Eliza})eth Schat'er, Catherine Legg, Dr. Will Bartlett and 
Eliza})eth Bartlett. In that same year a revival meeting 
was held in the village hall, and the accessions gained 
during that meeting gave an impetus to the vv^ork of the 
congregation which resulted in a definite organization, 
but a meeting house was not erected until 1870. 

The Ehenezer Methodist Episeopal Chureh at Goivdy 
has an almost continuous history running back for more 
than ninety years, this congregation being the successor 
in this generation of the church society that was organ- 
ized in that neighborhood about the year 1830, following 
the preaching of the Rev. Robert McDuffee, a "local" 
preacher of the ]\Iethodist Episcopal church, who had 
c(mie up here from Kentucky, and had held a series of 
meetings in a barn on the farm now (1921) owned by 
Robert A. Campbell, half a mile east of the village of 
Cowdy. This pioneer ])reacher also held ])rayer meetings 
in the homes of the pioneers of that vicinity and as a re- 
sult a church society was formed in accordance with the 
regulations of the Conference and a building some time 
later was erected as a house of worship less than a mile 
south of where the village later was platted. The land on 
which this building was ei'ected was deeded to the church 
by John Andis, and the notation on the deed showing that 
it was received for record on March 4, 1840, in the hand 
of Job Pugh, then recorder of Rush county, has the sig- 
nificant additional note, "fee donated," slK^wing that the 
recorder's heai't was well inclined towai'd the church. In 
those days the I'ccorder ])ocketed the fees. Should the 
i-ecoi'dei' of today "donate" the fee fo]' recoi-ding an in- 
stnimciit he would have t(» take it out of his own ])ocket. 
This old (iced iidtes that " W'luM'cas the ineuibers of the 
Methodist I\pis('o])al (Inircli in Orange townshi]), Rush 
county, in the state of Indiana, are in want of a place of 
land on which to erect and build a meeting house for the 
use and benefit of said Methodist chur(;h, now therefore 
know ye that 1, John Andis. . . . do give and grant unto 


the members of the said Methodist Episcopal Church the 
following parcel or tract of land to the exclusive benefit, 
use and behalf forever, to contain an acre in the north- 
west corner of the said John Andis 's land in section 7 in 
township 12, range 8 east, in the district of land sold at 
Brookville; in testimony whereof the said John Andis 
does hereunto set his hand and seal this 29th day of Jan- 
uary, 1839. (Signed) John (his mark) Andis." The 
instrument was witnessed by William Self and Milton L. 
Waggoner, and was acknowledged before William Self, 
justice of the peace. This first Ebenezer church is re- 
called as a little frame building ceiled on the inside, with 
a pulpit requiring several steps to ascend and surrounded 
by a tight railing, the door of which was fastened on the 
inside, designed — it is narrated — to keep dogs and chil- 
dren out. Among the families which were numbered 
among the chartei' membership of this church were the 
Wagoners, the Redenbaughs, the Machlans, the McGin- 
nises and the Wrights, and services were held there with 
greater or less regularity until in 1867, when the church 
was abandoned and the membership transferred to the 
church at Moscow, which had meanwhile been growing in 
numbers. Among the pioneer ministers who served this 
old church beside Rev. IMcDuffee, who has been men- 
tioned, and Rev. Sheldon, who followed him, were W. C. 
Dandal, C P. Jenkins, N. Kerrick, J. W. T. McMullen 
and Patrick Caslin. For about seven years after the 
abandonment of Ebenezer the field about Gowdy lay dor- 
mant, or until the year 1874, when the Rev. Asbury Wil- 
kinson, then pastor at Moscow, held a series of meetings 
at the school house (now Gowdy), and during these meet- 
ings created such a degree of interest that a new society 
was formed, ground was purchased, and a new church was 
erected across the road from the school house, the trustees 
and building committee thus acting being composed of 
Benjamin Machlan, Aris T. Wagoner, Philip Reden- 
baugh, Harrison Brookbank and Lloyd McGinnis. This 


chiiicli l)iiildiiig was dedicated on February 10, 1875, by 
the Rev. Reuben R. Andrews, I). D., then president of 
DePauw University, and was a]jpropriately named Ebe- 
nezer, in memory of the pioneer church of which it was 
tlic lineal successor. This hvildinu' was destroyed by fire 
on Oeccuiher 24. 1897, and the next year a new and more 
conmiodious edifice was erected on the same site. The 
present pastor of Ebenezer church is the Rev. M. E. Abel, 
and amont;- his ]»redecessors liave been tlie Revs. Wyne- 
gar, Winchester, 3.iaupin. Renolt, Ullery and Godwin. 
As an instance of the infhience this church has had upon 
the connnunity it may be noted that four of the young 
men reared in the church have gone out as ministers of 
the ^lethodist Episcopal church, these having been J. T. 
Scull, Sr., John Machlin, Merritt Machlin and John Car- 
penter, l^^benezer church now has a membership of one 
hundred, and has a Sunday school with six classes and an 
enrollment of forty. It is attached to the Manilla cir- 
cuit of the Rushville district of the Indiana Conference. 
The trustees of the church are George Hilligoss, J. T. 
Scull, Bert Reed, C. D. Alter and J. IL Vernon, while the 
stewrii'ds are George Hilligoss and David O. Alter. 

The Mcfliodist E piscojxtl Church (if Manilla was or- 
ganized about the yea.r 1835, and ;i log l)uilding was 
ei'(-cte(l by the little congi'egation in which services were 
held until in 1853, when a frame church was begun, l)ut 
for lack of funds work was temporarily suspended. In 
1855, the Rev. Nimrod Keri-ick was a])i)oiiited to the Ar- 
lington circuit and by the most strenuous efforts he suc- 
ceeded in finishing the Manilla church before the confer- 
ence in. 185G. In this lattei- house tlie i^.Iethodists of 
Manilla :!iul vi«'inity woislii])])(-d luitil in Novemlier, 
1902, when the hiii!<li?ii; was lazed to make way for a new 
church, in tlie meantime, ])ending the erection of the new 
Iniilding, the congregation accepting the invitation of the 
I)isci})hs lo woishi]> in their chuich. The present hand- 
some church huihling occupied by the Methodists at Ma- 


nilla was dedicated on February 1, 1903. The cost of the 
building was $6,750, exchisive of the lot, which was valued 
at $500 and was the gift of Frank and Leon Idas Mull. 
Mrs. Josephine Mull, daughter of the Rev. \imrod Ker- 
rick, and her family were liberal contributors to the build- 
ing fund. The present pastor of the church is the Rev. 
M^ E.Abel. 

The New Salem Methodist Episcopal Church — This 
church at New Salem has an excellent house of worship, 
and all departments of its work are well organized under 
the present pastorate of the Rev. Mr. Pickett. The 
congregation organized as a definite church society 
on May 17, 1891, under the direction of the Rev. G. 
C Clouds, then in charge of the Glenwood circuit., 
with the following chai'ter members: Rev. John Green 
and wife, John C. Humes and wife, George Churchill 
and wife, Elijah Matney and wife, John Fulton 
and wife, Rhoda Bartlett, Ida Bartlett, Hester King, 
Mary A. Beaver, Harriet Beaver, Nancy Emmett, Mag- 
gie Carlisle, Eliza Hoffman, Emily Brooks, Allen Brown, 
^ilarinda Brown, John C. Brown, Lora Brown, Clinton 
Weston and Mattie Weston. The next year seven were 
added to the class and two years later thirty-six further 
accessions were made in the membership, the church by 
that time becoming fulh^ established, and in 1894 a church 
building was erected, the trustees at the time being J. C. 
Humes, John Green, George Churchill, Daniel Mitchell 
and J. W. Anderson. This church building was erected 
under the pastorate of the Rev. J. T. Scull at a cost of 
$2,300, and was dedicated on December 9, 1894, by the 
Rev. D. H. Moore, editor of the Western Christian Advo- 
cate, and afterward a bishop of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. In February, 1895, an Epworth League was or- 
ganized and has continued a helpful agency of the church. 
The Sunday school also is well organized and all depart- 
ments of the work of the church apparently are 


The Wesley an Methodist Episcopal Church, south- 
west of Arlington, occupying a site in the northwest cor- 
ner of the southwest quai'ter of section 35 in Posey town- 
ship, at a point formerly knowii as Sumner postoffice, 
maintains an active organization. The Goddard Meth- 
odist Episc()})al church is one of the circuit of charges at 
present under the care of the Rev, ]\I. E. Abel. It is w^ll 
organized and has an Epworth League and a Ladies' Aid 


The Presbyterian Church at JRushville was organized 
on January 25, 1825, under the leadership of the Rev, 
John F, Crowe, D, D,, then president of Hanover College, 
it not having been long after the establishment of the 
county seat here until it was found there were a sufficient 
number of persons holding to the Presbyterian faith hei'e- 
about to effect a formal organization. The first session 
of this pioneer chui'ch was composed of Elders James 
Walker, Thomas Downard and William Junkin, the other 
charter members of the congregation being Horatio G. 
Sexton, William Bell, William Beale and Elizabeth, his 
wife, Mrs. Sarah Jackson and Mrs. Sarah Perry. This 
little congregation worshiped for some ^''ears in a small 
brick building, which they caused to be erected, and which 
supplied their needs until in 1845, when under the pastoj'- 
ate of the Rev. D. M. Stewart a more commodious edifice 
was erected. It is narrated that Mr. Stewart burned the 
brick whicili entered into the construction of this edifice, 
and with his own hands helped to lay the walls. This old 
building is still standing, and with remodeling is serving 
as the lodge hall of the local lodge of the Improved Order 
of Red mVu, 211 West First stieet. In 1892, undei- the 
pastorate of the Rev. George A. Beattie, the present 
hnudsmne church edifice was erected, at a cost of about 
$25,()()(). It was (lui'iug the long pastorate of the Rev. 1). 
M, Stewart that a "split" occurred in the church, Mr. 


Stewart resigning to take charge of a congregation which 
was organized at Pleasant Grove, about four miles west 
of Rushville. This latter body, however, was not long 
lived, and in time merged with another congregation of 
Presbyterians that was organized at Homer, but which 
ceased its activities some fifteen years or more ago. The 
Rushville church years ago, under the pastorate of the 
Rev. J. D. Thomas, organized a mission church in West 
Rushville, erecting a small building for the purpose in the 
vicinity of Reed's elevator, but after several years of 
service it was abandoned, the dwindling attendance not 
warranting its continuance. The Presbyterian church at 
Rushville has a membership of 347, and a Sunday school 
enrollment of about 300, with more than twenty classes 
and twenty-six officers and teachers. The church ses- 
sion consists of the minister and six elders, the deacons 
and the trustees being the other officers of the congrega- 
tion, and all departments of service are well organized. 
The church records show that the first pastor was the 
Rev. James H. Stewart, who served, however, but a few 
months, and was succeeded by the Rev. William Sickles, 
who remained four years, he being succeeded in turn by 
J. S. Weaver, Thomas Barr (who died in 1835), David 
M. Stewart, who served until the "split" in 1854 and was 
followed by the Rev. H. H. Cambern, who was succeeded 
in turn by Robert Sutton, John Wiseman, Eberle W. 
Thompson, A. E. Thompson, George H. Britton, J. D. 
Thomas, W. H. Sands, George A. Beattie, Thomas H. 
McConnell, J. L. Cowling. J. B. Meacham, D. Ira Lam- 
bert, George F. Sheldon and the present pastor, the Rev. 
Walter L. Kunkel. The several auxiliaries of the work 
of the church are well organized and progress is reported 
along all lines of endeavor. It has been written of the 
old iDuilding on Noble (First) street that "it was the 
scene of man}^ precious revivals. Forty-four members 
were received at one time. Among the members of the 
church in those early years was Governor Samuel Bigger. 


He was iva active worker and led the siiigmg. Rev. Stew- 
art, speaking of liiin, said: 'It was a isjrand sight to see 
him stand out in front of the congregation and leading 
them in the sonorous hymrs ki'.own ;ind sung l\v all/ " 
Besides the members of the original session of this 
church, mentioned above, tlie following have served as 
elders of the congregation: William B. Laughlin, Rob- 
ert Robb, William Beale, Duncan Carmichael, Samuel 
Stewart, Samuel Bigger, Robert English, W. H. Martin, 
J. W. Junkin, Samuel Danner, J. D. (^aimichael, W. B. 
Leech, T. J. Meredith, AVilliam A. Pugh, Eli Buell, Eli- 
sha Bodine, Charles B. Bodine, Virgil H. Bodine, John 
Carmichael, David Graham, Ulvsses D. Cole. William 
Beale, V.llliam A. Cullen, William W. Arnold, L. M. Ct\v- 
michael, Joseph L. Cowing, Pleber H. Allen, Edw^ard A. 
Junken. John D. Megee, John F. Boyd, James W. Hog- 
sett, Richard Fleehart. William S. Meredith and (diaries 
Liddle. In a ''souveuir" sketch of this church written 
some years ago it was noted that "the church is well or- 
ganized in all its departments of woi'k, and in better cou- 
diti(m financially and spiritually than ever before in its 
history. It is now one of the leading chui-ches in White- 
water Presbytery, and is regarded as one of the best in the 
state. It has a noble band of women ; a faithful corps of 
Sabb;\th school teachers, while the board of deacons, trus- 
tees and the session are composed of men wdio not only 
stand high in the community, but aie recognized as earn- 
est Christian men." 

The only othei- Presbyterian church in the county is 
the El)enezer Presbyterian church in section 4 of A>'ash- 
ington towmshi]), wliich is attached to the Eewisville 
charge and wdiicli has l)een maintained by the i^i-esby- 
terian families of that vicinity since it was organized in 
October, 1831, undei' the directioii of the Rev. Mr. More- 
land, Robert Mitcliell and wife, Thomas Hayd<'n an.d 
wife and John Maple <ind wife Ix'ing the mem- 
bers, Robert Mitchell being the first ruling elder. In 


January following the membership was doubled, and 
George Maple was elected elder. The congregation grew 
until at one time it was one of the strong rural churches 
of the Whitewater Pies]3ytery, but removals and other 
incidents of the changing times have in recent years seri- 
ously^ depleted the numerical strength of the church. 
Those who have long been identified with Ebenezer 
church feel, however, that the church has been a great 
power for good in the neighborhood. 


The United Pi^eshyterian Church at Riishville — As 
previously has been pointed out, the elements of that 
branch of the Presbyterian family known as the United 
Presbyterians, which took their name following the union 
of the old Associate (Seceders) and Associate Reformed 
Presbyterians in 1858, were found in this section of Indi- 
ana at an early da}^ in the settlement of this region, Ten- 
nesseans, Kentuckians and South Carolinians who cam.e 
here to escape the inc\ibus of slavery which had attached 
itself to those states. The church at Clifty, just over the 
line in Decatur county, is said to have been established as 
early as 1825, and settled its first pastor, James Worth, in 
1830, This church first was known as New Zion and 
later as Spring Hill, From that congregation of Asso- 
ciate Reformed Presbyterians and others of the same 
faith living in Anderson township, another church was 
organized in 1835, called Flat Rock, afterward Bethesda 
and later j\lilroy. The Rev, John N, Presly, an energetic 
young man from South Carolina, became the pastor of 
that church in 1837, and also of the Shiloh church, which 
had been organized in 1835 in Center township, the 
nucleus of this latter church having been the Hudelson 
families from Kentucky. In 1857, the Rev, J, F, Hutch- 
inson, who had come here from Ohio, was installed in 
these chai'ges, making his home in Rushville, and later 
was in charge of the church at Glenwood, his colaborer 


in this field having been the Rev. N. C. McDill at Rich- 
land. The first steps lookino; towai-d the (»7-ganization of 
a congi-egation of the United Presbyterian church in 
Rushville, were taken on the evening of August 25, 1879, 
at a meeting called at his then residence, 611 North Har- 
rison street, by the Rev. J. F. Hutchinson, 1). U., who at 
that time w^as pastor of the joint congregation of IMilroy 
and Glenwood. ■Meetings for conference and prayer 
were held regularly every week until October 1, 1879, 
when the congregation was officially organized by a com- 
mission appointed by the Presbytery of Indiana. The 
commission consisted of the Rev. N. C McDill, D. 1).. and 
elders Prof. Robert Gilmore and James P. Brown, and 
the exercises were held in the old Presbyterian church, 
located on First street, now owned and occupied by the 
Improved Order of Red Men. Following are the names 
of the charter members of this church: George H. Pun- 
tenney, .Airs. Josie Puntenney, Joseph L. Pinkerton. ^^rs. 
Sarah Pinkerton, Prof. David Graham, ]\Irs. Caroline 
Graham, Miss Anna J. Graham, Miss Minnie R. Graham, 
George W. Young, Mrs. Nancy Young. James W. Mitch- 
ell. Mrs. Jennie Mitchell, Thomas M. Green, Alexander 
Gibbony, Mrs. Jennie ?Iudelson, Mrs. May Gibbony and 
Margaret Henry. The first session was as follows: 
(Jeorge H. Puntenney, Prof. David Graham and Joseph 
L. Pinkerton, and the following made up the first board 
of trustees: James W. Mitchell. George AV. Yoriug and 
Thomas M. (Jreen. The following is a list of the pastors 
of the congregation : Rev. A. P. Hutchinson, Rev. S. R. 
Frazier, Rev.' X. L. Ilidges, Rev. W. H. French, I). I)., 
Rev. E. G. Bail('\, 1). 1)., Rev. VV. P. McGarev, Rev. AV. 
H. Claik, Rev. A. \\ . Jamison, D. D., Rev. John T. Aikin, 
and the i)resent pastor. Rev. F. G. McKibben. The first 
l)uilding was a brick structure, located (m the site now 
occu})i('d l)v the First Aiissionary Baptist church on Alor- 
gan street, and was dedicated April 25, 18S0. The second 
I)nilding and the one no"\\' occu])ied. corner of Harrison 


and Seventh streets, was dedicated on October 28, 1906.. 
The membership at this time (1921) is 200; Rev. E. G. 
McKibben, pastor; clerk of session, Thomas M. Green; 
clerk of congregation, Byron C. Wainwright ; treasurer, 
Wash Allen. The session consists of the following: A. 
C. Brown, R. A. Innis, Wash Allen, B. L. Trabue, Dr. J. 
T. Paxton and Thomas M. Green. Trustees — Samuel H. 
Trabue Harry A. Krammer, W. O. Frazee, George 
Green, John Davis and H. E. Barrett. The Sabbath 
school has an enrollment in the main school of 214, and 
in the cradle roll of 22. Superintendent, Thomas M. 
Green. The Young People's Christian Missionary has 
an enrollment of about forty; Byron Wainwright, pres- 
ident. There also is an active AVoman's Missionary So- 
ciety, and a Ladies' Aid Society. 

The United Preshyterian Church at Milroy is the 
successor of the old Associate Reformed Presbyterian 
congregation of Bethesda, which was organized in 1835, 
and which some time after the memorable "union" of 
1858, whereby the differences long existing between the 
Associate Presbyterians (Seceders) and the Associate 
Reformed Presbyterians had been reconciled and the 
two assemblies merged into one, since known as the 
United Presbyterian, took on the new name and has ever 
since been known as the United Presbyterian Church of 
Milroy. The Bethesda congregation was organized on 
October 15, 1835, under the ministry of the Rev. John N. 
Presley, with the following charter membership: Alex- 
ander Innis and wife, James Innis and wife, John Innis 
and wife, Joseph Innis and wife, James W. Stewart and 
wife, David Askren and wife, John Campbell and wife, 
jvathaniel Campbell and Martha Innis. The building 
erected by this congregation on the west side of Little 
Flat Rock, just south of the present cemetery, sufficed 
until 1879, when it was destroyed by fire, and was re- 
placed by a new and much more commodious edifice, 
erected in Milroy, and this latter in turn was supplanted 


Id 1912 l)y tlu' ])reseiit liaiidsomc church edifice erected 
))y the coil <;• relation at Mili-oy. The church at Milroy has 
a })resent ui('Uil)ership of fifty, Avitli a Sunday school en- 
Tolluient of uiuety-thiee, aud the ]}]-eseut jjastov is the 
Rev. James ilcMichael. of Spring Hill, in Decatur, pastor 
also of the church at that i)lace. During the years which 
have elapsed since the organization of the old Bethesda 
church some of the strongest figures in the Indiana Synod 
of the United Presbyterian chuich have served in the 
pastorate at ^lilroy, these ministers including the Rev 
Xathan C. ]McDill, whose work there and at Richland and 
in connection with the old Richland Academy endeared 
him to all in his generation, and the Revs. James 1. Fra- 
zier, William A. Hutchinson, J. G. P'reeborn, Alexander 
R. Rankin, J. F. Hutchinson, Ainsworth Hope, F. ^V. 
Schmunk and Paul Stewart. Unhappily the old records 
of the congregation were destroyed by fire some years 
ago, and nnich valuable historical material of interest to 
the community thus was lost. This church some years 
ago was strengthened by the abandonment of the old 
United Presbyterian chui'ch at 1-vichland, which suc- 
cumbed to I'emovals and the growing ini])ortan(*e of the 
neighboi'ing \'inage of ]\Iilroy and the m('ml)ers remain- 
ing in the Richhmd congregation merged with the Mili-ov 
congregation or assumed other ecclesiastical connections. 
The Richland congregation originally had been a congi'e- 
gatioii of the Associate Reformed l*resbyterians and they 
held to their basic tenets until some time after the Asso- 
ciate and Associate Reformed Assemblies had adjusted 
their differences in 1858, as will be witnessed by the 
following copy of a I'csolution, dated March 26, 1866, ori 
file in the office of the county recorder, and which was 
received for record two days later: "The following pre- 
amble and i-esolutions were adopted : Whereas, the Asso- 
ciate Reformed church has united with a sister church, 
and on account of this union tliere has been a change of 
name to the United I*resbyterian church; and. Whereas, 


the legislature of the state of Indiana has passed a law 
for the benefit of chui'ches thus uniting, therefore, Re- 
solved, that our organization be under this law and hence- 
forth be known under the name of the United Presby- 
terian church of Richland, and as such elect our officers." 
Richland congregation was organized in April, 1839, as a 
means of giving those members of the Spring Hill con- 
gregation who lived in and about Richland a more acces- 
sible place of worship, and at the outset had twenty-two 
members, mostly Kentuckians of the Associate Reformed 
faith, who had settled in that neighborhod, and upon its 
organization was united in one charge with the Associate 
Reformed (Bethesda) congregation at Milroy, the Rev. 
John N. Presley serving both stations. Mr. Presley 
served for ten years and in June, 1851, was succeeded by 
the Rev. Nathan C. McDill, then just licensed, who con- 
ducted his first service and pronounced his first benedic- 
tion at Richland, where his beneficent ministrations were 
so long to continue, and whose service in connection with 
the old Richland Academy has been referred to in the 
chapter on schools in this work. For seven years Mr. Mc- 
Dill gave half time each to Richland and Milroy and then 
Richland required all his service, a labor of love that was 
continuous in that community for more than forty-five 
years. Among the ministers of the United Presbyterian 
church who were sent out from the Richland congrega- 
tion were R. E. Stewart, J. P. Cowan, T. B. Stewart, W. 
M. Butler, S. H. McDill. D. C. Stewart and E. B. Stewart, 
all of whom attained excellent charges. Mention has 
been made elsewhere of the company of young men from 
Richland congregation and from Richland Academ}^ 
which Captain ]McKee led into service during the Civil 
war, and many of whom did not return. Miss Mary 
Logan, long a missionary to India, represented the con- 
gregation in the foreign mission field. "But after all," 
as Doctor McDill observed in a review of Richland church 
written by him in 1895, "the great part of those who have 


been the bone and sinew of this and all such congrega- 
tions, are the fatheis on the farm and the mothers in the 
home, who toil and labor and pray and finish their work 
and die." 

The Vuited Fresh ijteri(ni Chureh (tf (iJeuwood, also 
an outgrowth of the old Associate Reformed connection , 
was organized on September 11, 1847, the leaders in the 
movement having been Archibald F. ]\[artin and wife, 
James Gray and wife, John ]\[cKee and wife, James 
McKee and wife. Thomas Ochiltree and wife and others. 
jSJartin and Gra}' were the first elders. A church build- 
ing was erected in that same year and is still serving the 
needs of the congregation, which now numbers about 
forty, but is without a j)astor. The elders of the congre- 
'gation are Marcus Kendall and James Ochiltree. Among 
the. early elders who served this church are mentioned 
Robert .McCrory and Hugh Gray. The first pastor was 
installed as pastor, he also serving the Sliiloh church, 
gregation. In ^lay, 1857, the Rev. J. F. Hutchinson was 
installed as i)astor, he also served the Shiloh church. 
Other ministers who served at Glenwood were James I. 
Frazer, Adrien Aten, A. R. Rankin and W. H. French. 
The old Shiloh United Presbyterian church, here men- 
tioned, for years exerted a wholesome influence in the 
neighljorhood in the northeastern part of the county, but 
in the '90s was absorbed by stronger churches. It was 
organized as a congregation of the Associated Reformed 
faith on September K), 18:^2. with John Hudelson and 
Sjnnuel Maze as ruling (>lders, tJie organization having 
been effected in the home of the former, who was a Ken- 
tuckian. and wjio resided on the line between Ivush and 
Henry counties. The first ])astoi" of this congregation 
was the Rev. John X. Presley and others who thus sei-ved 
the congregation were Mathew Lind, Samuel Miller, R. 
E. Stewart, J. F. Hutchinson, Fleni-y W. Trabbe, Thomas 
P. Dysart, Samuel A. Bailey, John Pollock and George 
I. Gordon. 



The First Baptist Church of Rushville was organ- 
ized on January 14, 1908, under the ministry of the Rev. 
E. C. Myers, who became the first pastor of the congre- 
gation which now numbers 185 resident members, with 
seventeen officei's and a Sunday school with an enroll- 
ment of 125 ; six officers and eight teachers. The charter 
members of the congregation were Mrs. Nancy Norris, 
Milton Perry and wife, Frank Early and wife, James 
Gartin and wife. ?.ir. and Mrs. Younger and Mr. and 
Mrs. Palmer. After effecting an organization the con- 
gregation secured the old United Presbyterian church 
building on the site of the present edifice on the east side 
of North Morgan street, fronting Sixth street, and serv- 
ices were held in that building until it was replaced by the 
present edifice, which was erected in 1916. The Rev. 
E. G. Myers was succeeded as pastor by the Rev. J. S. 
Arvin, and he in turn by the Revs. Markland, S. Gr. Hunt- 
ington, C. J. Bunnell and the Rev. Reno Tacoma, the pres- 
ent pastor. The Ninth Street Baptist church, on North 
Morgan street, was abandoned several 3^ears ago, and its 
house of worship was sold to the congregation of the 
Church of God. 

The East Fork Baptist Church in Washington town- 
ship is one of the pioneer churches of the county, the same 
having been organized at a m^eeting held at the home of 
William Jackson in that township on July 21, 1827, Elder 
Caldwell serving as the first pastor of the congregation. 
During the following year the congregation erected a 
meeting house of logs at a point near the present site of 
the East Fork cemetery, and in that humble edifice wor- 
shiped for years, or until the present house of worship 
was erected on the acre of ground which had been donated 
to the congregation for that purpose. The present mem- 
bership of East Fork church is given at twenty-three, the 
Rev. Charles W. Radcliff, of Connersville, pastor. Dur- 
ing the winter months the church is closed, services being 


hold only during the spring, summer and fall. William 
T. Dobbins, George H. Sweet and Fred Jackson are the 
trustees of the church, 

ST. Mary's catholic church 

The only Catholic church in Rush county is St. 
Mary's Catholic Church at Rushville, which undei- the 
present pastorate of the Rev. F. E. Shaub, is well organ- 
ized in all its departments of work. St. Mary's parish at 
Rushville dates back to /^ovember, 1868, when the Rev. 
D. J. McMullen, of Richmond, Ind., became the first 
resident pastor. Prior to that date the Catholic families 
in aud about Rushville had been receiving ministrations 
from the Rev. Father Peters, who visited this point from 
his i)arish in Coimersville. Father ^IcMullen was suc- 
ceeded in September, 1872, by the Rev. Leo Adams, who 
remained until January 1, 1875, when he was succeeded 
by the Rev. E. J. Spellman, wdio w\as succeeded in turn 
by the Rev. J. J. Mackie, the Rev. T. X. Logan and oth- 
ers until the coming of Father Shaub. Beginning with 
a mei'o handful of communicants, wdio were wont to 
gather for mass at dwelling houses on the occasion of 
calls from visiting ])riests, St. ^Slary's ])arish has grown 
until it is one of the strong aud influential parishes in 
the diocese. St. Mary's church and parish house occupy 
an admirable site at the corner of Perkins and Fiftli 
streets. A parochial school is conducted in connection 
with the other activities of the parish. The Catholics also 
have a cemetery, situated to the north of East Hill ceme- 
tery. The various de])artments of the work of the parisli 
are well organized and flourishing. These include, inci- 
dentally, n local council of the Knights of Columbus. 

There is a German Lutheran church in the southwest 
corner of the northwest quartei- of section 27, township 12, 
I'ange 8, and a United Brethren cliurch near the north- 
east corner of the southeast quarter of section 20, town- 
ship 12, range 11, a cemetery adjoining the church. 


The Church of God of Rushville was organized on 
April 12, 1917, when five persons holding to the faith of 
this denomination effected an association under the min- 
istry of the Rev. E. A. Ball, who still is pastor of the little 
flock, which meanwhile has grown in numbers to about 
eighteen. The congregation maintains a Sunday school 
with an average attendance of about thirty and helps to 
support home and foreign missionaries of the denomina- 
tion. The Church of God bought the old Baptist church 
on West Ninth street and is using it as a house of worship. 
There also is a congregation of the Church of God at 
Williamstown on the south edge of the county. 


In the foregoing pages mention has been made of 
some of the abandoned churches in Rush county, organ- 
izations that formerly provided social centers in their 
respective communities, but which long since have given 
way to changing conditions. Among others that deserve 
mention are the two Baptist churches that formerly stood 
in Center township within a mile of each other, one on the 
southeast corner of the northwest quarter of section 30, 
and the other in the northwest quarter of section 31. In 
Ripley township the Riverside Friends meeting house 
formerly stood on the southeast corner of section 34. In 
that same township there also was the Franklin Methodist 
Episcopal church, which stood near the southwest corner 
of section 36. There is a colored Methodist Episcopal 
church, known as "the Beech" in that township, in the 
east half of the southeast quarter of section 12, in which 
meetings are held once a year in order to hold for the 
colored conmiunity there the grant of land which many 
years ago was given for church purposes with a provision 
calling for reversion in case of abandonment. In Posey 
township there still are memories of the old Pleasant 
Grove Presbyterian church, which stood on the John K. 
Gowdy farm at the southwest coiner of the northeast 


quarter of section 29, Init which h^nt>' ap) was abandoned. 
In Jackson township there was the Sharon Metliodist 
Episcopal Church near the northeast corner of section 2, 
^vliich was a])andoned near a quarter of a century ai^o. 
In Union township there also formerly was a ^lethodist 
Episcopal church, the building' of which still is used as a 
chapel for f unei'al services in the cemetery in the south- 
west corner of the southeast quarter of section 4, town-' 
ship 14, range 11. In that same section there also years 
ago was a Christian church, the congregation of which 
was transferred to Falmouth. In Noble township there 
once stood on the south side of the Rushville-New Salem 
road near the northwest corner of the northeast quarter 
of section 22, township 13, range 10, the Friendship 
Methodist Protestant church, long since abandoned. In 
the same township, in the southwest corner of the north- 
w^est quarter of section 28. thei'e once stood a ^Methodist 
Ejjiscopal church which commonly was known as the 
"Pinhook" church. There also formerly was a Regular 
Baptist church adjacent to tlie cemetery in the south- 
west quarter of section 27 in that township. Sills Chapel 
was a Christian church in Walker township, but long 
since was al)and()ned. It stood on the west half of the 
northeast quarter of section 12, towaiship 13, range 8. 
What was known as the Vienna Methodist Episcopal 
Church formerly stood on the county line in the southwest 
corner of section 15 in Orange township. There also 
years ago was another Methodist church, know^n as the 
]\It. Garrison chuich, at the northwest corner of the east 
half of the northwest quarter of section 24 in that town- 
shij). There was a "Xewlight" (Mu-istian church in An- 
deison township, the same having occupied the northwest 
corner of the northeast quarter of section 23, townshij) 12, 
range 9, and in that same township, near the northeast 
corner of the southeast quarter of section 29, township 12, 
range 10, was the Bethesda Methodist Episcopal chuT'ch, 
long since abandoned. On the lower edge of that town- 


ship there is a church at Williamstown, occasionally used 
by the folks of the Church of God, in that vicinit}^ 
There is a church in Richland township, occupying a site 
adjacent to the cemetery in the northeast corner of section 
9, township 12, range 11, which was erected by the Reg- 
ular Baptists and which still is occasionally used. 


Lodger and Clubs of Rush County 

In the nature of things it was not long after the he- 
ginning of a civic and social order in the county seat 
town set up in the woods in the heart of the newly created 
county of Rush a century ago until man's gregarious 
instincts inclined him to organization along other lines 
and the pioneer comnmnity began to witness the begin- 
ning of the wholesome "lodge" and club life that has so 
long and so hel] (fully characterized life not only in the 
county seat, ])ut in the towns and villages of the county. 
Churches and scliools. of couise, sprang into being at the 
very start, for where men gatlier there ever is found a 
house for the altar, and a tem])U' of learning, no matter 
how rude in appearance these edifices may be. As will 
be noted elscnvhere, a liljrary association was the first 
]3urely cultural organization effected in Rushville. Other 
modest organizations of one soi't and another were ef- 
fected ;is the social aspirations of the community began 
more and more to demand an. outlet for expression and 
i)resently, fifteen years after the "laying out" of the 
town, a movement was set on foot looking to the organiza- 
tion of the first lodge. As generally has been found to 
be the case, the FreemasoriS were the pioneers in tliis 
lodge movement, a local lodge of the Free and Acce])ted 
.Masons having been foi-med in Rushville in the spring of 
18.'>8, less than sixteen years after the founding of the 
town. Unfoi'tunately the records of this Masonic lodge 
WTre eonsumed in the fire wliicli destroyed the Masonic 
Tem]»l(' in 19i;5. Happily, liowcver, the story of the or- 
ganization of the lodge and of tlie pi'ogress and develop- 
ment of the same from th<' time nf its inception u}> to the 
year ISD"). jias been ])resei ved in a }>aper written by the 



late Robert W. Cox in this latter year, and now cherished 
by Mr, Cox's son. Miles S. Cox, through whose courtesy 
this valuable historical manuscript becomes available for 
the purposes of this compilation. This illuminating 
paper (as follows) was written by Mr. Cox under the 
head : 


To go beyond the merest outline of the history of 
Freemasonry in Rushville would be to go be3a^nd the 
limit of any article intended for this publication, and, 
perhaps, very much beyond the patience of the general 
reader. There are today (1895) but very few persons 
living in Rushville who can remember when the order 
was first instituted in the then small hamlet. No doubt 
there are those now living here who can remember that 
when they were small children the phrase "the Masons '11 
get you if you don 't watch out ' ' was more effectual in its 
quieting effect than the far-famed goblins of James 
Whitcomb Riley; yet beyond the terror that the phrase 
created can recollect little or nothing about the organiza- 
tion of the first Masonic lodge in this place. It can read- 
ily be believed that the organization of such a lodge was 
an event in the history of Rushville that received due 
consideration at the "quiltin's," tea parties and other 
social gatherings, and it is extremely doubtful if "the 
consensus of public oj^inion" was at all favorable to the 
organization. Kindly and motherly old ladies no doubt 
felt that Satan in one of his worst and most powerful 
forms was about to gain an entrance into the peaceful 
Eden that knew nothing more worldly than an occasional 
school exhibition or "old Black Gabe's" annual concert. 
I can imagine the different facial expressions that 
greeted the wonderful secret as it was whispered one to 
another and the look of horror that overspread the face 
as the full enormity of the wickedness of such a pro}io- 
sition forced itself upon the mind. "Man proposes, but 


God disposes," and the proposition in this case and its 
disposition i-esnlted in no disappointment to the project- 
ors of the movement; and it came to pass that ?^Iasonry 
was planted in oar midst. 

That 1)rilliant Inminary tliat chiims pre-eminence in 
the "starry-decked lieavens" wheii the early dawn is 
about to nsher in the great orb that is to "i-nle the day" 
gave to the first Masonic lodge in Rushville its na7ne — 
Morning Star. Those who gave this title to their lodge 
wei-e not Sabaists or stai" worshipers who believed that 
each star was the soul of a god and adopted this name as a 
symbol of their belief, but were the believers in the "one, 
only and true God" and that the "stars sung his glory." 
The star was to them but a type of the glory of God that 
should fill the soul of all those to whom the mysteries of 
]S!asonry should be unfolded. Amidst the most humble 
suiToiuidings and under the most adverse circumstances 
was this new star in the ]\Iasonic firmament instituted 
under a dispensation of the Grand Tjodge of the state of 
Indiana, May 14, 1888. The first officers of the lodge 
were John Greer, worshipful master; R, Y. ISIcBride, 
senior warden; Isaac Washburn, junior warden. These 
officers were "duly installed" June 20, 1838. In Sep- 
tcmbei', 1S?)8, Dr. W. H. Martin was appointed and in- 
stalled worshi]^ful master and a charter was granted to 
the lodge on November 28, 1839. Isaac Washburn had 
the honoi' of being the first repi"esentative to the Grand 
liodge. The lodge held its meeting in one of the up])er 
rooms of the old court house, which was situated upon 
the site of the present one, and was a very imposing edi- 
fice for that time. It was square in form, two stories 
high, built of brick and the roof converged to the center* 
from all sides, while upon the smnmit of the pyramid so 
formed was placed a tower of modest pretensions. The 
coui't room was u])on the ground floor. Th(» blind goddess 
found herself doul)ly honored in this temple dedicated to 
her service, for while justice was theoretically demon- 


strated above it was practically administered below. At 
the first election of officers under the charter, William 
H. Martin was elected w^orshipfnl master; Isaac Wash- 
burn, senior warden; B. B. Talbott, junior warden; 
George Hibben, secretary; R. Y. McBride, treasurer; 
Isaac Boblett, senior deacon; J. W. Ferguson, junior 
deacon, and Samuel English, tyler. These officers were 
publicly installed in the Presbyterian church, February 
1, 1840, b}^ Philip Mason, grand master of the state. The 
oration was delivered by Brother Caleb B. Smith. The 
meetings of the lodge w^ere regularly held and "w^ork" 
was moderately plentiful. The lodge was honored by hav- 
ing Dr. William H. Mai'tin as grand secretary of the 
Grand Lodge one term. For seven years this Morning 
Star twinkled brightl3% dimmed at times, perhaps, by out- 
side opposition and internal dissension, yet bravely show- 
ing its "light" amidst all the surrounding gloom, until 
May 29, 1845, it shone but dimly, with a weak and feeble 
light, and as the morning sun tinged the hazy clouds with 
the grandeur of his glory and formed a curtain of tran- 
scendent splendor for its I'etirement it passed out of sight 
to be seen again no more forever. For nearly two years 
the craft in Rushville was without an organization, but 
the "spirit of Masonry would not down" and a petition 
for a dispensation to form a new JMasonic lodge met with a 
favorable response and the same was granted on Novem- 
ber 30, 1847, under the title of Rush Lodge, No. 62, Free 
and Accepted Masons, with William H. Martin, w^orship- 
f ul master ; George Hibben, senior warden ; John Dixon, 
junior warden ; Isaac Boblett, secretary ; William Craw- 
ford, treasurer; T. Smith, senior deacon; J. W. Fergu- 
son, junior deacon, and R. F. Brown, tyler. This lodge 
first held its meetings in the Dr. H. G. Sexton building, 
situated on the site now (1895) occupied by the stores of 
the Mauz}^ Company, I. W. Ayers and J. H. Osborne & 
Co., afterward moving to the Matthew Smith building 
on the west side of the public square. The lodge flour- 


ishcd from the start, and .Masoury became a "fixture" in 
Rnshville. A little over a year from its organization the 
lodge met its fii'St loss in the death of Brother R. Y. Mc- 
Bride (July 18, 1848). who had been intimately connected 
with the order from the oiganization of Morning Star 
lodge until his death. The funeral ceremonies were under 
the auspices of tlie lodge, and was the first jVIasonic fu- 
neral in Rushville. The lodge pursued the routine com- 
mon to all such societies until December 25, 1857, when 
it was decided to surrendei the charter of the lodge, wdiich 
was accordingly done. Febi-uai'v 5, 1858. The officers of 
Rush lodge at this time were Leonidas Sexton, w^orship- 
ful master; B. F. Johnscm, senior warden; R. D. Sher- 
man, junior warden; James S. Lakin. secretary; Alex 
Posey, treasurer; Thomas Poe, senior deacon; Absalom 
Megee, junior deacon, and J. W. Ferguson, tyler. 

The phoerdx was adoiited a.t a verv early period as a 
Christian s^T:nbol. Its ancient legend doul)tless caused 
it to be accepted as a symbol of the resurrection. Veiy 
appropriate and suggestive was the name Phoenix wdien 
applied to the new lodge which arose from the funeral 
pyre of Rush lodge, Fel)ruary 9. 1858, or four days after 
the surrender of its charter. The full title of the new 
lodge and the one it yet bears w^as Phoenix Lodge, No. 
62, Free and Accepted Masons. The meetings were first 
held in the three-story building innnediately west of the 
Odd P^ellow hall, now known as the Oantner building. 
In 1868 the lodge moved their quarters to the Beher-King 
building, remaining there only a month or two, and then 
moved into thcii- present quarters in the Dinwiddle build- 
ing. The fiist officers under the new dispensation were 
Thomas Poe, \voi'shi])ful mastei-; B. F. Johnson, senior 
wai'den; J. S. I. akin, junior waiden. At tlie first meet- 
ing held, I^'ebruaiy 18, 1858, S. ^I. Atlierton was ap- 
pointed secictary and James Fui-guson, tyler. A cliarter 
was gi-anted tlie lodge on May 25, 1858, and on June 22, 
at the first clcclioii of officers Thomas Poe was elected 


worshipful master ; James S. Lakin, senior warden : Will- 
iam Wilson, Jr., junior warden; S. M. Atherton, secre- 
tary; Alex Posey, treasurer; George R. Kelly, senior 
deacon ; James Wilson, junior deacon, and J. W. Fergu- 
son, tyler. The meetings of the lodge from 1861 to 1865 
were very irregular, and while "work" was plenty much 
time was consumed in finishing it up. The war of the 
rebellion was then in progress, and overshadowed every- 
thing else. ' ' To be true to the (xovernment of the coimtry 
in which you live" is one of the first lessons taught in 
Masonry, and this found a ready response in the heart of 
every true Mason, hence the "practice of the art" was 
made subservient to duty to the Government. Since the 
Morning Star first shed the light of Masonry in the then 
village of Rushville the lodge has gradually increased in 
membership, and in the nature of its lodge appointments, 
and 1895 finds it in the most prosperous time of all its 
history. The present officers of the lodge are R. W. 
Cox, worshipful master; E. D. Pugh, senior warden; H. 
P. McGuire, junior warden; W. M. Pearce, senior dea- 
can ; W. E. Berry, junior deacon ; J. R. Carmichael, treas- 
urer; C. F. Mullin, secretary; A. B. Hinchman, tyler; 
B. F. Tingley, B. L. Smith and J. Q. Thomas, trustees. 

Capitular Masonry — Early in 1853 the subject of the 
so-called "higher degrees" of jMasonry engaged the at- 
tention of those of the craft who were most deeply inter- 
ested in the future of the order and on October 24, 1853, 
a dispensation was granted to petitioners to organize a 
chapter of Royal Arch Masons to be known as Rush 
Chapter, R. A. M., with Horatio G. Sexton as high priest ; 
Abraham Reeves, king, and Leonidas Sexton, scribe. 
The chapter j^roved successful from the start, and awak- 
ened quite an interest in capitular Masonry. A charter 
was granted to the chapter on May 18, 1854, under the 
above name, with the munber 26, which has since been 
changed to 24. Since its organization the chapter has met 
with varying success, sometimes languishing from the in- 


attention of its niembeis, but active and stronu' when 
aroused from its lethargy, holding its own amidst the 
trials and vicissitudes connnon to the "higher branches" 
of any order. The present officers are R. W. Cox, high 
priest; T, Abercrombie, king; C. W. Burt, scribe; J. R. 
Carmichael, C. H. ; Edward Young, R. A. C; J. D. Me- 
gee. P. S. ; \V. T. Jackson, master of the third veil ; H. P. 
McGuii'e, master second veil ; E, H. Butler, master first 
veil ; Thomas Poe, secretary ; George W. Young, ti"eas- 
urer, and A. B. Hinchman, guard. 

Cryptic Mason ri} — For a period of twenty years the 
ambition of the ci-aft for the higher degrees seems to have 
been satisfied with the ]iossession of a Royal Arch chap- 
ter. Some time in 1874 the desire for the advantages of 
cryptic Masonry culminated in the oi-ganization of a 
council of Royal and Select Masters, to whom was granted 
a charter on October 21, 1874, uiider the title of Rush- 
ville Council, X(». 41. R. & S. M., with Dr. William H. 
Smith, illustrious mastei-; Thomas Poe, deputy, and E. 
H. Wolfe, P. C. From the date of its charter until the 
present it has faithfully fulfilled all the duties proper to 
its own sphere or work. The present officers of the coun- 
cil are R. AV. Cox, illustrious master; Edward Young, 
deputy ; T. Aberciombie, P. C. ; J. R. Carmichael, C. G. ; 
Thomas Poe, recorder; H. P. McGuire, treasurer; R. F, 
Bebout, steward, and A. B. Hinchman. sentinel. 

Order of Eastern Star — This order, while not a 
bi'anch of Masonry, is so intimately connected with it in 
its workings that for all practical ])ur])oses it may ])e con- 
sidered a part of the Masonic system. A dispensation 
was granted to oiganize a chapter of this order on Jan- 
uary 16, 1894. the first officers iiamed in the dis])ensation 
Ix'ing Mattie Foucli, woi'thy mntron; Thomas Dill, 
worthy patioii, and Alice Xcal, associate matron. A 
chartei- was gi-anted to the cha]»ter on A])i-il 25, 1894, 
under the title of Martlia Poe (^ha})ter. No. 143. O. E. S. 
The i»resent officers are Mattie Fouch, worthy matron; 


Edward Young, worthy patron ; Alice Neal, A. M, ; Meta 
Wolfe, C. ; Malinda Young, A. C. ; Olive Guild, secretary ; 
J. D. Megee, treasurer ; Ethel Megee, A. ; Josie Mahan, 
R, ; Alice Bebout, E. ; Jessie Wilson, M. ; Mary Hinch- 
man, E. ; Sue O. Megee, warden ; A. B. Hinchman, sentry, 
and June Miller, organist. 

From its earliest existence the principles and prac- 
tices of Masonry have been to elevate man above the igno- 
rance and superstition which have surrounded him, and 
has sought to lead him in the "direction of how to seek 
God and God's truth ;" in fulfilling this mission it has to 
a great extent filled "The True Measure of Life" so beau- 
tifully lined by Philip James Bailey : 

We live in deeds, not years; in thought, not breath; 

In feelings, not in figures on the dial. 

We should count time by heart throbs when they beat 

For God, for man, for dut_y. He most lives 

Who thinks most, feels noblest, acts best. 

Life is but a means unto an end — that end, 

Beginning, mean and end to all things, God. 

— R. W. C. 

And that was the state of Freemasonry in Rushville 
up to the time of the writing of Mr. Cox's paper a quarter 
of a century ago. The most noteworthy Masonic event in 
Rushville was the laying of the cornerstone of the Rush 
county court house, on Wednesday, September 23, 1896, 
by the Grand Lodge of Indiana. A line of march led by 
the Rushville city band, followed in turn by Shelbyville 
Commander}^ Knights Templar, the Kuightstown band, 
the Kuightstown Commandery, Knights Templar, the 
Pendleton band, Anderson Commandery, Knights Tem- 
plar, Rush Chapter, No. 24, Royal Arch Masons, Phoenix 
Lodge, No. 62, Free and Accepted Masons, and the Grand 
Lodge of Indiana brought the procession to the northeast 
corner of the court house where the exercises were held. 
Rev. Charles W. Tinsley pronounced the invocation, 
which was followed by an address by Judge John D. Mil- 
ler. Hon. Ben L. Smith then delivered a historical ad- 
dress, giving the history of Rush county from the date of 


its organization. The stone was then placed and the 
ceremony was formally given by the Grand Lodge of 
Indiana. Calvin W. Prather, acting as grand master; 
Robert W. Cox, deputy gi'and master; Eli H. Butler, sen- 
ior grand warden; U. 1). Cole, junior grand warden; 
Martin H. Rice, grand treasurer; John A. Titsworth, 
grand secretary; Charles W. Tinsley, grand chaplain; 
Orlando ^^^ Brownback, grand marshal ; James S. La- 
kin, senior grand deacon; Pink Casady, junior grand 
deacon, and Alvin B. Hinchman, grand steward and tyler. 
Judge .Mark E. Forkner, of Newcastle, delivered the prin- 
cipal address, and this address was followed by the bene- 
diction by the Rev. George A. Beattie. 

The lodge continued to meet in the Link building 
until the year 1905, when the Phoenix Masonic Temple 
Association purchased the home of Robert W. Cox, on the 
east side of Main street, and erected a handsome new 
temple. This building served the craft until 1913, when 
it was destroyed by fire. Franklin Lodge, No. 35, I. O. 
O. F., courteously extended the use of their lodge hall 
until jjermanent quarters could be obtained. The Temi)le 
Association decided to rebuild and the lodge established 
itself in the Beher-King building i)ending the erection 
of the new temi)le. This building was completed and for- 
mally dedicated in 1915, aiid is now in use by the several 
.Masonic bodies m RushviUe, including the local com- 
maiidery, Kiiigiits Tcmplai-. 

Phoenix Ijodge has been scived by the following 
masters: Thomas l^oe, Leonidas Sexton, James S. La- 
kin, Robert II. Power, Edward II. Wolfe, John R. Car- 
michael, Ben L. Smith, Di. William H. Smith, Robert ^Y. 
Cox, John C. Humes, Kli FI. IJutler, Edward Young, 
John 1). Megee, Hugh S. Eleehart, Earl H. Payne, John 
Rutlidge, Wilbur Stiers, William C. McColgin, James V. 
V"Uiig, l>enjniiiiii A. Cox, I^dwin Russell (^asady, Will- 
iam '!\ Simpson, William .M. McBride, Miles S. Cox, 
Charles H. Brown, Irwin C. Kinnear, Samuel L. Trabue, 


Stillwell A. Wilkinson, Howard B. Carmichael, Paul T. 
Allen. The present officers of the lodge are Charles J. 
Todd, worshipful master; Clifford W. Gottman, senior 
warden ; Ezra L. Hinkle, junior warden ; George W. Os- 
borne, secretary; Earl H. Payne, treasurer; Fred R. 
Beale, senior deacon ; Frank Priest, junior deacon; Hines 
Hogsett, senior steward; Walter ThorjDe, junior steward, 
and John T. Turner, tyler. 

Bush Lodge, No. 580^ Free and Accepted Masons, at 
Carthage received its charter on March 27, 1890, and the 
following officers of the lodge were installed on the fol- 
lowing June 24: Worshipful master, O. S. Coffin; sen- 
ior warden, D. W. Kirkwood; junior warden, A. O. Hill; 
treasurer, William B. Henby; secretary, A. W. Righter; 
senior deacon, Ed N. Hill ; junior deacon, Julian Over- 
man; tyler, Charles Gear. The records of this lodge 
— including the charter — were destroyed by fire some 
years ago, but from the best recollection the following 
names are given as a partial list of the charter members : 
Ed N. Hill, Aaron O. Hill, Elwood T. Hill, David W. 
Kirkwood, Julian Overman, Oliver W. Righter, William 
L. Walker, Orlando S. Coffin, William B, Henby and 
Jesse H. Siler. The present membership of the lodge is 
reported to be seventy-two, with the affairs of the lodge 
in good condition. The present officers follow : Worship- 
ful master, Van Hood ; senior warden, Carl Norris ; jun- 
ior warden, A. W. Winfield; treasurer, O. C. McCarty; 
secretary, Irvin M. Hill; senior deacon, Jesse Newsom; 
junior deacon, Lee Retherford; tyler, Fred Hill. 

There also are lodges of the Freemasons at Milroy, 
Manilla, Raleigh and Falmouth in this county. In this 
connection it is but proper to state that inquries have 
been made in competent quarters to secure first hand 
information regarding the organization of all secret 
societ}^ lodges in Rush county. Some of these inquiries 
have been disregarded and it is regretted therefore that 
details of organization cannot be given. 




Fr(i]ikJiii L(>d()(', Xo. '.V), I tide pendent Order of Odd 
Fellows, at Riishville, Avas instituted on the eA'ening of 
May 13, 1846, in a frame building that then stood at the 
northwest corner of what is now Second and Morgan 
sti-'eets, Sec^ond street then having been known as Ruth 
street. Application for a charter for this lodge was 
signed hy j^atrick Hefferman, AY. F. King, W. A. Patti- 
son, James 1), Henley and H. D. Johnson, and the lodge 
was instituted by G. R. Warren, then district deputy 
grandmaster. On the niglit of the institution of the lodge 
Y\". B. Flinn, P. A. Hacklemau, Samuel iJarbour, flolm L. 
Robinson, Richard Poundstone, J. S, Hibben, Joel Wolfe. 
Harmony Laughlin, ^Marshall Sexton and S. S. Bratten 
were initiated and the following officers were elected: 
Noble grand, W. F. King; vice grand, P. A. Hackleman; 
secretary, J. S. Hibben, and treasurer, Joel Wolfe. The 
lodge prosjiered from the start, and has for many yeai'S 
occupied a foremost position among the fraternal organ- 
izations (»f the county. It owns handsome and well- 
equipped quartei's at the southwest corner of ^lain and 
Second streets, riud is financially and numerically 
strong. The lodge is strongly supplemented ))y a local 
encampment, a Rebekah Degi'ce lodge and a (Linton. 
Beinice Encampment, X(!. 12, was instituted on April 7, 
1848, l>y Cliiistiaii I'ucher, tlicii grand ])atriarch of the 
state, on ti)e api)licalioii (»!' .Miscpli L, Sih'.ox. ''iai-shall 
Sexton, P. A. Ilackleuian, I>e\vis Maddux. 0. S. Dcniald- 
son, Xoi'val \Y (\>\, S. S. Poundstoiie, and Joel Wolfe, 
who weic installed as tlie fii'st (»fficers of the encam})- 
ment. Rushville l^ebekah Lodge, \o. 112, was iiistituted 
on December 2(!, 1S74, wi1li l!ic I'Mllowiii;;' cliartei- mem- 
bers: O. (\ Hackleman, ( ". M. I ir.cklcman, W. S. Wil- 
son, Margaret \\'ilson. V. T. Di'ebei't, Kdwin Farrar, 
Sadie Fariar, X. B. P>odine. 1). A. Bodine, John Kip- 
linger, Ilai-i-iet Ki])liiigci'. \'. ( '. l)odine, ." iarv Bodine, 
W. H. Smith. F. O. Smith, F. 11. Alontfort, Belle Mont- 


fort, C. P. Sheaff, S. L. Slieaff. '. J. Cotton, J. Linville, 
S. E. Watson, Ella Watson, J. H. Roberts, S. Klein, J. M. 
Hildreth, H. Laughlin, E. Hyman, D. Jones, J. D. Wilson, 
Sr., L. Sexton. Canton Rushville, No. 21, Patriarchs 
Militant, was instituted on March 1, 1887, with the follow- 
ing charter membership : J. A. Walsh. Edwin Farrar, O. 
0.>elts, M. L. Moor, W. E. Wallace, A. T. Mahin, V. C. 
Bodine, C. C. Spritz, M. C. Leming, Levi Sherwood, Jehn 
Linville, David Wert, A. M. Aultman, S. Stockdell, Al- 
vin Moore and L. H. Havens. Odd Fellowship in Rush 
coimt.y has on numerous occasions furnished grand lodge 
officers, among them having been P. A. Hackleman, 
Leonidas Sexton, Edwin Farrer and James T. Arbuckle, 
who became grand masters, and E. H. Barr}^ who became 
grand secretary. Norval W. Cox, formerly a member of 
the lodge at Rushville, became grand master of the Ai'- 
kansas grand lodge. E. H. Barry and Leonidas Sexton 
also served as grand patriarch of the grand encampment. 
Frank ^Icllwaine is the grand junior warden at the pres- 
ent time (1921) and in order of succession will become 
grand patriarch. As has been written, "the order in 
Rush county as a whole is very prosperous, and in good 
working condition, and doing much good in their efforts: 
to draw mankind closer together in the bonds of friend- 
ship, love and truth. ' ' 

Milroy Lodge, No. 654, Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, received its charter on August 5, 1889, and had 
the following charter membership: James McCrew, H. 
J. Spradling, Ira Somerville, William Palmer, J. E. 
Ruddell, James Alexander, W. K. Shepherd, J. W. Bur- 
rows and E. H. Crippen. The present membershixi of 
the lodge numbers 168, and the affairs of the lodge are 
reported to be in a flourishing condition. There also is 
an encampment at Milroy. 

Homer Lodge, 471, Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows, at Llomer, was instituted on November 20, 1874, 
with John W. Smith, William Ross, Henry E. Sklower, 


G. S. Jones and Alfred Swain as eharter members, among 
those coming in shortly afterward being E. B. Louden, 
AA'illiam Demoss, J. W. Hambrock, J. M. Anderson, Na- 
than Arbiickle, George ^full and George Griiell. The 
lodge grew rapidly for a rural lodge, and presently 
erected a substantial brick building for a lodge hall. The 
growth and interest of this lodge have been maintained 
from the start and it is understood to l)e in a flourishing 
condition. There also is an eneami)ment at Homer. 
There are also flourishing lodges of Odd Fellows at 
Carthage, Glenwood, Arlington, Mays and Falmouth. 


Ivy Lodge, No. 27, K nights of Pi/fliias, was organ- 
ized on March 4, 1873, iipon an api)lication for a charter 
signed by John F. Beher, John Carroll, Frank Tingley, 
Homer Gregg, Jonathan AY. Wilson, Simon Cline, Will- 
iam O. Brown, John H. Brown, John P. Guffin, Sanuiel 
A. Glore and Tony Michael who received the charter from 
the grand lodge of the state of Indiana on July 23, 1873, 
It was not long until the new lodge began to attract atten- 
tion, and the I'oster of membershii) has steadily growm 
from the start, until it now numbers more than 450, and is 
the largest lodge in the county. John F. Beher was the 
first chancellor commander and O. P. Wamsley is the 
present chancellor commander. There are fifty-four chan- 
celloi- conunandei's of Ivy Lodge now living, and two of the 
charter iiiciiibei's. Homer Ciiregg and Samuel A. Glore, are 
still living. During the })resent (1921 ) term quite a num- 
l)er of accessions have l)een made to the lodge. Ivy Lodge 
purchased tlie old Christian church building at the south- 
west corner of Second and Morgan streets about the year 
1895, and at considerable ex])ense remodeled the same for 
lodge ])urj)oses, and has ever since had connnodious and 
well-equipi)ed quarters, including a stage for the confer- 
ring of the diffei-ent degi-ees, said to be one of the most 
comfortable and convenient "castle halls" in Indiana. 


The Uniform Rank, Knights of Pythias, the "live wire" 
auxiliary of the subordinate lodge, was organized on May 
6, 1903, with forty-two members, George H. Caldwell the 
first captain, and now has fifty-seven members. The 
Uniform Rank has always worked in harmony with Ivy 
Lodge and has been of great benefit to it. It has won 
prizes in contests with other companies in national en- 
campments, and has long been recognized as one of the 
best drilled bodies in the state. The Pythian Sisters, also 
a valuable adjunct to the subordinate lodge, was organ- 
ized on January 12, 1890, with twenty charter members, 
three of whom, Mrs. Mary A. Brovm, Mrs. Malinda 
Young and Mrs. Josephine Webb, are still living in Rush- 
ville. Mrs. Brown and Mrs. Young are the only surviv- 
ors of the original roster of officers of this branch of the 
lodge, Mrs. Brown having been the first past chief and 
Mrs. Young the mistress of records and correspondence. 
The Pythian Sisters now number about eighty sister 
members and about an equal number of brother members, 
and the present officers are as follows : Mrs. Enuna Hil- 
ligoss, M. E. C. ; Mrs. Nelle Wamsley, senior ; Mrs. Maizie 
Hosier, junior ; Mrs. Neva Clifford, manager ; Mrs. Mary 
A. Brown, mistress of records and correspondence ; Miss 
Flora Redman, mistress of finance ; Mrs. Ada Suess, pro- 
tector, and Miss Mary Worthington, guard. There also is 
a flourishing lodge of Knights of Pythias at Milro}^ 

Improved Order of Red Men — Tanpah Tribe, No, 
102, Improved Order of Red Men, was organized at Rush- 
ville on April 21, 1890, the instituting chief being M. G. 
Mock, past grand sachem, who was assisted by members 
of the tribes at Muncie and Connersville. The first 
prophet of the local tribe was John j\I. Stevens, who came 
by card from Greensburg, the charter list of the tribe 
showing other names as follows: Leonidas H. Havens, 
Charles F. Kennedy, Robert W. Cox, George W. Osborn, 
A. J. Dickinson, Lew E. Dailey, Frank F. Redman, Ches- 
ter F. Felton, Will A. Posey, Dr. H. G. Linn, Adam V. 


Spivev, Gates Soxton, Samuel Craig, Jacob Feiidner, 
AMlliam H. Masters, L. O. Shaeffer, William T. Simp- 
son, Dr. AVill N. Megee, Charles A. Hall, Kirby Frakes, 
Will E. Havens, Charles Worth, Morton H. Downey, 
George C. A\'yatt, Homer Havens, Simeon Stockdell, 
William Smith, Jr., Joseph Stark, Taylor Lakin, Owen 
M. Cowing, Alex W. Posey, A. E. Quavle, Ernest M. 
Creekmore, Will H. Moffett, Charles B.' M<mjar, Sam- 
uel W. Thompson, Al A. Kimmel, Fred Hall, Will M. 
Bliss, William O. Brown, James Felts, Will H. Gregg, 
Joseph Long, Joseph Lyons, Will Redman, Joseph 
Barnes, James K. Mattox, Richard J. Wilson, Ralph 
Kenner, Nerritt Bartholomew, Harvey Dunn, Elbert S. 
Carr, Rufus P. Havens and Charles M. Norris. Of this 
tribe it has been written that "since its institution this 
tribe has made its influence felt in this and surrounding 
comities, having assisted in the forniati<m and ii^stitution 
of several new tribes, and by their zeal and fidelity have 
won an enviable reputation among the membership of the 
state." There are local tribes of Red Men also at Milroy, 
Arlington, Glenwood, Mays, Homer and I^'almouth in 
this county. Miles S. Cox, treasurer of the Peoples Loan 
and Ti'ust Company at Rushville and a member of Tan- 
|mh tribe, was elected "grand keeper of wami)um'' or 
treasurer of the state grand lodge or "great council" of 
the Red Men in Indiana in the fall of 1916, and has been 
retained in that ]iosition by the great council ever since. 
Oliver C. Norris, of Tanpah tribe, has served as grand 
sachem, and George W. Osborne and Theodore E. Gregg, 
also of Tan])ah trib(\ ]v.\\v hvcu officers of the grand 

Benrrolcnf and Protective Order of Elks — Rushville 
Lodge, No. 1))()7, B. P. O. E., was organized on Se])tember 
25, 1913, with the following charter nieinlx'is: (^hai'les 
A. Frazee, John H. Kiplinger, Dr. W. C. Smith, T. W. 
Betker, Walter i^asley, T. Rich Reed, W. B. Brann, 
Theodore H. Reed, Claude Cambern, Will M. Frazee, 


George F. Weeks, Frank, Wilson, Dr. W. C. Coleman, 
T. W. Lytle, Will M. Bliss, William E. Havens, Frank 
M. Capp, A. P. Walker, W. J. Henley, Ed N. Hill. Dr. 
J. C. Sexton, Donald L. Smith, Will P. Jay, Verne W. 
Norris and Oliver M. Dale. The present officers of this 
lodge are as follows: Exalted ruler, Charles Sherman; 
esteemed leading knight, G. P. Hunt; esteemed loyal 
knight, W. G. Mulno; esteemed lecturing knight, Scott 
Hosier; tyler, Samuel L. Trabue; secretary, Charles S. 
Green; treasurer. Dale Fisher; trustees, Theodore H. 
Reed, Claude Cambern and Will M. Frazee. The lodge 
purchased its present home on the north side of the pub- 
lic square from the Rushville National Bank on March 
14, 1914, for the sum of $6,500, and is about to begin build- 
ing an addition to its home that will cost from $15,000 to 
$20,000. The lodge has 216 members and is in a fine 
condition financially and otherwise. 

There are lodges of the Woodmen at Rushville, Mil- 
roy and Sexton ; a lodge of the Junior Order of American 
Mechanics, a lodge of the Patriotic Order of the Sons of 
America and a council of the Knights of Columbus at 
Rushville. At Rushville there also is a lodge of the 
Grand United Order of Odd Fellows (colored) and a 
lodge of colored Masons. Allen Daniel, of Rushville, has 
served as the head of the colored Odd Fellows in Indiana. 


Perhaps the most useful of the social service organ- 
izations of the city of Rushville is the Woman's Council, 
which was organized in that city on June 19, 1916, under 
the direction of Mrs. Johanna Roest Reeve, who was 
elected first president of the organization; Mrs. Cora 
M. Stewart, vice-president; Mrs. Roy Mayse, secretary; 
Anna L. Bohannon, treasurer. The purpose of the coun- 
cil announced in its articles of association is to supi)ort 
the work of the visiting nurse heretofore instituted by the 
Anti-Tuberculosis Society in 1913, and the furtherance of 


any work pertaining to civic improvement. The conncil 
is composed of one delegate from each of the women's 
organizations in the city, these comprising not only the 
women's clubs, but the local chaptei'S of the Daughters i>f 
the American Revolution, the Order of the Eastern Star, 
the Pythian Sisters and other women's auxiliaries to the 
secret societies of the city and the missionary and aid 
societies of the churches, and in consequence is a tlior- 
oughly representative body of women of the city, all 
equally intei'ested in the prouioti(m of the best things in 
the civic life of the community, and all co-operating 
effectually in the common labor of the council. The pres- 
ent officers of the Woman's Council are as follows: 
President, Mrs. Anna D. Green; ^ice-president, Mrs. 
Ruby Petry ; secretary, Belle Gregg, and treasurer, Anna 
L, Bohannon, who has been treasurer of the council since 
its inception. Mary Jane JNIoore (now Mrs. John Aber- 
crombie) was the first nurse employed by the Anti-Tuber- 
culosis Society. Others who have served the community 
as visiting nurse and social service worker are Lorabelle 
Roser, Ann C. Straight, Maude M. Hunt, Linnie Land 
and Ruth Groenier. The visiting nurse at j^resent sup- 
ported by the council is Louise Fort, of Tndiana]iolis, a 
graduate of the Indiana L^niversity Training School for 
nurses, and a registei-ed mirsc, who succeeded Ruth 
Gi-ocnier, who r(\signed prior to hei- man-iage in the fall 
of 1920. Among the other movements successfully fos- 
tei'cd by the Woman's (\)uiicil was that which secui'cd the 
('led ion in 1920 of a woman on the city school board, ^[rs. 
Allie Ij. Aldridge, whose candidacy for this position was 
supported by the council, thus being the fij'st woman to 
occu])y a i)osition on the local school board; also the fur- 
nishing of milk lunches for the children of the j)rimary 
rooms at the Havens school. The reijoi't of Miss Bohan- 
non, treasurer, for the fiscal year ending Se})temb('r 30, 
1920, showed that the council had a surplus of $528,84 to 
begin the new year with. The receipts for the year. 


including the balance on hand at the beginning of the year, 
were $2,034.29, and the expenditures, $1,505.45, these 
receipts showing a range and variet}^ of contributions 
indicative of the wide interest taken in the work of the 
council. The expenses of the council included salar}^ to 
nurse, medical attendance and supplies, child welfare 
work, laundry, drayage, auto supplies, etc. In this annual 
report a general vote of thanks was extended for an auto- 
mobile which had been donated to the Woman's Council 
for the use of the visiting nurse and which was purchased 
with a fund raised b}^ the Rotary Club among the business 
men of the city. 

BusJiville Chapter, Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution, was organized in September, 1909, with 109 charter 
members, the largest charter membership of any chapter 
in the history of this ]3atriotic order. Mrs. J. W. Moore, 
who was the moving spirit in the organization of the chap- 
ter, was unanimously elected first regent of the chapter. 
The present officers of the chapter are as follows: 
Regent, Mrs. Jennie G. VanOsdol; vice regent, Mrs. 
Bertha G. Logan ; recording secretary, Mrs. Georgia W. 
Moore; corresponding secretary, Miss Laura Meredith; 
treasurer, Mrs. Capitola G. Dill; registrar. Miss Alice 
Norris ; historian, Miss Emma Blacklidge ; chaplain, Mrs. 
J. J, Amos; publicity chairman, Miss Emma Cassady. 
The activities of Rushville Chapter, D. A, R., have been 
varied and useful in the way of social and community 
service. Elsewhere mention has been made of the "book 
shower" inaugurated by the chapter in 1911, which pro- 
vided the nucleus for the present admirable public library 
in the city of Rushville, and in other ways the chapter has 
made itself useful, the planting of trees in the public park 
and the direction of contests among the pupils of the 
public schools for the best essays on patriotic subjects 
being among these activities. The location and care of the 
graves of such soldiers of the Revolutionary war as are 
buried in Rush county also has been a charge upon the 


fha])ter and efforts are being made to place appropriate 
markers at all of these graves. In an admirable little 
book, "Sketches of Rush County," edited by Mary M. 
Alexander, a granddaughter of the Revolution, and 
Cai)itola ( Juffin Dill and ])ublished under the auspices of 
Rushville Chapter, D. A. R., in 1915, it was pointed out 
that the following soldiers of the Revolution had been 
residents of Rush county and pensioners of the Covern- 
ment: John Aldridge, Aaron Carson, Samuel Caswell, 
Ebenezer Clark, Isaac Cox, Benjamin Cruzon, Henry 
David, Isaac Duncan, Leonard Edleman, Matthew Gregg, 
Daniel Grant, Jacob Hite. John Hardy, Thomas James, 
James Lane, John Legore, John Lewis, William Mauzy, 
Henry ^.lezer, John Pollock, Aaron Redman, John Riley, 
Henry Smith, ^Michael Smith, William Smith. John 
Yarbrough, John Finney, John Watson, Joel Berry, John 
Carson, James Fardice, John Robinson, James Hmit. 
George Ishaw, John Wyatt, George Brown, Robert Cald- 
well, Zephaniah Posey, James Bromlee, Patrick Logan, 
David Peters, David Fleener and Thomas Cassady. The 
rest I'oom in the court house originally was furnished by 
the Rushville chapter of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution, but later a small sum for new furnishings was 
approjjriated l)y the county and a committee of the D. A. 
R. was allowed to select the furnishing. 


The Rotary (^lub of Rushville was organized at a 
baiiquet at the Scanlan Hotel Thursday evening, Jamiary 
15, 1920, with the assistance of ten Rotarians from Con- 
nersville. Officers wei'e elected as follows: President, 
I'^arl H. Payne; vice-])resident, Lawrence L, Allen; secre- 
tary, Roy K. Hai-rold; treasurer. Warder H. Wyatt; 
sei-geant-at-anns, Frank Abercrombie. The following 
coni])osed the fiist board of dii'cctors: Walter Milton 
Pearce, Robert J-.. Thompkins, Hugh F. Mauzy, Frank 
Abercrombie, \\'arder H. A\'yatt, 1. Lee Eudrcs, Roy E. 


Harrold, Lawrence L. Allen and Earl H. Payne, Mr. 
Pearce later resigned and Harry G. Francis was elected 
in his place. The club was organized with a maximum 
charter membership of twenty-five, according to business 
classifications. The qualifications for membership are: 
Any adult male of good character and good business repu- 
tation, engaged as proprietor, partner, corporate officer 
or manager of any worthy and recognized business, or 
holding an important position in an executive capacity 
with discretionary authority in such business, or acting 
as the local agent or branch representative of any worthy 
and recognized business, having entire charge of such 
agency or branch in an executive capacity, or any man 
engaged in any worthy and recognized profession. 

The charter of the Rushville club was presented by 
Charlie Watkins, district governor, of Muncie, Wednes- 
day evening, February 25, a large delegation, from Con- 
nersville, accompanied by a band, attending. The first 
effort of the club was the underwriting of a contribution 
of $800 to buy an automobile for the local visiting nurse, 
on the plea of the Woman's Council. The money was 
soon raised by the club and the machine bought. On 
Wednesday, March 31, the club began meeting at the 
Social Club where it has splendid quarters. On Tuesday, 
April 6, the date for the weekly luncheon was changed to 
Tuesday. The club interested itself in worthy undertak- 
ings locally, backing the first successful corn show ever 
held in Rushville, supporting the community dinner held 
in September, 1920, and making a fight for a community 
house as a war memorial during the year 1920. The club 
entertains many \dsitoi^s and observes all special days 
with appropi'iate programs. The meetings are devoted 
to papers by the club members regarding their business 
classifications and to discussions of local community 
problems and of questions relating to the improvement 
of business m.ethods. 

During the first year of its existence, the club held 


two "ladies' nights" when wives and sweethearts of mem- 
bers were entertained. On April 12, 1921, the club enter- 
tained the newly organized Kiwanis Club. Following is 
a list of the members of the Rushville Rotary Club: 
Frank Abercrombie, Will Abercrombie, I^arry Allen, 
Carl Beher, Fred Bell, Charles J. Caron, Russell Casady, 
AValter Easley, Lee Endres, Will O. Feudner, Harry G. 
Francis, John P. Frazee, Jr., Will M. Frazee, Lowell M. 
Green, George Griesser, Roy E. Harrold, Horatio S. 
Havens, A. G. Haydon, Robert Humes, Walter Hubbard, 
Roy Jones, Floyd Kirklin, Jack Knecht, Louis Mauzy, 
Hugh jLauzy, Bert ]\Lullin, F. P. Mullins, Ralph PaATie, 
Earl Pavne, Walter Pearce, Harold Pearce, Lee Pyle, 
Judge AVill M. Sparks. J. H. Scholl, J. C. Sexton, Bert O. 
Simpson, Lou Stewart, Charles Taylor. Ernest B. 
Thomas, John A. Titsworth, Robert L. Tcmipkins, Roy 
Wagoner, George Wiltse, Charles F. Wilson, AVarder 
Wyatt and Harry Wyatt. 

TJie Kin-(inis Chib at Rushville was organized in 
March, 1921, with Samuel L. Trabue as i)resident. the 
following business men of the town comijosiug the initial 
membership: J. Kennard Allen, F. G. Ai-buckle, J. T. 
Arbuckle, Amos Baxter, Clata L. Bebout. Charles C. 
Brown, Wilmer V. Brown, Fred A. Caldwell, J. Charles 
Caldwell, P. H. Chadwick, Byron Cowing, Jack Epstein, 
James Foley. C. M. George, Charles S. Green. Frank 
Green, Fred M. Hammer, R. C. Hargrove, Homer Hav- 
ens, George C. Helm, Curtis S. Hester, George Y. 
Hogsett, Scott Hosier, G. P. Hunt, T. G. Kelly, Irvin C. 
Kinnear, Joseph B. Kinsinger, John A. Knecht, Harry 
Kramer, H. V. Logan, John McCoy, John P. jNladden, B. 
F. Miller, Robei-t E. Mansfield. Frank E. Moore, Glenn 
E. Moore, Wallace Morgari, John B. Norris, 'orm Norris, 
Earl E. Osl)orne, J. T. Paxton, Frank Priest, Jesse Poe, 
A. \j. Riggs, S. (J. Ruckcr, 1^'i-ancis Schaub, Charles A. 
Schrichte, ('ullen Sexton, L. M. Sexton, Wilbur Stiers, 
\\'alter U. Thomas, Bert L. Trabue, Samuel L. Trabue, 


William Trennepohl, O. E. Trusler, W. W. Weakley, O. 
W. Wilkinson and William A. Young. The presentation 
of the charter was made to the club on the evening of 
March 29 by Col. J. L. McCullough, of Marion, governor 
of the Indiana district, and there were present represen- 
tatives of Kiwanis from clubs at Indianapolis, Newcastle 
and Connersville to give the new club a good ''send-off." 


Perhaps the oldest continuing cultural club or organ- 
ization in Rushville is the Ladies' Musicale, which has 
maintained its organization unbroken since it was estab- 
lished in 1886. The Ladies' Musicale at Rushville is said 
to have been the third such organization effected in 
Indiana, those taking precedence being similar organiza- 
tions at Indianapolis and Lafayette. Mrs. Siddie jMowers 
was the moving spirit in the organization of the Rushville 
Ladies' Musicale and was its first president. This admir- 
able musical society has done much to encourage the 
development of the musical tastes of the community and 
has for man}^ years held a commanding position in the 
cultural activities of the city and county. Along this line 
mention must be made of the old Diapason Singing 
Society, which still maintains its organization and whose 
members have for many years given two appearances in 
May of each year, singing at Rushville on the third Sun- 
day of the month and at Morristown on the forth 
Sunday. The organization of this society dates back to a 
singing school conducted many years ago by Professor 
Tubbs, who later took the name of Chester, and who died 
at his home in Iowa in 1920, past eighty years of age. 
This society, which formerly numbered 300 members, 
makes a specialty of the old songs and its annual concerts 
attract wide attention. 

It has been written that the first purely social club 
ever organized in Rushville was the Thimble Club, which 
had its first meeting at the home of the late Mrs. Isabelle 


Sexton in Novt'iiiber, 1895. The fourteen women wlio 
constituted the initial membership of this club were IMrs. 
Sexton, Mrs. Will Jay, ^ylrs. Elizabeth Burt, Mrs. Ora 
Yv'ilson, Mrs. Fred Johnson, Mrs. Harriet Plougli, Airs. 
F. G. Hackleman, Mrs. J. P. Frazee, Mrs. Will Bliss, 
I\Irs. I^ewis Sexton, 3>!rs. James E. Watson, ]\Irs. Albert 
Denning, Mrs. Jane Kincaid and Mrs. Harrie Jones. 

In 1907 the Ovdev of the Xeedle and Thread was 
organized at the home of Mrs. J. K. Gowdy under the 
leadership of Mrs. Susan AlcColgin and Mrs. Meta Smith, 
the other initial members of the "order" having been 
Mrs. Fannie Havens, Mrs. Sarah Posey, Mrs. Rachel 
Bowen, Mrs. Lon Havens, Airs. Laura Posey and Mi'S. 
James Bi'o^ai. 

The AVi-Hub Clul), the name of which suggests the 
presence of both wives and hus))ands in its memlx'rship, 
was oi'ganized in Decembei-, 1901, for purely social pur- 
poses, the weekly meeting of the club being held in rota- 
tion in the liomes of the I'cspective members. The initial 
members of this interesting organization were T. M. 
Green and wife, James E. \Yatson and wife, Robert Innis 
and wife, Ernest B. Thomas and wife, B. E. ]\liller and 
wife-, Ned Abercrombie and wife. Dr. C. H. Parsons and 
wife. Dr. D. H. Dean and wife, Owen L. Garr and wife. 
Dr. R. F. McClanahan and wife, Samuel Abercrombie and 
wife, WiYS. Anna B. Cox, Fon Burt and wife, Wilhu'd T. 
Root and wife and Herman IMiller and wife. 

The Coterie was started about the year 1898 at the 
suggestioii of Mrs. Mary Holmes, who was assisted by 
Mrs. Eon I. ink, Mrs. Clem Burt, Mrs. Theodore Aber- 
ci"ombie, Mis. George Puntenney, Mrs. Felton, Mrs. Anna 
Holliday, Mi's. Rich Wilson and Mrs. Frazier Johnson. 
The Mnrdocli Reading <Mul) was organized in 1875 
and floui islied hite in the '80s. Miss Ruby Sexton, now 
Mrs. Frazier, is considered the founder of the club. The 
numerous printed jirogranis jireserved by one of its mem- 
bers indicate tliat tlie musical and literarv work was of 


a high order. In 1877 the officers of the dub were: 
President, Frank J. Hall; first vice-president, Emma 
Williams ; second vice-president, Ruby Sexton ; secretary, 
John F. Moses ; corresponding secretary, Anna Caldwell ; 
treasurer, Mrs. George B, Sleeth ; committee, Dr. William 
Pugh, India Hackleman and George C. Clark. In 1878 
the membership included fifty-eight names. The earliest 
program obtainable is that of March 2, 1877, which shows 
the following numbers; .Dialogue from Byron's "Cain," 
by Mrs. George B. Sleeth, Anna Caldwell, India Hackle- 
man, Eleanor Sleeth, George B. Sleeth and George C. 
Clark; recitation. "Drake's Address to the American 
Flag," Judge W. A, Cullen; music, Fanny Hackleman; 
select reading. Rev. T. B. McClain; a written critical 
review of "St. Thomas of Canterbur}^, or Thomas A. 
Becket," a dramatic poem by Aubrey de Vere, William 
A. Pugh; select reading, Hannah Cullen; music, Anna 
Graham; select reading, Mrs. N. A. Pugh; recitation, 
Samuel Abercrombie ; music, Sallie Sexton. Some of the 
latter programs were quite interesting. One was devoted 
entirly to "Dickens." Another includes a scene from 
"Aracbeth" and the soliloquy from "Hamlet." 

The Rushville Social Club, the leading organization 
of its sort in the city and recognized as one of the most 
substantial clubs in this section of Indiana, came into 
being at a meeting called for the evening of March 13, 
1896, when a number of the leading men of Rushville got 
together to talk over the plan of organizing a club which 
would provide a home where friends could meet in a social 
way and where the wives and families of members also 
might find entertainment. The project was favored and 
an organization at once effected. Claude Cambern was 
elected first president of the Social Club and the other 
initial members were Geoige Aultman, Guy Abercrombie, 
Will Bliss, Theodore W. Betker, Frank Buell, John G. 
Beale, Alfred Blacklidge, Earl Churchill, Ed Crosby, 
Thomas Dill, Gale Fole}^, William Frazee, Charles Fra- 


zee, Hiio;!! Fleehart, L. D. Guffiii, W. E. Havens, Homer 
Havens, William J. Henley, Thomas Havens, William A. 
Jones, Harrie Jones, Curt B. Lore, Bert ALnllin, Charles 

A. Manzy, Ei-nest Neutzenhelzer, Earl H. Pa^aie, Edwin 

B. Pn^h, Harrv Patton, Alfonso L. Riggs, Theodore H. 
Reed, Rich Reed, Ben L. Smith, Donaldl.. Smith, Gates 
Sexton, Dr. John C. Sexton, Rudolph E. Scudder, Charles 
Spritz, J. L. Stone, Will M. Sparks, Lowell ]\1. Spurrier. 
Will C. Smith, Jones Stiles, A. L. Stewart, Robert L. 
Tompkins, Cyrus E. Trees, Jess Vance, Frank Wilson, 
Rich J. AVilson, James E. AVatson and Cliff Winship. 
The club ])rospered from the beginning and has long 
been a useful force in the social life of the city. Wh(^n 
old Mclodeon Hall was abandoned as a tlieater tlic cbib 
took over the hall and remodeled the rooms, furiiished 
them in fitting fashion and has very attractive and com- 
fortable quarters. The club at present uuml)ers seventy- 
one members and its officers are as follows : President, 
Jack Kneeht; first vice-president, Guy Gordon; second 
vice-president, Willard Amos ; secretary. Chase Mauzy ; 
treasurer, R. F. Scuddei'. An officer of the club declares 
that the chief cause of the success of the Social Club is 
that neither drinking nor gambling has been permitted 
in the clul) i-ooms during all the years of the club's 

The Monday Circle was organized in the fall of 1892 
through the efforts of Mrs. J. C. Sexton, Mrs. Jennie 
Innis, Mrs. Minnie Abercrombie, Mi's. Sallie Parsons and 
others, the club having about twenty "charter" members, 
wliose o})ject was the systematic study of literature and 
curccut events. The first officers of this club were as 
follows: Pj-esident, Aliss India Hackleman; vice-])resi- 
dent, Mrs. Amiie Moses, and secretary-treasurer, Mrs. 
Hattie Felton. 

One of the most intei'esting of the cultural clubs in 
Rushville is the Shakespeare Club, which was organized 
on October 27, 1909, by Florence R. Wagner, Anna M. 


Overman, Helen U. Mc^'itt, Anna L. Bohannon, Edith 
Caldwell, Anna O. Marlott, Hannah Lois Fritter and 
Nina M. Ford, whose object in thus associating themselves 
was the attainment of a higher literary culture. During 
the first year the following were added to the member- 
ship: Georgia Wyatt, Kathryn Petry, Eleanor Sleeth, 
Lena C. Buell and Jeanne Bishop. For the first five 
years of the club's progress the programs were confined 
to the works of Shakespeare and after that were opened 
to take in the modern drama, short story analysis and the 
like. During the year 1938-19 the club was favored by a 
series of lectures by William E. Jenkins, of the Indiana 
University extension department, on modern authors and 
their writings. The present roster of the Shakespeare 
Club follows: Henrietta Coleman, president; Belle 
Gregg, vice-president; Ruth Spivey Ray, secretary and 
treasurer; Kathryn Petry, executive chairman; Mary 
Lewis Thomas, Lena Buell, Hannah Lois Fritter, Mary 
A. Sleeth, Eleanor B. Sleeth, Jessie E. Gary, Blanche 
Abercrombie, Bertha Snmllen, Edessa Innis, Hazel Ball, 
Edith Caldwell Brown, Edna Smith, Anna L. Bohannon 
and Wilhelmina Young. 

The Dramatic Club was organized in the fall of 1916, 
the first play produced by the club being presented on the 
evening of October 15 of that year in the high school 
auditorium. Following are the members of the original 
cast: Louise Poe, Mrs. Francis Moor, Katberine 
Wooden, Gladys Bebout, Esther Black, Naomi Craig, 
Alma Green, C. E. Parke, Norman Reid, Mary Louise 
Bliss, Katherine Hogsett, Denning Havens, Dorothy 
Thomas, Myrtle Foulon, Mary Williams, Mary Harrold, 
Hannah Morris, Dorothy Sparks, Josephine Kelly, Leah 
Flint, Lester Coons, Harry Schmalzel, Tom Saunders, 
Robert Vredenburg, Dwight VanOsdol, Francis Moor, 
Frances Frazee, Acsali Retherford, Duanne Reed and A. 
J. Beriault, 

The Wednesday Evening Club was organized in Jan- 



iiaiy, 1895, for the purpose of promoting the literary 
culture of its members and to encourage a taste for the 
study of the great questions of the present time as well as 
those of past times. The original members of this club 
were W. C. Barnhart, G. A. Beattie, E. H. Butler, G. W. 
Brann, W. S. Campbell, U.. I). Cole. W. H. French, C. H. 
Gilbert, David Graham, T. M. Green, F. G. Hackleman. 
J. H. ^ylcNeill, Douglas ]\Iorris, J. F. Moses, J. C. Sexton, 
A. F. Stewart, C. W. Tinsley, J. A. Titsworth and J. E. 

The Calumet Club, organized in October, 1893, had 
as its object the weekly meeting of its members for the 
pur])Ose of social improvement and the extension of their 
literary knowledge. The first officers of the club were 
as follows: President, Fanny Gowdy; vice-president, 
Nina Conde, secretary, Elizabeth Gilbert; treasurer, ^fate 
Power, the other membei'S being Mary Brann, Dorothy 
Cole, ]\Iame Gilbert, Erema Smith, Bertha Carmichael, 
Bertha Helm, lola Young, Jennie Osborne, Bertha 
Eubank, Tjcna Buell, Capitola Guffin, Leona Spurrier, 
Frances Moffett, Winnie Moffett, Mrs. JMarian Mauzy 
Jones, Cora Hertzer Stewai't, Myrtella Frazee Bonner, 
Margaret Guffin Parry, Ruby Riley Dixon and Pearl 
Hornaday K rider. 

The Woman's Chi-istian Temperance Union, for 
many years a beneficent influence u]jon the social life of 
Rushvillc and tlivoughout tlie county, was oi-ganized at 
a meeting licld nt tlic Metliodist Episcopal church at 
Tiushville on A])ril 21, 1888, Iw Mrs. Louise M. Thom])Son, 
of ( Jreensburg, one of the state organizers of the unic>n, 
with twenty-six mem])ers. to which six more were shortly 
added. The labors of the local union covered a wide field 
and included the maintenance for a while of an industrial 
school in the west end of the town. When this could be 
sustained no longer the union called the attention of the 
proper authorities to the need of a school building in that 
part of the town. 



Something has been said in previous chapters re- 
garding the social life of a pioneer community and how 
the people of the formative community found an outlet 
for their social expression. ^'Parties" of one sort and 
another, corn huskings, spelling matches, debating socie- 
ties, singing schools and similar diversions gave plenty 
of opportunity for the exercise of the social spirit, while 
dances and frolics were no doubt enjoyed with greater 
zest than are similar social affairs of the present day. 
The picnics, of which each community had at least one 
each summer, were perhaps the chief attractions and were 
looked forward to with pleasant anticipation. Some of 
these attracted attendance from widely separated com- 
munities, as will be seen by the following from the Rush- 
ville Republican of July 29, 1857: ''The picnic on last 
Friday was a great affair. We doubt very much if there 
has ever been anything to compare with it in eastern 
Indiana. The day was fine and the crowd immense. The 
dancing commenced at the grove at about 12 o'clock and 
continued on till 5. when they adjourned to meet again at 
Odd Fellow hall at 8 o 'clock. The hall was crowded at an 
early hour by the handsomest bevy of ladies and the best 
looking set of gentlemen ever before gathered beneath 
(sic) its walls. Hines' inimitable quadrille band fui- 
nished music for the occasion and the company 'tripped 
it on the light fantastic toe' until the 'wee sma' hours 
ayent the twal' admonished them that it was time to re- 
tire. . . . We saw representatives present from Conners- 
ville, Laurel, Harrison, Cincinnati. Greensburg, Milroy, 
Andersonville. Fayetteville, Knightstown, Shclbyville, 
Edinburg and Madison . . .Our folks feel under many obli- 
gations to them and will try and return the compliment 
at some future time." The annual coming of the circus 
also was an event. In the spring of 1860 the papers car- 
ried advertisements of the coming of Antonio Bros. Cir- 


ciis on ]\Iay 17. Churcli festivals, even as now, were at- 
tractive forms of social diversion then. In the fall of 
1857 announcement was made of a "Grand Festival" to 
be «;iven by the ladies of the ^I. E. church at Odd Fellow 
hall on the evening- of November 24, an elaborate meal 
being promised as well as a program of literary and mu- 
sical numbers. On ^Fay 9, 1860, the following announce- 
ment: "Pic-Nic — The young folks of Richland intend 
having a grand Pic-Nic and quadrille party on the 19th 
inst. The party will be held in a beautiful grove on 
Joseph Gosnell's farm one-half mile south of Richland. 
Good music and dancing." On February 2, 1855, a story 
was carried announcing the organization of the Yoimg 
People's Literary Association of Noble township, the 
statement being made that Noble was the only township 
in the county that had such an organization. The society 
was organized at a meeting which was opened by ])T'ayer 
by the Rev. C. Morrow, and the motto adopted was "On- 
ward." The object of this society was "the intellectual, 
moral and social cultui'c of those for whom they lal^ored." 
On April 15, 1857, undei- the heading "Debate," it was 
announced that "quite an intei'esting debate is to take 
place in the court house on the 16th of next month. The 
subject is: 'That slavery is not compatible with the 
Christian religion.' Dr. Simpson and Drury Holt will 
take the affii-mative, while Revs. John Kiplinger and 
Henry Haywood will take the negative," Kidd's Ama- 
teur Club was presenting plays at Rushville in the win- 
ter of 1860-61. A newspaper story (^f March 27, 1861, 
stated that this club "gave a second entertainment on 
last Monday evening," Particular note was made of 
"the extraordinary ability of some of the players." It 
also was noted th